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92067142 a-study-on-retention-strategy-with-reference-to-esab-india-ltd-ambattur

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INTRODUCTION
1 INTRODUCTION
Employee retention refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees.
Employee ...
In order to retain employees and reduce turnover managers must meet the goals of
employees without losing sight of the org...
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92067142 a-study-on-retention-strategy-with-reference-to-esab-india-ltd-ambattur

  1. 1. Homework Help https://www.homeworkping.com/ Research Paper help https://www.homeworkping.com/ Online Tutoring https://www.homeworkping.com/ click here for freelancing tutoring sites CHAPTER I 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION Employee retention refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees. Employee retention can be represented by a simple statistic (for example, a retention rate of 80% usually indicates that an organization kept 80% of its employees in a given period). However, many consider employee retention as relating to the efforts by which employers attempt to retain employees in their workforce. In this sense, retention becomes the strategies rather than the outcome. In a Business setting, the goal of employers is usually to decrease employee turnover, thereby decreasing training costs, recruitment costs and loss of talent and organizational knowledge. By implementing lessons learned from key organizational behavior concepts employers can improve retention rates and decrease the associated costs of high turnover. However, this isn't always the case. Employers can seek "positive turnover" whereby they aim to maintain only those employees who they consider to be high performers. Retention Strategies 2
  3. 3. In order to retain employees and reduce turnover managers must meet the goals of employees without losing sight of the organization's goals, thereby creating a "win-win" situation. Valance and expectancy theories provided some of the earlier guidance for retaining employees. Valence is the degree to which the rewards offered by an organization align with the needs employees seek to fulfill. High valence indicates that the needs of employees are aligned well with the rewards system an organization offers. Conversely, low valence is a poor alignment of needs with rewards and can lead to low job satisfaction and thereby increase turnover and decrease retention. Expectancy theory details has several factors that can lead to high job satisfaction and high retention rates for organizations. Increasing expectancy in an organization can be done by training employees and thereby making them more confident in their abilities. Increasing instrumentality within an organization will be part of implementing an effective rewards system for attainment of specific goals and accomplishments. However, while these theories may be valid they provide little practical assistant for business managers or human resource practitioners. More modern studies relating to employee engagement demonstrate that by developing a range of strategies that address various drivers of engagement, many positive outcomes can be achieved. These outcomes include higher profitability, improved customer satisfaction, lower absenteeism and lower accident rates as well as higher employee retention. Retention and Motivation Theory Retention has a direct and causal relationship with employee needs and motivation. Applying a motivation theory model, such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, is an effective way of identifying effective retention protocol. Each of the five tiers of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs relates to optimal retention strategy. Since Maslow’s introduction of his motivation model, organizations have been employing strategies attempting to stimulate each of the five humanitarian needs described above to optimize retention rates. When applied to the organizational model, meeting the self-actualization and 3
  4. 4. esteem needs of an employee tend to correlate to better retention. Physiological, safety, and social needs are important as well, however, and must be addressed to better the work environment. While implementing a retention strategy is ideal, successful satisfying all five needs of employees is not only difficult, but also expensive. That being said, managers who attempt to maximize employee need coverage tend to be more concerned with employee satisfaction. Herzberg's Theory An alternative motivation theory to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is the Motivator- Hygiene (Herzberg’s) theory. The theories have overlap, but the fundamental nature of each model differs. While Maslow’s Hierarchy implies the addition or removal of the same need stimuli will enhance or detract from the employee’s satisfaction, Herzberg’s findings indicate that factors garnering job satisfaction are separate from factors leading to poor job satisfaction and employee turnover. Herzberg’s system of needs is segmented into motivators and hygiene factors. Like Maslow’s Hierarchy, motivators are often unexpected bonuses that foster the desire to excel. Hygiene factors include expected conditions that if missing will create dissatisfaction. Examples of hygiene factors include bathrooms, lighting, and the appropriate tools for a given job. Employers must utilize positive reinforcement methods while maintaining expected hygiene factors to maximize employee satisfaction and minimize retention. Equity Theory Equity Theory realizes the humanitarian concern with fairness and equality. While one party may be given motivational rewards and opportunities, the individual will assess the work-reward ratio based on similar, external positions. If the individual feels the rewards and motivators do not meet the standard, the employee will loose motivation, request more compensation, or leave their current position in search of more favorable benefits. Because of this, firms must not only recognize internal obligations, but also attempt to equalize or outperform competition in meeting employee needs. 1.1 OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT 1.1.1 NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY 4
  5. 5. Employees are said to be a company's greatest asset. In a globalised marketplace and 24/7 job function, it is imperative to stress on connecting on a organizational factors such as lack of communication, lack of timely recognition and compensation, conflict with team members or boss, insufficient perks, promotion and pay package, in conducive environment, incompatibility with the culture, work ethics, inflexibility in the work timing, insensitivity with individual health problems, etc, which may act as some of the reasons which force the best players to search for better options. Nowadays, recruiting the right candidates involves huge cost to the organization and the HR manager has to spend valuable time in sourcing, recruitment and selection and training of new employees. While average performers can be replaced, the Herculean task is finding a replacement for exceptional performers who leave an organization. Companies are increasingly engaging in retention strategies which are gaining prominence, and are as important as recruitment and training. Attracting, safeguarding, nurturing and preserving them are a mission of HR department by employing different strategies. Retention plans need to be phased out bearing in minds not only the job requisites of an individual, but the surrounding environment as also gaining an insight into an individual's personal life. Retain the employees is big challenges for HR professionals and also getting the manpower is immense problem nowadays, so we have to retain the employees. 1.1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY: The scope of the study is to understand the retention strategies of ESAB India Ltd.and how ESAB India Ltd is following towards the strategies. This study also helps to find out factors contributed towards the attrition among the executives and managers. This study would also indent to suggest suitable measures to control attrition. The measures adopted by ESAB India, Chennai and the workable suggestion would also helps other industries to manage the problems effectively. 1.1.3 PROBLEM DEFINITION: In the present economic scenario, the most of the industries are invariably facing the problem of Attrition. In the high level of competitive environment among the industries, the stability of labour force is high priority in industries. The Human Resource Manager is facing a high level stress on everyday basis to manage the attrition in certain categories of employees. As per 2007 data, the manufacturing sectors facing 20 % of attrition, Retail industry is 50 %, 5
  6. 6. Service industry is 40 % of attrition. So, the attrition among the employees will affect the sustained growth of the organisation. Employees are the backbone of every organization and it is necessary to study to the reason for attrition and to understand the measures to combat the attrition. 1.1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Primary objectives • To study on retention strategies with reference to ESAB India Ltd. Secondary objectives • To know the Retention strategies followed in ESAB INDIA • To describe most frequently used HR instrument applied to reduce employee attrition • To know the key organizational factors contributing for employee attrition • To offer valuable suggestions to improve the Retention strategy 1.1.5 RESEARCH MEDHODOLGY The researcher has collected primary and secondary data and used different statistical tools to analyze and interpret the data, for collecting the primary data the researcher has used interview schedule. Research The meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Encyclopedia of social sciences define research as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. Research Design Research design is considered to be a blue print of the research being undertaken i.e. 6
