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Strength Training for Triathletes

This presentation was given at a USA Triathlon CEU seminar at Athletic Lab in Cary, NC. The presentation details the importance of high intensity strength training for increased performance in multi-sport athletes. The presentation is research based with training recommendations that are easy to implement.

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Strength Training for Triathletes

  1. 1. Resistance Training for Triathlon Performance<br />Michael Young, PhD<br />HPC-Athletic Lab<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />A roadmap with definitions<br />
  3. 3. Produces beneficial changes on muscuskeletal and endocrine system<br />Non-impact means of training <br />Introduces training variety<br />Can address imbalances and asymmetries<br />Reduces likelihood of injuries<br />Enhances performance through improved neuromuscular efficiency<br />Benefits of Resistance Training<br />
  4. 4. Research Review<br />Methods<br />Integration<br />Questions<br />Introduction<br />
  5. 5. Muscular Strength: The ability to produce force<br />Muscular Endurance: The ability to sustain high work loads<br />Power: The ability to perform large amounts of work over short periods of time<br />Definitions<br />
  6. 6. Periodization: The planning of training variables to attain a specific goal in a predetermined period of time<br />Intensity: The degree an activity approximates an absolute maximal effort<br />Volume: The quantity of work performed<br />Definitions<br />
  7. 7. Running Economy: A measure of how efficiently a person uses oxygen while running at a given pace<br />Definitions<br />
  8. 8. The following factors affect running economy:<br />Biomechanics<br />Vertical motion while running<br />Technique and type of activity<br />Fitness and training<br />Individual factors<br />Age<br />Gender<br />Race<br />Weight of clothing and shoes<br />Fatigue<br />Environmental conditions<br />Neuromuscular efficiency<br />Factors affecting Running Economy<br />
  9. 9. Neuromuscular Efficiency: The ability of the neuromuscular system to allow prime movers, synergists, stabilizers, and neutralizers to work together synergistically as an integrated functional system<br />Definitions<br />
  10. 10. Running economy is a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics such as improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy during running<br />Resistance training using heavier loads or explosive movements improves muscle power and enhances the ability to store and use elastic energy<br />Mechanisms of Benefit<br />
  11. 11. Research Review<br />Ensuring evidence-based practice<br />
  12. 12. Training has a positive influence upon gross efficiency<br />Efficiency increased through muscle fibre type transformation, changes to muscle fibre shortening velocities and changes within the mitochondria<br />Hopker J, Passfield L, Coleman D, Jobson S, Edwards L, Carter H.The effects of training on gross efficiency in cycling: a review. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Dec;30(12):845-50. <br />Research Review<br />
  13. 13. Highly trained runners and cyclists display more refined patterns of muscle recruitment than novices<br />Interference with motor learning and neuromuscular adaptation may occur as a result of ongoing multidiscipline training (e.g. triathlon) <br />In the sport of triathlon, impairments in running economy are frequently observed after cycling due to physiological stress and loss of coordination<br />Bonacci J, Chapman A, Blanch P, Vicenzino B. Neuromuscular adaptations to training, injury and passive interventions: implications for running economy. Sports Med. 2009;39(11):903-21.<br />Research Review<br />
  14. 14. Explosive strength training vs heavy strength training<br />A short period of traditional strength training can improve running economy in well-trained runners and seems to be more efficient for the improvement of running economy<br />Guglielmo LG, Greco CC, Denadai BS. Effects of strength training on running economy. Int J Sports Med. 2009 Jan;30(1):27-32. Epub 2008 Oct 30.<br />Research Review<br />
  15. 15. High resistance/low repetition vs low resistance/high repetition vs cycling-only <br />10-week training program<br />All 3 groups followed the same cycling plan, but resistance trained groups added weights <br />High resistance group made larger gains in leg press, but no significant difference for lactate values or economy <br />Jackson NP, Hickey MS, Reiser RF 2nd. High resistance/low repetition vs. low resistance/high repetition training: effects on performance of trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res. 2007 Feb;21(1):289-95.<br />Research Review<br />
