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My personal experience Students knowledge and understanding of research Questioning the purpose of the dissertation 1) what in essence are we trying to achieve ? 2) Is it just to get students through the academic hoop? 3) Is it about transferable knowledge and skills? 4) Is it about career progression?
My philosophical position :Constructionist approach to teaching and learning.
The theory rests on several assumptions knowledge is socially constructed rather than truth or fact. Learning is an active, rather than passive, process of knowledge construction.
Research informed teachingParticular focus- developing students as researchers
In constructionist classroom students are encouraged to: pose questions pose statements explore ways to find the answers to questions & statements
Development of: Analytical/ critical skills and skills that can be applied to other problems. Enquiring mind. Research mindedness , knowledgeable and skilled.
Tool – the dissertationResearch basedLiterature based research methodologyGetting students to engage in the processImportance of language Engaging them as researchers rather than students Changing a mindset & inculcating a different form of thinking
Philosophical basis Empirical research Non-empirical research Positivism/ naturalism Positivism/naturalism Research methodology Quant/qual Systematic/traditional review Research methodsPeople/object of study The literature is the populationis the populationObservation, interviews are examples Different data bases are used & literature isof data collection tool the „textual‟ data
Literature based research methodology hasoften been referred to in many texts as : literature reviewTo some extent this is true but the problem is that as such it has blurred the understanding between literature review as a methodology in its own right and its utilisation in the process of empirical research. So we need to differentiate between the two purposes.
Literature based methodology – designing a research project where existing literature is the population where the researcher needs to go for: Sampling Data collection Data analysis Ethics
Constitutes two types1. Systematic literature review [also known as systematic overview]2. Traditional literature review [also known as narrative or comprehensive
Definition: “ A scientific tool which can be used to summarise, appraise and communicate the results and implications of otherwise unmanageable quantities of research” [ CRD Report 4: 2001]Philosophical basis:Positivism – Quantitative methodologyPurpose:To synthesise the results of a number of small studies
Rationale: Small studies- design may be rigorous but may lack Statistical power to show significant effect.Methodology: Quantitative approach May include meta-analysis [the specific statistical method to combine results from different studies into single summary estimate for quick reference].
The research process Research problem Research question[s] carrying out the review- searching the data - critical analysis of the data - combining and synthesising the dataBasically it is a: Reanalysis of results Reanalysis of findingsMethod of data analysis Descriptive Data extraction tool
A methodology in its own right Epistemological basis:Interpretivism: Comprehensive reviewMay combine positivist elements
The criticism here is: Methodological- not based on explicit specified method No clear cut steps in design
The key issue: To ensure that the quality and rigour of the research is demonstrated and the link is made apparent from beginning to end.
What are the students required to do?Engaging students in the process.Pedagogical issuesThe process should be the same as empirical designFour main considerations:1) Defining the research problem and posing the research question2) Overview of the literature to support the study3) Methodology – Design of the study4) Ethics and ethical approval
1 .Defining the research problem [ may come from practice ]Examples may be as issue with: domestic violence patient experience with obesity transition to motherhood postnatal depression attending to patients spiritual needs effective communication with patients
Posing the research question: May start with reflecting on a particular issue from practice that the student has observed. May involve talking the issue with others- obtaining as wide a perspective as possible. Questioning- what is going on here? 1) policies 2) protocols 3) guidelines Working research question
2.Overview of the literature:Purpose What exists on the subject if enquiry Identify gaps in knowledge Confirms the research question Reformulation of the research question Support feasibility of the study
3. Methodology:[Note that in secondary ,methodology the literature is the Population –i.e all sources where data are found]
Method of data collection:Methods Sampling and sampling strategy Inclusion & exclusion criteria Data collection tool- where and how will data be collected?Search strategy Which data bases ? Search terms Reviewing the search terms, data bases
Inclusion criteria- defines the boundaries of the study Type of data – research papers to include both qualitative and quantitative methodology Language and context Time frame- e.g. 1990 – 2011 A variety of studies- research as well as grey literatureExclusion criteria Papers that are not current Research conducted externally Any other methodology – i.e. mixed methodology
Data analysisIncludes two analytical phases 1) Appraising the data 2) Synthesis of the dataHow to go about doing the analysis ?Needs a structured approachEmploys the principles of systematic review. Data extraction tool + a theoretical framework
The data extraction toolCan be constructed by using: a combination of research critique frameworks Precise identification of the information to be extracted.What can it do? Enables a schematic presentation of findings Enables development of student own thinking and position.
Appraising the data Appraising how the authors have arrived at their findings, themes and conclusions Background of the authors Have they been true to their chosen methodology? Theoretical frameworks Epistemological orientation Findings and relationship to the research question Contribution to existing evidence
Synthesis of the data :May calls for the examination of the findings in the following ContextsDisciplinary contextProfessional educationProfessional acculturation
How has these contexts shaped the essence the research findings and the contribution to evidence ?
Findings :Can be organised in themesAddress how the primary researchers arrived at themesDiscussion and implications for practice Can the evidence be trusted? Has the research question been answered What are the challenges for the area of practice? Can the findings be applied to the area of practice? direct day to day care policy What is the student‟s own position? Conclusion and recommendations
Completing the research cycleWhat are the issues: quality of evidence understanding of knowledge utilisation of knowledge protocols and policies barriers to implementation of research political issues economical issues ethical issuesRecommendations
Moving from secondary to primary methodologyIdeally students should be advised to raise future research question
Aveyard.H ( 2010) Doing a literature review in health and social care – A practical guide, London: Sage publicationHart. C.(2001) Doing a literature review - a comprehensive guide for the social sciences. London: Sage publications