  7. 7. The research design is the conceptual structure within the research will be conducted design includes amount lines of what the researcher “will do from working.” During the research, descriptive research design has used. Descriptive research is undertaken in many circumstances. When the characteristic of certain goods, such as Age, Sex, Educational level and Occupation. Descriptive Research Descriptive study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. The present study is intent to describe the characteristics of the certain groups and to determine the whether certain describe the characteristics of certain groups. And also to estimate the proportion of people in a specified population who behave in a certain way. Sampling Design Population The population of the study is executives and managers working in ESAB India, Ambattur unit of Chennai. The total population is 65 of which consist of executives and managers. Sampling Method The sampling method is used in this study is census method. Sources of Data In dealing with any problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate, and hence, it becomes necessary to collect data from other sources that would be appropriate. There are several ways to collecting the data which differ considerably in context of cost, time and other resources Data collection Method Primary Data First hand information was collected through survey. The data was collected by the following ways. The primary data was collected from the respondents by using the interview schedule. 7
  8. 8. Secondary Data The secondary data related to my study was collected from the records of the HR department. 1.1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:  The study is limited to a short period of time.  The result of the analysis made in the study depends fully on the information given by the respondents so the quality of the findings depends on the quality of the response.  Even though the respondents are available they are not willing to give their valuable response.  The finding in this study cannot be generalized for all the sectors because this study is confined to Ambattur plant of ESAB India ltd, Chennai. 1.1.7 CHAPTERISATION This study has been divided into four chapters. Chapter one titled Introduction consists of outline of the project, industry profile, company profile and product profile. Chapter two titled Review of literature consists of conceptual review which gives information about retention strategies and research review gives the various previous researches findings to find the gap for the present research .Chapter three titled Data analysis and interpretation consist of analysis of data collected from primary and secondary sources using various statistical tools. Chapter four titled summary and conclusion consist of findings, suggestions and conclusions. 1.3 INDUSTRY PROFILE ENGINEERING & WELDING INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION WELDING, the fusing of the surfaces of two work pieces to form one is a precise, reliable, cost-effective, and “high-tech” method for joining materials. No other technique is as 8
  9. 9. widely used by manufacturers to join metals and alloys efficiently and to add value to their products. Most of the familiar objects in modern society, from buildings and bridges, to vehicles, computers, and medical devices, could not be produced without the use of welding. WELDING goes well beyond the bounds of its simple description. Welding today is applied to a wide variety of materials and products, using such advanced technologies as lasers and plasma arcs. The future of welding holds even greater promise as methods are devised for joining dissimilar and non-metallic materials, and for creating products of innovative shapes and designs. The WELDING INDUSTRY consists of the “users” of welding techniques as well as the companies, universities, and other organizations that provide the equipment, materials, processes and support services for welding. DEFINITION OF WELDING Welding is a joining process that produces a local coalescence of materials by heating, by applying pressure, or both. In essence, the welding process fuses the surfaces of two distinct elements to form a single unit. It encompasses a broad range of joining techniques that include fusion welding, solid state welding, weld bonding, diffusion welding, brazing, and soldering. THE SCOPE AND IMPACT OF WELDING Welding dates back to the earliest days of metalworking, and continues to be widely applied today due to its cost effectiveness, reliability, and safety. When compared with other joining methods, such as riveting and bolting, welded structures tend to be stronger, lighter- weight, and cheaper to produce. More than 100 processes and process variants comprise the family of welding technologies, and include methods for welding metals, polymers, and ceramics, as well as emerging composite and engineered materials. These various technologies allow a great deal of flexibility in the design of components to be welded. They also encourage designing for optimal cost-effectiveness in productivity and product performance. Welding and joining technologies pervade commercial and defense manufacturing, and are a significant source of value-added in the manufacturing process. Occurring late in the manufacturing stream, the joining process is typically the final step in assembly and plays the major role in ensuring structural performance. Additionally, the emergence of near-net-shape processes to produce sub- components has raised the importance of assembly processes as the next area for increased production efficiency. The role of welding and joining in the repair and life extension of 9
  10. 10. manufactured products is even more critical since these processes are frequently used to repair structures and components that were not originally welded. THE END-USERS Virtually every manufacturing industry uses a welding process at some stage of manufacturing or in the repair and maintenance of process equipment. From the soldering of PC boards to the heavy-duty welding of steel plates for shipbuilding to the repair of industrial boilers, industry relies on welding for reliable joining of materials. Among the manufacturing industries that rely on welding are the following: • Automotive • Heavy Equipment • Aerospace • Electronics, Medical Products, and Precision Instruments • Electric Power • Petrochemical Although end-user manufacturers would not typically consider themselves as part of the welding industry, advanced joining technologies allow manufacturers to use the latest materials and designs to enhance their products' performance, reduce manufacturing costs, and decrease life-cycle costs. Because the established distribution system sometimes places a barrier or “filter” between the manufacturers of welding products and the end users, it is sometimes difficult for these manufacturers to learn what the users think of their products, and what their long-term needs (and opportunities) really are. The joining needs of each industry vary, of course, depending on the demands placed upon its products, and the pressures for more cost-effective productivity. Even as manufacturers expand their development of new products, they must continually strengthen their production economies and achieve the bottom-line performance required by shareholders. The result is a movement towards “mass customization,” where the manufacturing 10
  11. 11. base is both highly flexible and highly efficient. To achieve this flexibility and efficiency, responsibility for manufacturing components and subassemblies is being pushed to suppliers, leaving the prime manufacturers free to concentrate on marketing, sales, and final assembly. As a result, prime manufacturers and the companies in their supply chains are more closely integrated now than at any time in the history of U.S. manufacturing. The ultimate example of this may be in the automotive industry, where a single facility has been proposed to incorporate the prime’s assembly plant and several suppliers' component-manufacturing operations. The direction of the overall manufacturing base drives innovation in welding and joining technologies. Table 3.1 shows some general trends and key needs in five industries that depend on welding technologies in the manufacturing cycle. THE DRIVING FORCES AND ISSUES The welding industry is driven by a number of key factors that shape its business strategy. They include the following: • Markets and Customers • Education and the Workforce's Image • Business Practices and Economics • Developments in Information Technology • Quality, Reliability, and Serviceability • Regulation, Certification, and Standards • Integration of Products and Processes • Development of Materials • Safety and Health • New Technological Strategies 11