  16. 16. Meta-analysis: <br />2.9% improved performance<br />4.6% improved running economy (range = 3-8.1%)<br />Resistance training has a positive effect on endurance running performance and running economy<br />Yamamoto LM, Lopez RM, Klau JF, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM. The effects of resistance training on endurance distance running performance among highly trained runners: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Nov;22(6):2036-44.<br />Research Review<br />
  17. 17. Just endurance running vs. endurance + explosive lifting<br />Total training volume kept same; 9 weeks of training <br />Simultaneous explosive-strength and endurance trainingimproves 5K time in well-trained endurance athletes withoutchanges in their O2 max. <br />LeenaPaavolainen, KeijoHäkkinen, IsmoHämäläinen, Ari Nummela, and HeikkiRusko. Explosive-strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power J ApplPhysiol 86: 1527-1533, 1999; Vol. 86, Issue 5, 1527-1533, May 1999.<br />Research Review<br />
  18. 18. Evidence supporting Training Resistance<br />K Stkren, J Helgerud, E Stka, and J Hoff. Maximal Strength Training Improves Running Economy in Distance Runners. MSSE 2008<br />G Millet, B Jaouen, F Borrani, and R Candau. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO2 kinetics. MSSE 2002.<br />J Esteve-Lanao, M Rhea, S Fleck,  and A Lucia.  Running Specific Periodized Strength Training Attenuates Loss of Stride Length during intense Endurance Running.  JSCR 2008.<br />And MORE<br />Evidence against Resistance Training<br />Research Summary<br />
  19. 19. Methods of Strength Development<br />Best practices for using strength development for neuromuscular efficiency<br />
  20. 20. 1-3x/ week<br />Short but intense workouts<br />15-40 minutes per session is sufficient<br />Focus on high resistance / low rep or explosive<br />Train the entire body<br />Use appropriate rest intervals<br />Methods<br />
  21. 21. Core strength relates to the functional capacity and positioning of the the core of the body<br />Core strength should be trained for stability using both static and dynamic movements<br />Whole body movements that require mid-line stabilization are excellent at developing core strength in a functional manner<br />Core Strength<br />
  22. 22. Core Training<br />
  23. 23. Core Training<br />
  24. 24. Core Training<br />
  25. 25. Muscles do not act in isolation<br />Train movements not muscles<br />Address asymmetries and imbalances<br />Training Holistically<br />
  26. 26. Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion<br />~50 / 50 split upper / lower body<br />Upper body:<br />Presses (Bench press, shoulder press, DB incline, etc)<br />Pulls (Pullups, Rows, Pulldowns, etc)<br />Lower body:<br />Squats (front, back, overhead, etc)<br />Pulls (deadlifts, olympic lifts)<br />Unilateral (lunges, stepups, split squats)<br />Exercise Selection<br />
  27. 27. Exercise Selection<br />
  28. 28. Exercise Selection<br />
  29. 29. Exercise Selection<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Neuromuscular adaptations occur best at higher exercise intensities<br />Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep<br />
  32. 32. Weight gain should be minimized<br />Any changes in weight are largely a byproduct of macronutrient intake ratios and caloric intake<br />Weight Gain Concerns<br />
  33. 33. Integration of Concepts<br />A primer on incorporating strength development concepts in to triathlon training<br />
  34. 34. The body will adapt to stress<br />Continually increasing stressors must be applied for continued adaptation<br />Overload<br />
  35. 35. Volume and intensity should always operate in an inverse relationship<br />Attempting to maintain both high concurrently may lead to overtraining<br />Volume will start higher and drop off<br />Intensity will start lower and increase<br />Periodization of Strength<br />
  36. 36. Strength for the sake of strength is meaningless<br />Know the goal<br />Use resistance training for strength not endurance<br />Specificity of action and movement is important<br />Other Considerations<br />
  37. 37. Questions<br />
  38. 38. mike@hpcsport.comwww.elitetrack.comhttp://youtube.com/hpcsport<br />