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MECHANICS OF SPEEDA SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH TO PRACTICAL IMPROVEMENTMike Young, PhDHPC - Athletic LabCary, NC USAVancouver ...
•   Insight from today’s best   •   General concepts•   Fundamental physics         •   Acceleration mechanics•   Performa...
People Running Ridiculously Fast
9.7x
6 99 .
9.6919.26
10.67
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Lewis (1988)   Bolt (2008)  0-10m       1.89           1.85 10-20m       1.07           1.02 20-30m       0.94           0...
Top Sprinters TODAYaccelerate Faster   & Longer &DeceleratE Less
POINTS TO REMEMBER•   Today’s top sprinters:    •   Accelerate faster and longer    •   Maintain top speed longer    •   D...
Are you spending time worrying about  things that aren’t based in reality?
INERTIAIt turns out Sir Isaac was right
F=MA
WHAT LIMITSPERFORMANCE?
Research Review
•Gravity....u•We wor k      gh•Excess ma    to overc                       ome gra            ss hur ts         v  ity    ...
= more    speed•More    force             le across speeds         me is co  mparab• Air ti   imb spe    ed....meh•L      ...
lates with speed     ide length corre•Str                e is imp or tant• Horizo  ntal forc
•Better sprinte r s are front-sidedominant  Better sprinter s have shor ter•contact times   Full extension  neither needed...
•CL more effective at a                    •CL produces higher re    pplying force                    •CL velocity compone...
ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS•   Velocity @10m: ~8.2 m/s•   Ground Contact Time: ~0.17 sec•   Height of foot @ 1st step: 12...
MAXIMAL VELOCITY                  CHARACTERISTICS                                  *Stride Frequency: ~5 Hz*Maximal Veloci...
KINETICPARAMETERS• Groundreaction forces approaching 3x bodyweight• Muscle       forces in excess of 7x bodyweight
GENERALCONCEPTS OF SPRINTING       by   Hugo Faasta
N   at     ur       eN ur   tu     re
Loren Seagrave
Sprinting fast is anunnatural activity             Dr. Ralph Mann
MECHANICS OF SPRINTING• Sprinting          well is a combination of nature and nurture• There      are reflexive and innate...
FRONT SIDE MECHANICS• Refers to the motions of the leg that occur IN FRONT of the body
BACK SIDE MECHANICS• Refersto the motions of the swing leg that occur BEHIND the body
Stride Length x Frequency = Speed?
B UT .. ..
CorrelationD O E S N OT i m p l yCausation
Old: To  increase     d, increa se stridespee                 quency     New: Stri length and fre                       de...
STRIDE LENGTH &              FREQUENCY• Stridelength and frequency are linked...they are a consequence and not a cause of ...
STRIDE LENGTH                                    &                                FREQUENCYThe benefit of greater force app...
SPRINT MATH• Stride   frequency is comprised of two components:  1. Ground contact time  2. Flight time• The   best sprint...
POINTS TO REMEMBER• Forces       applied to the ground are the most important determinant of running speed  • It   increas...
EXAMINING FORCE• Force   is a vector quantity • Magnitude • Direction
FORCE DEVELOPMENT & SPRINTING• Toincrease running speed an athlete must increase force to the ground in the appropriate di...
POSTURE
The first most        important     aspect of speed       is posture.Tom Tellez
POSTURE• Movements   of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensur...
POSTURE• Postural    Stabilization• Postural Alignment  • Relaxation  • Freedom      of movement  • Elastic   energy produ...
PELVIC MOTION• The  pelvis should rotate in all three planes
Postural Test!
Posture during Acceleration                         NoNo
POSTURE DURING MAX VELOCITY
POSTURE DURING SPEED ENDURANCE
FOOT CONTACT...what it tells us
Acceleration Mechanics
Run fast For long
Run fast .
Run (accelerate)
Early Acceleration•Big split of arms & legs•Ipsilateral synchrony of leg & arm angles•Pushing through long axis of trunk•H...
EFFICIENT BLOCK CLEARANCE
TOE DRAG,OR NOT TOE DRAG,THAT IS THEQUESTION...
Late Acceleration                    •Continuation of previous points                    •Progression of body angles      ...
•Progression to upright •Shoulder - hip stackTRANSITION
Variable        Early        Late  Contacts       Longer       ShorterSegment Usage     Bigger      Smaller Body Angle    ...
When does 60 = 20?
EXTENDING ACCELERATION• Staying       in pushing mechanics permits a neuromuscular and metabolic shift that allows for les...
city SprintingMaximal Velo
tim  izingOp  e ch an ics?M
Max V Sprinting 101   Big Force       + Right Direction       + Minimal Time     Faster
GOALS OF SPRINTING• Minimize   braking forces• Increase   propulsive forces
MINIMIZE BRAKING FORCES• Decreases   horizontal velocity• Caused by excessive step length and positive foot and leg speed ...
EFFECTIVE GROUNDCONTACT POSITION
IncreasingPropulsive Forces
Horizontal vs Vertical Propulsive Forces....  and why you don’t have to pick a side
VERTICAL PROPULSIVE FORCE• Increasedvertical propulsive force produces:  • Greater   displacement  • More effective ground...
Am  plit      ude          ?
Boing?
VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT• The path of COM will follow a sinusoidal curve when viewed in the sagittal plane • COM   reaches ap...
To go faster, you needmore force. The more force you apply, thehigher you will rise off     the ground.                 Ch...
INCREASE LEG STIFFNESS•   Refers of the ability of the leg to act as like a spring•   Momentum is developed during acceler...
VS
Better sprinters mayappear to bounce
Better sprinters may   In reality, flight times are similar andappear to bounce         ground contact times are shorter
SPRINTMechanicsChecklist
PosturePosture  Trunk Erect  Head Level  Hips Tall
Ground ContactUpright postureMinimize horizontaldistance between footand hipsLegs togetherHeel high
Stance PhaseUpright postureTall hipsVertical forcesSwing leg active
Stance PhaseUpright postureStepping over knee
Stance PhaseUpright postureHigh kneeSwing leg unfolds
Toe OffProjection of non-support hipHigh kneeNeutral / dorsiflexedankleMinimal backsidemechanics
FlightAppropriate verticaldisplacementPreparation forground contact  Downward  acceleration of  thigh  Neutral /  dorsiflex...
Max VelocityTechnical PointsFix postureEmphasize vertical pushes  “Push up”High hips  “Run tall”Step over and down
CLOSING POINTS•   Performance breakthroughs can be made by accelerating faster & longer•   Maintaining top speed means les...
MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COMTWITTER.COM/MIKEYOUNGATHLETICLAB.COMELITETRACK.COMHPCSPORT.COM                        THANKS
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
POSTURE• Movements of the limbs
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POSTURE• Movements of the limbs Mechanics of Speed

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POSTURE• Movements of the limbs originate from the core of the body• Properstabilization and alignment of the core ensures appropriate movements of the limbs

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