  12. 12. 13 Industry General Trends Key Needs Automotive • Supply chains more responsible for design and manufacture • Increased pre-competitive cooperation on technology development • Technology implementation and management remain competitive • Real-time sensing and adaptive control • Resistance spot welding (RSW) process control, electrode wear, and equipment design • Joining of lightweight metallics • Joining of coated high strength steels • Joining of dissimilar materials • Polymer joining • Laser processes/tailor welded blanks • Structural adhesive technology • Welding design and process management tools • Microelectronics - Process development and Reliability Heavy Equipment • Industry typically rises and falls with the general economy, currently an optimistic outlook • Impact of recent Asian economic issues unclear • Increased dependence on suppliers and supply chains • Growth in overseas operations • Improved fatigue performance and design rules for welded joints • Process and structural modeling • Real-time process control • Optimized robotic and mechanized welding systems • Welding of high-strength steels • Laser processing (first and second operations) Aerospace • Shrinking prime manufacturer base • Increased emphasis on affordability (cost as an independent variable) • Shorter product development cycles • Greater reliance on integrated • Welding of new Al, Ti, and Ni alloys • Solid state joining and brazing processes • Polymer/composite joining • Design tools include residual stress and distortion control • Process modeling and control • In-process nondestructive testing
  13. 13. 13 manufacturing concepts • Increased product life • Aging aircraft/sustainment and repair a major issue Electronics, Medical, Precision Instruments • Fastest growing industry sector worldwide • Extremely competitive • Driven by new products and technology • Joining technology historically developed in-house; now beginning to outsource to outside developers • Design guidelines for all levels of packaging • Coating and plating - effect on joining • Process optimization • Process/product modeling • Reliability technology: assessment and test methods • Process fundamentals - microstructure/property correlation • Laser processing Energy and Chemical • Power generation industry remains flat with utilities continuing to streamline operations • Upstream sector of oil and gas industry is extremely buoyant with emphasis on deep water projects • Downstream sector (refining) reasonably flat; refining divisions are consolidating and merging to improve profitability • Deep water technology (sub-sea completions) • Welding of corrosion-resistant alloys (CRAs) • Repair technology (in-service repairs, and repairs without post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) • Improved fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment methods (corrosion, residual stresses, mismatch) • Joining of high-strength steel (HSS) (linepipe) Table 1.1: Information developed by Edison Welding Institute and its member companies and advisory boards, 1998 WELDING INDUSTRY IN INDIA
  14. 14. 13 The new liberalization policies of the Government of India have marked a steady growth of the Indian economy. Various industries, including infrastructure, oil and gas, automobiles etc., have largely been benefited as a result of this. Welding is a process used in almost all these industries and thus, in turn has a secured future. The Indian Welding industry is estimated at around Rs. 11 billion and the welding consumable segment - basically Welding Electrodes, account for 70 to 75 % of the market. In India, the organized sector of the welding industry has only a few major players, but the unorganized or small-scale sector account for almost 50% of the Indian welding market. Though manual welding techniques account for 80% of the Indian market, the automation sector is also gaining popularity. In India automatic/automated welding involving repeated welding operations with sufficient economies of scale. There is an increased use of automation, and awareness of product quality. The number of Gas pipeline projects announced by the Government of India are expected to boost the demand for welding products Imports are mainly specialized welding products and recently low cost imports have started flowing into the market. The Indian welding market is dominated by the use of manual welding equipment. However, this situation is expected to change as several end-user industries have started demanding automated equipment to support higher productivity. Robust expansion of the Indian shipbuilding, construction and energy, particularly wind power, sectors will underline strong growth of the Indian welding market over the medium- and long-term. While the financial meltdown has adversely affected most end user industries for welding equipment in India, energy, construction and shipbuilding sectors have, to a large extent, been recession-proof and have been generating moderate demand,. A key driver boosting market revenues has also been the gradual move from manual to automatic and semi-automatic welding equipment. The welding industry in India has generally been low technology with infrequent innovation. However, the adoption of automatic and the semi-automatic welding systems has
  15. 15. 13 been rising in recent years. At the same time, the recession and reduced budgets have underlined the continued popularity of economical, manual techniques. Enhanced foreign direct investment (FDI) equity inflow in India has supported projects in the oil and gas sector, offshore activities, aerospace and heavy machinery industries. Several foreign automobile companies have established their manufacturing base in India. Such trends have had a positive impact on the uptake of welding equipment and consumables. However, the recession has affected the flow of FDI into the country. Hence, demand for welding equipment in India is expected to decline over the short- term. Although global steel demand slumped in the past year, India’s steel market has experienced nearly 10 per cent growth. The spiraling demand for steel is promoting the use of innovative, state-of-the-art uses of steel while triggering the uptake of high volumes of welding equipment. One of the major challenges faced by the local market in India is the substantial import of welding equipment. With expanded imports, the market share of domestic participants is continually declining in several industries, especially automotive and transportation, shipbuilding and the white appliances. Another challenge faced by Indian welding equipment manufacturers is the unorganized sector that currently occupies close to 50 to 55 per cent of the market. This sector is continually growing due to the lack of specifications and approvals required for welding activities in end- user industries. Although some approvals are required for high-risk jobs in power and offshore, there are no such requirements in the fabrication industry where welding finds extensive use. To be competitive, welding manufacturers need to provide standardized goods with a focus on product differentiation. With lower profit margins and intensifying competition, manufacturers have to improve on their service, performance and delivery. An additional challenge will be to optimally integrate distributors and dealers within a complete solution model. The technical capabilities of distributors will be vital in any solution- oriented strategy. With advanced technologies and sophisticated machines, it is critical that there be trained experts in key identified regions.
  16. 16. 13 Many large multinational companies have started imparting product knowledge to end users. Manufacturers have attempted to maintain historical relationships with end users. Continuous technological upgrades, novel technologies such as electron beam and friction stir and the introduction of innovative base metals have resulted in the enhanced penetration of welding equipment in India. Manufacturers should improve their service portfolio and broaden their market reach. They should increase their penetration into new end user industries such as wind and nuclear power and traditional end user industries such as fabrication and automotives as well as explore opportunities in other general industries which have only lately moved to higher automation levels. ELECTRODES In arc welding an electrode is used to conduct current through a work piece to fuse two pieces together. Depending upon the process, the electrode is either consumable, in the case of gas metal arc welding or shielded metal arc welding, or non-consumable, such as in gas tungsten arc welding. For a direct current system the weld rod or stick may be a cathode for a filling type weld or an anode for other welding processes. For an alternating current arc welder the welding electrode would not be considered an anode or cathode. CONSUMABLE ELECTRODE METHODS One of the most common types of arc welding is shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), which is also known as manual metal arc welding (MMA) or stick welding. An electric current is used to strike an arc between the base material and a consumable electrode rod or 'stick'. The electrode rod is made of a material that is compatible with the base material being welded and is covered with a flux that protects the weld area from oxidation and contamination by producing CO2 gas during the welding process. The electrode core itself acts as filler material, making a separate filler unnecessary. The process is very versatile, requiring little operator training and inexpensive equipment. However, weld times are rather slow, since the consumable electrodes must be frequently replaced and because slag, the residue from the flux, must be chipped away after welding. Furthermore, the process is generally limited to welding ferrous materials, though specialty electrodes have made possible the welding of cast iron, nickel, aluminum, copper and
