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Nanotechnology in dentistry

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NANOMATERIALS
NANODENTISTRY AND ITS APPLICATION
NANOROBOTICS
NANODIAGNOSTICS
NANOMATERIALS

Publicada em: Ciências
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Nanotechnology in dentistry

  1. 1. ROLE OF IN DENTISTRY Dr ASHWITHA M.D.S in PEDODONTICS BANGALORE
  2. 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY  TECHNIQUES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY  NANOMATERIALS  NANODENTISTRY AND ITS APPLICATION  NANOROBOTICS  NANODIAGNOSTICS  NANOMATERIALS  NANOMATERIALS FOR PERIODONTAL  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES DR ASHWITHA 2
  3. 3.  ‘Nano’ is derived from the Greek word, meaning ‘dwarf ’.  Is a prefix literally refers to 1 billionth of a physical size.  According to defintion of the ‘National Nanotechnology Initiative ‘ direct manipulation of materials at the nanoscale  General :- “Science Of The Small”  The central idea of nanotechnology is to employ individual atoms and molecules to construct functional structures. DR ASHWITHA 3
  4. 4. Nanotechnology is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally ,nanotechnology deals with developing materials ,devices, or other structures with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. DR ASHWITHA 4
  5. 5.  One nanometer (nm) is one out of billionth of a meter (10-9m) Nano scale is larger than “Atomic scale” and smaller than “Micro scale”. DR ASHWITHA 5
  6. 6. DR ASHWITHA 6
  7. 7. 1959 “Richard Feynman” said "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech describing molecular machines building with atomic precision. It is often held to have provided inspiration for the field of nanotechnology. 1974 The Japanese scientist “Norio Taniguchi “of the Tokyo University of Science was the first to use the term "nano-technology" in a conference . early 1980’s Nanotechnology and Nano-science got a boost with development of Cluster science and the invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). The scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Norio Taniguchi Richard Feynman DR ASHWITHA 7
  8. 8. 1985 The discovery of fullerenes. 1989 IBM researcher “Don Eigler” was the first to manipulate atoms using a scanning tunneling microscope . He used 35 Xenon atoms to spell out the IBM logo 1991 Discovery of carbon nanotubes by a japanese scientist, Sumio Lijima. 2009 An improved walking DNA nanorobot invented. Designing of a small protein that performed the function of natural goblin proteins 2011 First programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors invented.DR ASHWITHA 8
  9. 9. 1. Energy storage, production and conversion 2. Agricultural productivity enhancement 3. Water treatment and remediation 4. Disease diagnosis and screening 5. Drug delivery systems 6. Food processing and storage 7. Air pollution and remediation 8. Construction 9. Health 10 Monitoring 11. Vector and pest detection and control. DR ASHWITHA 9
  10. 10.  Top-down Technique  Bottom-up Technique DR ASHWITHA 10
  11. 11. DR ASHWITHA 11
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  14. 14. Richard W. Siegel DR ASHWITHA 14
  15. 15. › Nanoparticles › Nanopores › Nanotubes › Nanorods › Nanospheres › Nanofibers › Nanoshells › Dendrimers › Nanorings › Nanocapsules › Quantum dots › Dendrimers DR ASHWITHA 15
  16. 16.  Semiconductor nanoparticles,  Metal nanoparticles,  Metal oxide nanoparticles,  Silica nanoparticles,  Polyoxometalates  Gold nanocrystals DR ASHWITHA 16
  17. 17.  Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, biotechnology, including tissue engineering, and ultimately, dental nanorobotics. Nanodentistry includes:  Nanorobotics  Nanodiagnostics  Nanomaterials DR ASHWITHA 17
  18. 18. Nanorobot 'an artificially fabricated objects able to freely diffuse in the human body and interact with specific cell at the molecular level by itself.’ Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of nanometers. DR ASHWITHA 18
  19. 19. •DIAMETER:-0.5-2MICRONS, PARTS WITH DIMENSIONS 1-100nm •CARBON-PRINCIPAL ELEMENT •THE EXTERIOR CARBON DIAMONOID STRUCTURE •SPIDER LIKE BODY. •ON BOARD NANO COMPUTERS. DR ASHWITHA 19
  20. 20. o Nanorobots are able to distinguish between different cell types by checking their surface antigens. o Building nanorobots involves sensors, actuators, control, power, communications and interfacial signals across spatial scales and between organic/inorganic as well as biotic/ abiotic systems. o When the task of the nanorobots is completed, they can be retrieved by allowing them to effuse themselves via the usual human excretory channels. They can also be removed by active scavenger systems DR ASHWITHA 20