  17. 17. 13 other metals. The versatility of the method makes it popular in a number of applications including repair work and construction. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), commonly called MIG (Metal Inert Gas), is a semi- automatic or automatic welding process with a continuously fed consumable wire acting as both electrode and filler metal, along with an inert or semi-inert shielding gas flowed around the wire to prevent the weld site from contamination. Constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly used with GMAW, but constant current alternating current are used as well. With continuously fed filler electrodes, GMAW offers relatively high welding speeds, however the more complicated equipment reduces convenience and versatility in comparison to the SMAW process. Originally developed for welding aluminum and other non-ferrous materials in the 1940s, GMAW was soon economically applied to steels. Today, GMAW is commonly used in industries such as the automobile industry for its quality, versatility and speed. Because of the need to maintain a stable shroud of shielding gas around the weld site, it can be problematic to use the GMAW process in areas of high air movement such as outdoors. Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a variation of the GMAW technique. FCAW wire is actually a fine metal tube filled with powdered flux materials. Flux cored wire generates an effective gas shield precisely at the weld site, permitting application involving more windy conditions or contaminated materials, however the flux cored wire leaves a slag residue and is more expensive than solid wire. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a high-productivity automatic welding method in which the arc is struck beneath a covering layer of flux. This increases arc quality, since contaminants in the atmosphere are blocked by the flux. The slag that forms on the weld generally comes off by itself and, combined with the use of a continuous wire feed, the weld deposition rate is high. Working conditions are much improved over other arc welding processes since the flux hides the arc and no smoke is produced. The process is commonly used in industry, especially for large products. As the arc is not visible, it requires full automatization. In-position welding is not possible with SAW. WELDING ELECTRODE
  18. 18. 13 Welding electrode is a delicate tool which while in use combines physical, chemical, and metallurgical processes of the flux, core wire and parent metal to achieve a durable weld joint or surfacing. With advent of electronically controlled welding equipments and use of gas as shielding medium the construction of welding electrode has simplified considerably. For mass welding jobs solid continuous welding wires find increasing application. Welding electrodes are used in joining, surfacing and protective maintenance for varied materials and thus their variety is large while their raw material requirement being very specific. Commercial production of welding electrodes was started in India in early 1960s. In 1970s a number of companies with foreign collaboration or joint venture went into production. Small scale sector entered the scene in 1980. In 1980s too, a number of organized sector units were set up with foreign collaboration but now in special welding consumables. In Welding Electrode industry there are 28 organized sector units of stick electrodes and 8 manufacturers of continuous welding wires. There are around 100 small scale units in this industry. Stick electrodes, which can be categorized into 8 to 10 broad groups, are of around 150 varieties. Continuous welding electrodes of solid core (MlG and MAG) type and flux cored type are manufactured in India. In stick electrode the product mix is of mild steel electrodes (about 60%), mild steel high tensile and low hydrogen low alloy (about 30%), and special type (about 10%). Indigenously produced Electrodes find application in major industries like Railways, Petrochemicals, Fertilizers, Sugar, Automobile, Nuclear Power and others. Sr. No Name of the Company Collaborator Product Name Nature of Collaboration Year Status
  19. 19. 13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Apar Pvt. Ltd. Advani Oerlikon Ltd. General Electrodes & Equipments Ltd. T&R Welding Products (India) Ltd. NucorWeld Pvt. Ltd. Ewac Alloys ltd. Krish Brown Welding (P) Ltd. Aditya Electrodes Pvt. Ltd Westinghouse USA Welding Industries, Oerlikon Switzerland. Messer Griesheim GmbH - Germany. T&R Welding products, UK UTP Schwissmaterial AG, Germany. Entectic Castoline, USA Alexander Brown U.K. Ommitrode Edelstahl Electroden GmbH, Germany. D&H Secheron Germany Welding Electrodes Welding consumables Welding Electrodes Welding Electrodes Welding consumables -do- -do- Special Electrodes Technical Technical Technical Technical Technical Technical Financial Financial Technical - 1987 - - 1987 1986 1986 1989 - 1989 Expired Valid Expired Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Expired
  20. 20. 13 10. D&H Secheron Electrodes (P) Ltd. Esab India Ltd. Esab A B, Sweden -do- Electrode Recipes Technical Valid Table 1.2 STATUS OF FOREIGN COLLABORATION OF ELECTRODE MANUFACTURERS 1.2 COMPANY PROFILE Introduction
  21. 21. 13 ESAB India Limited started its operations in 1987 by acquiring the welding business of Peico Electronics & Electricals Limited (now Philips India Limited). The Company continued its expansion in the Indian market with the purchase of Indian Oxygen Limited's welding business in 1991 and Flotech Welding & Cutting Systems Limited in 1992, followed by the merger of Maharashtra Weld aids Limited in 1994. ESAB India Limited is owned 55.56% by the ESAB Group. The remainder of its shares is held widely. The company is listed on the stock exchanges of Mumbai and the National Stock Exchange. Today, ESAB India has established itself as one of the leading suppliers of welding and cutting products in the country. ESAB products are now an integral part of industries like Shipbuilding, Petrochemical, Construction, Transport, Offshore, Energy and Repair and Maintenance. ESAB India's initiative on Total Quality Management has resulted in ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certifications for four of its principal manufacturing facilities located at Kolkata, Chennai and Nagpur. Further, the skills, know-how and resources at its Research and Development Departments, have helped the Company to offer a wide range of world-class products for diverse applications, cost effectively. With operations in a large number of countries, ESAB is a world leader in production of welding consumables and equipment. The brand is synonymous with world leading expertise in the following key areas:  Manual welding and cutting equipment  Welding consumables  Welding automation  Cutting systems For each discipline, continuous development of methods, materials and know-how is being directed to meet the challenges posed by a diversity of industry sectors. ESAB is organized to deliver efficient, high-productivity solutions to meet their requirements in a manner that
  22. 22. 13 exceeds their expectations. Our customers are found in industries like automotive, energy, shipbuilding and offshore, general fabrication, construction, pipelines, process industry, etc. The ESAB group is owned by Charter International plc. In 2010, total sales were £1,157 million and we employed more than 8,400 persons worldwide Over 100 years after the company was founded, ESAB serves a global market worth around ten billion dollars each year. The group is organized in the regions Europe, North America*, South America, Asia/Pacific and India. ESAB is represented in almost every country by subsidiaries or agents. Sales and support is established in 80 countries and there are 26 manufacturing plants across four continents. Visit the web site of your nearest ESAB office to find out more. ESAB North America is a subsidiary of Anderson Group Inc. Mission – What we do Our mission is to provide our customers with the most cost-effective solutions for their welding and cutting applications. Through technological leadership, the most reliable products and deliveries, and continuous improvement of our processes, we will delight our customers, employees, shareholders and community. Specialties  Welding and cutting equipment  Welding consumables  Welding automation  Cutting systems  Welding accessories  Cutting accessories  Personal protective equipment.
  23. 23. 13 History The company was founded by Oscar Kjellberg, who pioneered the development of manual metal arc welding electrodes, in Gothenburg in 1904. The company is an industry leader in production and development of equipment used in welding and cutting, and the world's largest manufacturer of welding and cutting equipment and materials. ESAB has 30 manufacturing facilities, strategically located near to end users. In addition ESAB’s associates have two manufacturing facilities. ESAB sells its products in most countries of the world. The ESAB group is owned by Charter International plc. 1904-1920 1904 Elektriska Svetsnings Aktie Bolaget (ESAB) is founded in Göteborg. In the beginning, operations focused very clearly on the shipyards' repair requirements. 1906 The first patent is granted. The real breakthrough is the patent for overhead welding with covered electrodes. 1912 The Anglo-Swedish Electric Welding Co Ltd, London, is founded. 1914 The Belgian-Swedish Electric Welding Co Ltd (BSEW), Antwerp, is founded. 1919 La Soudure Autogène Française uses Kjellberg's method to build the ship "SAF no. 4". It is 20 metres long, 4 metres wide and 2.3 metres deep. 1920 The all-welded workshop boat "ESAB IV", 16 metres long and 4 metres wide, is launched. 1920 Lloyd's Register of Shipping approves Kjellberg's welding method. 1921-1940 1921 Kjellberg Elektroden & Maschinen GmbH, Berlin (later Kjellberg Elektroden &
  24. 24. 13 Maschinen GmbH, Finsterwalde) is set up. 1932 ESAB-Iberica S.A., Madrid, Spain, is founded. 1932 ESAB S.A., Brussels, Belgium, and PEAS in Prague in Czechoslovakia are established. 1933 Welding Supplies Ltd., England, and ESAB-Denmark are set up. 1935 ESAB-Elettrodi Rivestiti S.A., Milan, Italy is established. 1936 The first issue of ESAB's publication Svetsaren is published. 1937 The Submerged Arc Welding method is invented. 1938 Kjellberg-Eberle GmbH, Germany, is founded. 1938 ESAB Norway is set up. 1940 ESAB Welding Corporation in the USA is established. 1941-1960 1942 The machine plant in Laxå is opened. 1943 ESAB-Finland is founded. 1944 TIG welding (called Heliarc) is invented. 1945 A new production plant for cutting machines is set up in Frankfurt. 1950 ESAB-France is set up. 1951 Electrode production begins in Perstorp, Sweden. 1953 ESAB-Brazil is established. 1956 ESAB-Austria is founded. 1958 ESAB Arc Rods Ltd. in Montreal is established. 1958 Máquinas ESAB Lta in Rio de Janerio is set up. 1961-1980 1962 A branch factory for cutting equipment is set up in Rodheim, Germany. 1971 Leading KEBE employees part from the company and found HANCOCK GmbH in Dörnigheim, Germany. 1972 ESAB Inc in the USA is founded. 1972 A new electrode plant is built in Perstorp. 1973 The black-and-yellow logotype is introduced. 1974 ESAB-Ekman Welding pte in Singapore, ESAB-Iran Co, ESAB-Roman, Portugal, and
  25. 25. 13 ESAB Manufacturing Inc, USA, are set up. 1975 The cutting division of ESAB moves to new production plant in Karben. ESAB Australia Pty ltd, Australia, is established. 1977 ESAB acquires Sarazin Soudure in France. 1977 New electrode plant in Milan opens. 1977 KEBE-Ersatzteile is founded to guarantee delivery of spare parts for outdated flame cutting machinery. 1981-2000 1981 ESAB takes over Varios Fabrieken B.V., The Netherlands. 1981 ESAB acquires HANCOCK GmbH, one of British Oxygen's gas-cutting companies. 1987 Siderotermica s.p.a. in Italy is acquired. 1989 The production of electrodes in Göteborg is transferred to Perstorp. 1989 The new corporate symbol for The ESAB Group is introduced. 1991 Takeover of Indian Oxygen Limited's (IOL) welding operation 1991 AB Ph Nederman & Co is acquired and the Working Environment Equipment business area is set up. 1992 Flo-tech Welding & Cutting Systems Limited 1982 The merger of ESAB GmbH and HANCOCK GmbH, as ESAB-HANCOCK GmbH, Karben, takes place. 1984 ESAB Canada Inc. is founded. 1986 Filarc Welding Industries B.V., The Netherlands, is acquired. 1987 ESAB India is formally incorporated. 1987 Siderotermica s.p.a. in Italy is acquired. 1989 The production of electrodes in Göteborg is transferred to Perstorp. 1989 The new corporate symbol for The ESAB Group is introduced. 1991 Takeover of Indian Oxygen Limited's (IOL) welding operation 1991 AB Ph Nederman & Co is acquired and the Working Environment Equipment business area is set up. 1992 Flo-tech Welding & Cutting Systems Limited 1992 The Friction Stir Welding process is invented by The Welding Institute (TWI) where
  26. 26. 13 ESAB participates as the only welding equipment manufacturer. 1993 ESAB Vamberk in the Czech Republic is set up following the acquisition of the leading producer of consumables. 1993 ESAB introduces Marathon Pac, a bulk pack for solid or flux-cored welding wire. 1994 Takeover of Maharashtra Weldaids Limited 1994 ESAB is purchased by Charter plc of the U.K. 1994 Nederman leaves the ESAB Group but is still a member of the Charter group of companies. 1996 ESAB's first Friction Stir Welding machine, SuperStir, is supplied to Marine Aluminium of Norway. 1998 ESAB acquires a majority holding in the Polish company Ozas, which manufactures welding machines and spares. 1998 A majority holding in Fersab, the leading manufacturer of agglomerated flux in Poland, is acquired. 1998 ESAB acquires AlcoTec Wire Company in U.S.A., the world's largest producer of aluminium wire. 1998 ESAB receives a large order from Boeing and supplies FSW equipment for welding fuel tanks for space rockets. 1999 ZAO ESAB-SVEL is set up in St Petersburg, Russia. 1999 SIB S.p.a in Italy, is acquired. SIB is a production unit for non-alloyed MAG wires. 1999 The ESAB Group identity is replaced with the black-and-yellow ESAB brand identity. 1999 ESAB acquires the majority of the shares in Elektrody Baildon, Poland. 2001-2020 2001 ESAB sets up a subsidiary in Moscow, Russia 2001 ESAB starts producing solid stainless steel wires in Vamberk in the Czech Republic. 2002 ESAB establishes its headquarters in London, UK. Technological Innovations In 1903, Oscar Kjellberg, a Swedish machine engineer was working on ships and boilers in Göteborg, Sweden. His dissatisfaction with the quality of repair jobs fueled his quest for a
  27. 27. 13 better solution that led to the invention of the world's first flux covered electrode. On 12th September 1904, Elektriska Svetsnings Aktie Bolaget (ESAB) was founded in Göteborg, Sweden. The major innovations in the course of ESAB's history are: 1904 - The Coated Electrode (MMA Welding) 1937 - Union melt (Submerged-Arc Welding) 1938 - Gravity Welding 1944 - Heliarc (TIG Welding) 1947 - MIG/MAG (Welding) 1955 - Plasma Cutting 1960 - Flux-cored Wire 1979 - Narrow gap Welding 1982 - LMA Electrodes (Low-moisture Absorption) 1989 - Adaptive butt Welding 1995 - High speed Cored Wire 1996 - Friction stir Welding 1997 - Laser bevel Welding 2001 - First modular platform for welding equipment 2002 - Copper - free wire - Aristorod 2005 - The Qset function
  28. 28. 13 R&D and Quality Since its founding in 1904, ESAB has developed a wide range of welding and cutting products. ESAB products are now an integral part of industries like Shipbuilding, Petrochemical, Construction, Transport, Offshore, Energy and Repair and Maintenance, to name a few. This would not have been the case without an extensive R&D and quality effort. The Company's initiative on Total Quality Management has resulted in ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certifications for all four of its principal manufacturing facilities located at Kolkata, Chennai and Nagpur. Further, the skills, know-how and resources at ESAB India's Research and Development Departments, have helped the Company to offer a wide range of world-class products for diverse applications, cost-effectively. R & D Focus The key objective of R&D is to meet customer requirements better. This is possible through:  Higher productivity  Enhanced and consistent quality  Improvement of the working environment  Reduction of environmental impact ESAB's research and development strategy is to continually improve its welding and cutting processes. The Company seeks to develop new, high quality product families faster, with the primary focus on long-term benefits. The constant development of welding processes is an important part of this work and goes a long way in realizing the key objective of benefiting the customer. Quality Standards The Company has received ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certifications for its Equipment factory at Kolkata and ISO 9002 and ISO 14001 certifications for its Welding Consumables factories located at Kolkata, Chennai and Nagpur. Every unit strictly adheres to a quality manual that describes in detail how quality is to be addressed. ISO CERTIFICATION Welding Consumables Ambattur ISO 9002 / 14001 Nagpur ISO 9002 / 14001 Kolkata - Khardah ISO 9002 / 14001 Welding Equipment Kolkata - Taratala ISO 9001 / 14001 Cutting Systems Pune ISO 9001 / 2000
  29. 29. 13 Table 1.3: ISO Certification In addition to ISO, ESAB has obtained certification from a number of other bodies including the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (Kerntechnischer Ausschuss, KTA) and Technischer Überwachungs-Verein (TüV). Furthermore, all production units for welding consumables have product approvals from Verband der Technischen Überwachungs-Vereine (VdTüv) and many other classification societies. 1.4 PRODUCT PROFILE ESAB India has a wide and comprehensive range of welding, cutting and allied products and services. The product range covers Welding Consumables, Reclamation Consumables, Arc Equipment, Industrial Gas Equipment, Cutting Machines and Working Environment Products for your specialized welding, cutting and allied needs. These are manufactured to stringent quality control measures in the state-of-the-art manufacturing units. ESAB India also markets the latest generation of Welding Consumables and equipment and cutting machines from other group companies located outside India and thereby acts as a one-point source for all the needs of the industry. ESAB India also manufactures and markets medical gas equipment. COMPARISION TO COMPETETIVE PRODUCTS ESAB is a world leader in many areas of the welding and cutting industry and is often benchmarked by its competitors for innovation, product quality and service. We believe that our market position is the result of our customers' appreciation of our total performance and we view our competitors' comparative advertising as an acknowledgement of our strength and market leadership. Due to ESAB's core values of honesty, ethics and integrity, it is not in our culture to conduct aggressive competitor product comparisons and denigration to boost sales. It is well known to welding experts, that test results can be greatly influenced by the test procedures and equipment configurations.