  21. 21. o The powering of nanorobots can be done by metabolizing local glucose, oxygen and externally supplied acoustic energy. o controlled by onboard computers capable of performing around 1000 or more computations per second. o Communication with the device can be achieved by broadcast type acoustic signaling. A navigational network installed in the body provides high positional accuracy to all passing nanorobots and keep track of the various devices in the body. DR ASHWITHA 21
  22. 22. COLLOIDAL SUSPENSION chemical gradients, temperature differentials, positional navigation, DR ASHWITHA 22
  23. 23.  The most interesting venue for speculation on the nanorestoration of tooth structures is that of nanotechnology mimicking processes that occur in nature (biomimetics), such as the formation of dental enamel.  Through an affordable desktop manufacturing facility, fabrication of a new tooth in the dentist's office within the time & economic constraints of a typical dental office visit, complete dentition replacement therapy will become feasible soon. DR ASHWITHA 23
  24. 24.  Chen et al utilizing nanotechnology simulated the natural biomineralization process to create the dental enamel, using highly organized microarchitectural units of nanorod-like calcium hydroxyapatite crystals arranged roughly parallel to each other DR ASHWITHA 24
  25. 25.  sapphire or diamond, have 20 to 100 times the hardness and strength of natural enamel, or contemporary ceramic veneers as well as good biocompatibility.  Pure sapphire and diamond are brittle and prone to fracture  resistant as part of a nanostructure composite material that possibly includes embedded carbon nanotubes. DR ASHWITHA 25
  26. 26.  Orthodontic nanorobots could directly manipulate the periodontal tissues, including gingivae, periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone, allowing rapid and painless tooth straightening, rotating and vertical repositioning within minutes to hours.  This is in contrast to current molar- uprighting techniques, which require weeks or months to complete. DR ASHWITHA 26
  27. 27.  small dentifrobots [1-10 micron], crawling at 1- 10 microns/sec, would be inexpensive, purely mechanical devices, that would safely deactivate themselves if swallowed, and would be programmed with strict occlusal avoidance protocol. DR ASHWITHA 27
  28. 28.  Dentition renaturalization procedures may become a popular addition to the future dental practice, made possible through esthetic dentistry.  patients who desire to have their old dental amalgams excavated and their teeth remanufactured with native biological materials.  Full coronal renaturalization procedures in which all fillings and crowns are removed, and the affected teeth are remanufactured to become indistinguishable from the original teeth . DR ASHWITHA 28
  29. 29.  Dentin hypersensitivity may be caused by changes in pressure transmitted hydrodynamically to the pulp.  Natural hypersensitive teeth have eight times higher surface density of dentinal tubules and diameter with twice as large than non sensitive teeth.  Reconstructive dental nanorobots, using native biological materials, could selectively and precisely occlude specific tubules within minutes, offering patients a quick and permanent cure. DR ASHWITHA 29
  30. 30. DR ASHWITHA 30
  31. 31. 1. Nanoscale Cantilevers DR ASHWITHA 31
  32. 32. DR ASHWITHA 32
  33. 33. DR ASHWITHA 33
  34. 34. First described by Iijima in 1991  Sheets of graphene that can be rolled into hollow cylinders  These are carbon rods about half the diameter of a molecule of DNA that not only can detect the presence of altered genes but also may help researchers pinpoint the exact location of those changes. DR ASHWITHA 34
  35. 35. DR ASHWITHA 35
  36. 36. 4. Quantum Dots  DR ASHWITHA 36
  37. 37. DR ASHWITHA 37
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  43. 43.  Superior hardness.  Superior Flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and translucency.  Reduced filling shrinkage.  Excellent handling properties. DR ASHWITHA 44
  44. 44. Beun and colleagues compared the physical properties of nanofilled, universal hybrid and microfilled composites, and observed a higher elastic modulus with the nanofilled RBC than most of the hybrids tested. DR ASHWITHA 45
  45. 45.  Nanosolutions produce unique and dispersible nanoparticles, which can be added to various solvents, paints & polymers in which they are dispersed homogenously.  Nano technology in bonding agents ensures homogeneity and that the adhesive is perfectly mixed everytime DR ASHWITHA 46
  46. 46. COATING AGENTS • Used as a final coating over esthetic restorations. • Nanotechnology uniformly disperses nanofillers for higher wear resistance, preventing abrasion and discolouration • Smooth high luster finish retained over time. • Better wear and stain resistance DR ASHWITHA 47