  30. 30. 13 ESAB's strategy is to focus on our customer needs and to focus our energies and expertise to improve our customers' productivity and competitiveness. It is our firm belief that it is the customers' views and comparisons that really matter as validated by external third parties. Through independent research, customers in the welding industry rates ESAB for its excellence in welding consumables customer service, globally. Similar independent research has also shown that ESAB is regarded by customers as their best partner for "undisputed products and services". Visitors to the recent Essen Schweissen & Schneiden welding & cutting show would have directly witnessed ESAB's customer and productivity focus and experienced ESAB's values of openness, care, trust, environmental awareness, quiet confidence and inner strength. Unless our customers direct us otherwise, ESAB will continue to avoid public direct competitor product comparisons We have classified our products into the following categories: • Welding consumables • Reclamation consumables • Arc equipments • Industrial gas equipments • Cutting systems • Welding automation Welding consumables Some of the welding consumables in Esab are carbon steel electrodes, gas welding fluxes, Pipe welding electrodes, low alloy electrodes, stainless steel electrodes, GTAW consumables, MAW consumables ,SAW wires, SAW flux, Strip cladding consumables, Hard surfacing consumables ,consumables for Ni steels and storage and handling of electrodes Reclamation consumables
  31. 31. 13 Some of the reclamation consumables in our company are conventional hard facing alloys, Low heat hard facing alloys, Cast iron electrodes, Steel and dissimilar joining alloys, Non ferrous alloys, cutting & gouging electrodes ,Cobalarc, flux cored wires ,gas brazing alloys, Tig filler wires, Hot metal spray powders, and metal selection guide Arc equipments Air Cooled Welding Transformer ESAB Transweld 400 is a Manual Arc Welding Transformer that combines unique functionality and safety features. It is economical, natural cooled and delivers excellent welds. It is rugged dependable and suitable for shop or site use THH 630 THH 630 is manual welding transformers for industrial use with coated electrodes featuring high capacity and excellent welding properties. The high open circuit voltage ensures easy striking and re-striking action. Due to the high permitted loads, these transformers are ideal for Fematic welding. Power Compact 255 Compact MIG/MAG for Automobile / Sheet Metal Industry Power Compact 255 allows high speed welding without compromising quality on thin sheets with the wire feeder compactly built-in within the power source. SSR 400-T / SSR 400-T-Pulse Fully Thyristorised Heavy Duty TIG EASY WELD SSR-T Series are fully Thyristorised TIG / MMA DC power source with built-in HF for excellent professional TIG / MMA welding applications. SSR 400-T can meet the stringent demands of radiographic quality welding needs of nuclear power plants, process industries,
  32. 32. 13 offshore, defense, steel plants, thermal power plants, mining, structural fabrications, etc. True vertical characteristics and excellent dynamic response ensure arc stability Irrespective of input voltage fluctuation ± 10% or operator's hand movement to achieve spatter-free welding. CPRA800S / 1200S+SAW Tractor LW Heavy Duty SAW Power Sources SAW process produces the highest quality welds at speeds higher than MMA or MIG process. Standard single wire SAW can deposit up to 5 kg/hr and automatic multi-wire technique can reach up to 100 kg/hr. CPRA 800(S) / 1200(S) are reliable power sources offered with AWM (LW) tractor for single wire SAW applications. CPRA 1000T / 1200T+SAW Tractor THY Fully Thyristorised Heavy Duty SAW & Gouging SAW process produces the highest quality welds at speeds higher than MMA or MIG process. Standard single wire SAW can deposit up to 5 kg/hr and automatic multi-wire technique can reach much higher levels CPRA 1000-T/ 1200 –T are reliable power sources offered with AWM (LW) tractor for single wire SAW applications Industrial gas equipments Process Description Oxy- Fuel Process Oxy-fuel welding and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. Regulator The regulator is used to control pressure from the storage medium by reducing pressure and regulating flow rate.
  33. 33. 13 Cutting systems Profile Cutting Machines FALCON The Falcon features a transverse drive motor with precision rack and pinion gear, together with backlash-free gears and drives which give high cutting and positioning speeds. The linear guiding with AC motors ensures accurate travel of the torch carriage with smooth rapid acceleration. Two tool carriages are attached to a zero-backlash steel band which - contrary to conventional steel ropes - is not susceptible to slag deposits. The rapid-action coupling allows for efficient manual positioning of the tool carriages. Combirex CXL-P The Combirex CXL-P can be configured in three sizes to meet your exact plate width requirements of 2000 mm, 2500 mm or 3000 mm. The length of the machine can be extended from the basic 5000 mm in 1000 mm rail extensions. The machine can be configured with up to four cutting tools and the modular design ensures that the machine can be easily upgraded with extra cutting tools if your requirement changes in the future. The Combirex CXL-P has a powerful 3 axis drive system that delivers speeds up to 20000 mm/min. Ergostar EXA Ergostar EXA is a very versatile and flexible machine that can be equipped up to 6 oxy- fuel torch carriages for cutting thickness between 3 and 300mm. Standard versions has a span of 3 and 5.5m with a positioning speed of 24m/min. Ergostar is also suitable for plasma and marking. EAGLE The outstanding EAGLE machine is specifically designed for precision plasma applications. It combines high productivity, exceptional accuracy and sophisticated process integration to deliver the highest cut quality parts at the most economical price. With the Vision PC automatic programmable parameters option, ESAB provides automatic setting of all the
  34. 34. 13 machine and plasma parameters including gas pressure and type, by selection of the appropriate thickness on the supplied database E-Vent The E-Vent is a complete solution for duct work production in the heating and ventilation industry. It consists of a high speed CNC plasma profile machine linked to a special programming system. Installation time reduced to a minimum o Smooth and dross-free cuts o High cutting speed up to 20m/min o Cutting size up to 2000mm x 8000mm o Maximal cutting thickness 8mm Numorex NXB The NUMOREXT machine can be equipped with any combination of oxy-fuel, plasma or marking tools. Its crucial advantage lies in its high degree of automation. eg: Multi-carriage oxy-fuel burners which enable the mirror image or congruent cut possibility for the cut of up to 12 parts at the same time. Different oxy-fuel bevelling heads for bevel cutting of V-, Y-, K- and X-joints. SUPRAREX The SUPRAREX SXE is ready to receive a multitude of different tools for cutting, weld preparation and marking with advanced plasma technology or tried and tested oxfuel cutting. An even combination of these processes or plasma cutting and marking without changing tools is easily achieved with the SUPRAREX SXE and everything for your success. TELEREX The TELEREX portal CNC machine offers extensive scope for flexibility, customized equipment and extensive carriage options such as: • Precision automated 3 torch bevel cutting
  35. 35. 13 • Plasma variable bevelling • High power and high precision plasma • Vacublast or grinding plate preparation • Dual contour Y axis cutting • High speed omni-directional plate marking • Automated oxy-fuel cutting ALPHAREX ALPHAREX Laser Cutting Systems are equipped with laser resonators and optics from Trumpf, offering 3,4 or 5 KW CO2 lasers. Welding automation Thyristorised saw power sources DC 29, Thyristorised saw power sources AC 29, A2/A6 process controller PEK29, positioning tracking systems, orbital Tig welding, tractor automats, welding head saw, flux systems, wear parts of A2&A6, roller beds positioners, robotics for arc welding, circotec, engineering fsw, engineering narrow gap welding
  36. 36. 13 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  37. 37. 13 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Employee turnover is a much studied phenomenon. There is a vast literature on the causes of voluntary employee turnover dating back to the 1950s. By developing multivariate models that combine a number of factors contributing to turnover and empirically testing the models researchers have sought to predict why individuals leave organizations. An early review article of studies on turnover by Mobley et al (1979) revealed that age, tenure, overall satisfaction, job content, intentions to remain on the job, and commitment were all negatively related to turnover (i.e. the higher the variable, the lower the turnover). In 1995, a meta-analysis of some 800 turnover studies was conducted by Hom and Griffeth, which was recently updated (Griffeth et al, 2000). Their analysis confirmed some well-established findings on the causes of turnover. These include: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, comparison of alternatives and intention to quit. These variables are examined in more detail below Intentions to Quit Much of the empirical research on turnover is based on actual turnover, although some studies are based on intentions to quit. Apart from the practical difficulty in conducting turnover research among people who have left an organization, some researchers suggest that there is a strong link between intentions to quit and actual turnover. Mobley et al (1979) noted that the relationship between intentions and turnover is consistent and generally stronger than the satisfaction-turnover relationship, although it still accounted for less than a quarter of the variability in turnover. Much of the research on perceived opportunities has been found to be associated with intentions to leave but not actual turnover (Kirschenbaum & Mano-Negrin, 1999). One of the possible reasons is that intentions do not account for impulsive behavior and also that turnover intentions are not necessarily followed through to lead to actual turnover. Organizational commitment Many studies have reported a significant association between organizational commitment and turnover intentions (Lum et al, 1998). Tang et al’s (2000) study confirmed the link between commitment and actual turnover and Griffeth et al’s (2000) analysis showed that organizational commitment was a better predictor of turnover than overall job satisfaction. Researchers have established that employees with strong affective commitment stay with an organization because
  38. 38. 13 they want, those with strong continuance commitment stay because they need to, and those with strong normative commitment stay because they feel they ought to. Allen and Meyer’s study indicated that all three components of commitment were a negative indicator of turnover. In general, most research has found affective commitment to be the most decisive variable linked to turnover. Job satisfaction The relationship between satisfaction and turnover has been consistently found in many turnover studies (Lum et al, 1998). Mobley et al 1979 indicated that overall job satisfaction is negatively linked to turnover but explained little of the variability in turnover. Griffeth et al (2000) found that overall job satisfaction modestly predicted turnover. In a recent New Zealand study, Boxall et al (2003) found the main reason by far for people leaving their employer was for more interesting work elsewhere. It is generally accepted that the effect of job satisfaction on turnover is less than that of organizational commitment. The link between satisfaction and commitment Some researchers have established a relationship between satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover. Lum et al’s (1998) study of pediatric nurses suggested that organizational commitment has the strongest and most direct impact on the intention to quit whereas job satisfaction has only an indirect influence. They suggested that satisfaction indirectly influences turnover in that it influences commitment and hence turnover intentions. (Mueller & Price, 1990 cited in Lum). Elangovan (2001) noted that the notion of job satisfaction and organizational commitment being causally related has not been incorporated in most turnover models. His study indicated there were strong causal links between stress and satisfaction (higher stress leads to lower satisfaction) and between satisfaction and commitment (lower satisfaction leads to lower commitment). He further noted a reciprocal relationship between commitment and turnover intentions (lower commitment leads to greater intentions to quit, which in turn further lowers commitment). In summary, only commitment directly affected turnover intentions. Characteristics of employees Despite a wealth of research, there appear to be few characteristics that meaningfully predict turnover, the exceptions being age and tenure. Age is found to be negatively related to turnover (i.e. the older a person, the less likely they are to leave an organization). However, age
  39. 39. 13 alone explains little of the variability in turnover and as age is linked to many other factors, alone it contributes little to the understanding of turnover behavior. Tenure is also negatively related to turnover (the longer a person is with an organization, the more likely they are to stay). Mangione in Mobley et al concluded that length of service is one of the best single predictors of turnover. Griffeth et al also found that age and tenure have a negative relationship to turnover. There is little evidence of a person’s sex being linked to turnover. Griffeth et al’s 2000 meta- analysis re-examined various personal characteristics that may be linked to turnover. They concluded that there were no differences between the quit rates of men and women. They also cited evidence that gender moderates the age-turnover relationship (i.e. women are more likely to remain in their job the older they get, than do men). They also found no link between intelligence and turnover, and none between race and turnover. Category of Employees The authors named Lichia and Saner has submitted a research report on India Employee Retention Survey Research Report, done by Centre for Socio-Economic Development during the year of 2008.From this survey I came to know that the employee turnover rate has increased across all categories of employees in terms of their job mobility, regardless of professional qualification. However, the low skilled employees sow lower turnover rates and the same accounts for employees with more years of service. The turnover rates are high among the engineer, researchers and professional which accounted for 11 to 20 % ; managerial staff accounted for 6 to 15 % ; executive ranks accounted for less than 5 % and clerical and operations staff accounted for 2 to 10 %. Wages and conditions The research conducted on the link between dissatisfaction with pay and voluntary turnover appears to be inconclusive. Mobley et al (1979) concluded that results from studies on the role of pay in turnover were mixed but that often there was no relationship between pay and turnover. Other studies found no significant relationship. On the other hand Campion (1991) cited in Tang suggests that the most important reason for voluntary turnover is higher wages/career opportunity. Martin (2003) investigates the determinants of labour turnover using establishment-level survey data for the UK. Martin indicated that there is an inverse relationship between relative wages and turnover (ie
  40. 40. 13 establishments with higher relative pay had lower turnover). Lichia and Saner (2008) study reveals that Salary ( 78% ) identified as major contributors for employee turnover. Pay and performance Griffeth et al (2000) noted pay and pay-related variables have a modest effect on turnover. Their analysis also included studies that examined the relationship between pay, a person’s performance and turnover. They concluded that when high performers are insufficiently rewarded, they leave. They cite findings from Milkovich and Newman (1999) that where collective reward programs replace individual incentives, their introduction may lead to higher turnover among high performers. Flat-rate versus piece-rate pay systems Taplin et al (2003) conducted a large-scale turnover study in the British clothing industry. Two factors emerged as the most significant reasons for employees leaving the industry. One was the low level of wage rates in the clothing industry relative to other manufacturing sectors. The other reason referred to industry image with staff leaving because of fears relating to the long-term future of clothing manufacture in the UK. In this study, turnover rates were highest among the most skilled workers. The study also examined the role of payment systems in turnover. The researchers found that where there were flat-rate payment systems alone, average turnover exhibited a statistically significant difference from the industry mean (ie they were 4.5 per cent lower). However, most firms in the clothing industry adhered to piece rate payment systems finding it to be the most effective way of regulating the effort-bargain. This is, in the authors’ view, despite anecdotal evidence that many skilled workers dislike its unpredictability and new entrants to the workforce lack the skills to maximize their earnings potential. Training and career development Martin (2003) detected a complex relationship between turnover and training. He suggested that establishments that enhance the skills of existing workers have lower turnover rates. However, turnover is higher when workers are trained to be multi-skilled, which may imply that this type of training enhances the prospects of workers to find work elsewhere. The literature on the link between lower turnover and training has found that off-the-job training is associated with higher turnover presumably because this type of training imparts more general skills (Martin, 2003). Lichia and Saner (2008) study among the Indian managers reveals that
  41. 41. 13 Career Advancement , (65 % ); Training and Development opportunities, (21%) identified as major contributors for employee turnover. Impact of training on mobility Shah and Burke (2003) reviewed some of the literature on the relationship between turnover and training. In a British study examining the impact of training on mobility, Green et al (2000) concluded that, in aggregate, training has on average no impact on mobility. However, training that is wholly sponsored by the individual (or their families) is on balance likely to be a prelude to job search. In contrast, when employers pay for training the downward effect on mobility is more likely. Lynch (1991, 1992) concluded that both on-the-job and off-the-job training have a significant effect on job mobility. While formal on-the-job training reduces the likelihood of mobility, particularly for young women, off-the-job training increases the likelihood of mobility. In a study of six local labour markets in Britain, Elias (1994) found that women who received employer-provided and job-related training had a lower probability of changing employer or making the transition to non-employment, but for men training made no significant difference to this type of turnover. Effect of vocational training In a study examining the effect of apprenticeships on male school leavers in the UK, Booth and Satchell (1994) found that completed apprenticeships reduced voluntary job-to-job, voluntary job-to-unemployment and involuntary job termination rates. In contrast, incomplete apprenticeships tended to increase the exit rate to these destinations relative to those who did not receive any training. Winkelmann (1996) reported that in Germany apprenticeships and all other types of vocational training reduce labour mobility in spite of the fact that the German apprenticeship training is intended to provide general and thus more transferable training. Other factors contributing to turnover Organizational size Kirschenbaum & Mano-Negrin (1999) indicated that turnover is affected by organizational size, with size being the key mediator of an organization’s internal labour market. They suggest that organizational size impacts on turnover primarily through wage rates but also through career progression paths. Developed internal organizational labour markets produce
  42. 42. 13 lower departure rates since promotion opportunities have a strong negative influence on departures for career-related reasons. Unionization Martin (2003) looked at the effect of unions on labour turnover and found clear evidence that unionism is associated with lower turnover. He suggested that lower turnover is a result of the ability of unions to secure better working conditions thus increasing the attractiveness for workers of staying in their current job. According to Martin, the relationship between lower turnover and unionisation has been well established by researchers using both industry-level and individual data. Influence of co-workers A 2002 study by Kirschenbaum and Weisberg of 477 employees in 15 firms examined employees’ job destination choices as part of the turnover process. One of their main findings was that co-workers’ intentions have a major significant impact on all destination options - the more positive the perception of their co-workers desire to leave, the more employees themselves wanted to leave. The researchers suggest that a feeling about co-workers’ intentions to change jobs or workplace acts as a form of social pressure or justification on the employee to make a move. Supervision/management Mobley et al (1979) concluded that a number of studies offered moderate support for a negative relationship between satisfaction with supervision and turnover (ie the higher the satisfaction with supervision, the lower the turnover). Lichia and Saner (2008) study reveals that Relationship with Supervisor (48% ) identified as major contributors for employee turnover. Recognition Lichia and Saner (2008) study reveals that Recognition,( 41 %) identified as major contributors for employee turnover.Lichia and Saner (2008) study reveals that Job content (40 %) identified as major contributors for employee turnover.