  47. 47. ULTRAFINE POLISHING • protect tooth surfaces against the damage caused by cariogenic bacteria as the bacteria can be removed easily from such polished surfaces. • This also leads to less staining of the teeth and better aesthetics. Before nano particle polishing after nano particle polishing DR ASHWITHA 48
  48. 48.  Impression material is available with nanotechnology application.  Nanofillers are integrated in vinylpolysiloxanes, producing a unique addition of siloxane impression material. The material has better flow, improved hydrophilic properties and enhanced detail precision. DR ASHWITHA 49
  49. 49.  Scientists have achieved a subtle surgical operation on a particular living cell, by means of a needle that is just a few billionths of a meter wide.  Nanoneedles are nanosized stain less steel needles, which will make cell surgery possi- ble in the near future. DR ASHWITHA 50
  50. 50. Nanoneedle-mediated intracellular delivery. From Drug delivery: Puncturing cells en masse Mark R. Prausnitz Nature Materials 14, 470–471 (2015) DR ASHWITHA 51
  51. 51.  Drugs can be incorporated into nano spheres composed of a biodegradable polymer, and this allows for timed release of the drug as the nanospheres degrade facilitating site-specific drug delivery  Recently triclosan loaded nanoparticles prepared using poly ( lactide coglycolide), poly (d,l - lactide) and cellulose acetate phthalate for reduction of inflammation. DR ASHWITHA 52
  52. 52.  Tetracycline incorporated into microspheres is available as Arestin for drug delivery by local means into periodontal pocket.  A nanostructured 8.5% doxycycline gel was observed to afford periodontal surface preservation following experimental periodontal disease in rats. DR ASHWITHA 53
  53. 53.  The most popular ones to date are nanoHAP (n-HAP) bone grafts, which are available in crystalline and titanium- reinforced forms.  These n-HAP composite bone graft scaffolds are highly biocompatible, have superior mechanical properties, and induce better cellular responses DR ASHWITHA 54
  54. 54.  A clinical study comparing the use of nanocrystalline HAP (NHAP) paste vs open flap debridement (control) in intrabony defects demonstrated clinically significant outcomes in the NHAP group, with a clinical attachment level gain of 3.6 ± 1.6 mm vs the control group’s gain of 1.8 ± 1.2 mm.44 This indicated that the use of an NHAP paste significantly improved the clinical outcome when compared to open flap debridement. DR ASHWITHA 55
  55. 55.  particulate sizes ranging from 200-900 nm, while the conventional CaSO4 bone graft particle size ranges from 30- 40 µm.  These nanoparticles are further condensed into pellets of 425-1000 µm.  more resistant to degradation and lasts longer (12-14 weeks) than conventional CaSO4 (4-6 weeks). This rate of degradation matches the rate of bone growth in the intrabony defects, resulting in better treatment outcomes DR ASHWITHA 56
  56. 56.  Nanocalcium phosphate, walled Carbon nanotubes, ZnO into an alginate polymer matrix  Carbon nanotubes- provide a strong, flexible, and inert scaffold on which cells could proliferate and deposit new bone,  ZnO nanoparticles provide the antibacterial properties.. DR ASHWITHA 57
  57. 57.  postextraction ridge preservation,  intrabony defects regeneration,  root perforations, and  fenestration corrections  Sinus lift procedure  Implant dehiscence DR ASHWITHA 58
  58. 58. • Nanotechnologies are increasingly used for surface modifications of dental implants as surfaces properties such as chemistry and roughness play a determinant role in achieving and maintaining their long- term stability in bone tissue. • HA , naonodiamonds DR ASHWITHA 59
  59. 59.  Nanotechnology is part of a predicted future in which dentistry and periodontal practice may become more high- tech and more effective looking to manage individual dental health on a microscopic level by enabling us to battle decay where it begins with bacteria.  Construction of a comprehensive research facility is crucial to meet the rigorous requirements for the development of nanotechnologies. DR ASHWITHA 60
  60. 60. Nanotechnology has tremendous potential, but social issues of public acceptance, ethics, regulation, and human safety must be addressed before molecular nanotechnology can be seen as the possibility of providing high quality dental care to the 80% of the world's population that currently receives no significant dental care. DR ASHWITHA 61
  61. 61.  SUHAIL Et al Role of Nanotechnology in Dentistry Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences 2014; 2(2D):785-789  Mayuresh Et al. Nanotechnology: A Boon to Dentistry JDSOR 2014;5(2):78-88.  Shaeesta Et al. Current applications of nanotechnology in dentistry: a review General dentistry; 2014  LING et al. Nanotechnology and its role in the management of periodontal diseases Periodontology 2000,2006; 40: 184– 196 DR ASHWITHA 62

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