  43. 43. 13 CHAPTER III DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  44. 44. 13 3 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 3.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS TABLE 3.1.1Respondents based on Age group: AGE NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 20-25 12 18.46 26-35 29 44.6 36-45 21 32.3 Above 45 3 4.6 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.1 Respondents based on Age group:
  45. 45. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 18.46% of the respondents are aged between 20-25 years, 44.6% of respondents are aged between 26 – 35 years, 32.3% of respondents are aged between 36 – 45 years and 4.6% of respondents are aged above 45 years. TABLE 3.1.2 Respondents based on Gender: GENDER NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE MALE 59 90.76 FEMALE 6 9.23 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.2 Respondents based on Gender
  46. 46. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 90.76% of the respondents are male and 9.23 % of the respondents are female. TABLE 3.1.3 Respondents based on Education Qualification: QUALIFICATION NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE MBA 14 21.53 MSW 1 1.53 BE/B.TECH 22 33.84 OTHERS 28 43.07 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.3 Respondents based on Education Qualification:
  47. 47. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 21.53 % of the respondents have pursued MBA, 1.53 % of the respondents have pursued MSW, 33.84% of the respondents have pursued BE/B.tech and 43.07% of respondents belongs to other categories. TABLE 3.1.4 Respondents based on Martial Status MARITAL STATUS NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE MARRIED 50 76.9 UNMARRIED 15 23.07 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.4 Respondents based on Martial Status
  48. 48. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 76.9% of respondents were married and 23.07% of the respondents were unmarried. TABLE3.1.5 Total years of Experience: TOTAL YEARS OF EXPERIENCE NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 0-2 6 9.23 3-5 19 29.23 6-10 14 21.53 11 and Above 26 40 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.5 Total years of Experience:
  49. 49. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 9.23% of the respondents are between 0-2 years of total work experience, 29.23% of respondents are in between 3 – 5 years of total work experience, 21.53% of respondents are in between 6 – 10 years of total work experience and 40% of respondents are above 11 years of total work experience. TABLE 3.1.6 Total years of experience in ESAB: TOTAL YEARS OF EXPERIENCE NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 0-2 21 32.3 2-4 25 38.46 5-10 14 21.53 11 and Above 5 7.69 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.6 Total years of experience in ESAB:
  50. 50. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 32.3% of the respondents are between 0-2 years of experience in Esab, 38.46% of respondents are in between 3 – 5 years of experience, 21.53% of respondents are in between 6 – 10 years of experience and 7.69% of respondents are above 11 years of experience. TABLE 3.1.7 Opinion about retention strategy STRATEGIES NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Salary Hike 46 70.76 Promotion 7 10.76 Award 1 1.53 Other’s (Recognition) 11 16.92 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.7 Opinion about retention strategy
  51. 51. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 70.76% of respondents views to salary hike, 10.76% of respondents views to Promotion, 1.53% of respondent’s views to award and 16.92 % of respondent’s views to other strategies (Recognition). TABLE 3.1.8 Opinion on unique retention strategy OPTION NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 52 80 No 13 20 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.8 Opinion on unique retention strategy
  52. 52. 13 INFERENCE: From the above table it is clear that 80% of respondents feel that unique retention strategy will help in retaining employees and 20% of respondents feel that it will not help in retaining employees. TABLE 3.1.9 Organization’s importance to retain employees AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 4 6.15 Agree 23 35.38 No opinion 30 46.15 Disagree 5 7.69 Strongly Disagree 3 4.61 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.9 Organization’s importance to retain employees
  53. 53. 13 INFERENCE: The above table shows that 6.15% of respondents strongly agrees that organization give importance to retain employees, 35.38% respondent agrees, 46.25% of respondent have no opinion, 7.69% of respondents disagrees and 4.61% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE3.1.10 Location of company influence to stay in company AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 11 16.92 Agree 36 55.38 No opinion 9 13.84 Disagree 8 12.3 Strongly Disagree 1 1.53 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.10 Location of company influence to stay in company
  54. 54. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 16.92% of respondents strongly agrees that location of company influence to remain in organisation, 55.38% respondent agrees, 13.84% of respondent have no opinion, 12.3% of respondents disagrees and 1.53% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE3.1.11 Opinion based on career opportunity AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 10 15.38 Agree 35 53.84 No opinion 13 20 Disagree 5 7.69 Strongly Disagree 2 3.07 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data). CHART NO: 3.1.11 Opinion based on career opportunity
  55. 55. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 15.38% of respondents strongly agrees that career opportunity is one of the factor to remain long, 53.84% respondent agrees, 20% of respondent have no opinion, 7.69% of respondents disagrees and 3.07% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE 3.1.12 Opinion based on employee benefits AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 14 21.53 Agree 36 55.38 No opinion 11 16.92 Disagree 1 1.53 Strongly Disagree 3 4.61 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.12 Opinion based on employee benefits
  56. 56. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 21.53% of respondents strongly agrees that employee benefits play vital role to stay long, 55.38% respondent agrees, 16.92% of respondent have no opinion, 1.53% of respondents disagrees and 4.61% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE3.1.13 Employee performance play a vital role to stay longer in company AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 20 30.76 Agree 31 47.69 No opinion 11 16.92 Disagree 2 3.07 Strongly Disagree 1 1.53 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.13 Employee performance play a vital role to stay longer in company
  57. 57. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 30.76% of respondents Strongly agrees that employee performance play a vital role in retaining employees, 47.69% respondent agrees, 16.92% of respondent have no opinion, 3.07% of respondents disagrees and 1.53% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE 3.1.14 Quality and attitude of supervisors AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 18 27.69 Agree 41 63.07 No opinion 4 6.15 Disagree 1 1.53 Strongly Disagree 1 1.53 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.14 Quality and attitude of supervisors
  58. 58. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 27.69% of respondents Strongly agrees that quality and attitude of supervisors can contribute to employee retention,63.07% respondent agrees ,6.15% of respondent have no opinion,1.53% of respondents disagrees and 1.53% of respondents are strongly disagrees TABLE 3.1.15 opinion based on organization culture and job AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 16 24.61 Agree 40 61.53 No opinion 5 7.69 Disagree 3 4.61 Strongly Disagree 1 1.53 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.15 opinion based on organization culture and job
  59. 59. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 24.61% of respondents Strongly agrees that organization culture and job play vital role to stay long in company ,61.53% respondents agrees ,7.69% of respondent have no opinion,4.61% of respondents disagrees and 1.53% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE3.1.16 opinion based on challenging jobs, incentives recognition and flexi timing AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 31 47.69 Agree 27 41.53 No opinion 5 7.69 Disagree 1 1.53 Strongly Disagree 1 1.53 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.16 opinion based on challenging jobs, incentives recognition and flexi timing
  60. 60. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 47.69% of respondents Strongly agrees that recognition are today’s expectation from employee, 41.53% respondents agrees, 7.69% of respondents have no opinion, 1.53% of respondents disagrees and 1.53% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE 3.1.17 opinion based on work life balance AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 19 29.23 Agree 33 50.76 No opinion 8 12.3 Disagree 4 6.15 Strongly Disagree 1 1.53 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.17 opinion based on work life balance
  61. 61. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 29.23% of respondents Strongly agrees that work life balance in factor to stay in company,50.76% respondent agrees ,12.3% of respondent have no opinion,6.15% of respondents are disagrees and 1.53% of respondents are strongly disagrees. TABLE 3.1.18 Impact on motivational level and performance AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 12 18.46 Agree 41 63.07 No opinion 7 10.76 Disagree 3 4.61 Strongly Disagree 2 3.07 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.18 Impact on motivational level and performance INFERENCE
  62. 62. 13 The above table shows that 18.46% of respondents Strongly agrees that retention impact on motivational level and performance of employee,63.07% respondent agrees ,10.76% of respondent have no opinion,4.61% of respondents disagrees and 3.07% of respondents strongly disagrees. TABLE 3.1.19 Leaving organization due to salary difference AGREE LEVEL NO OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Strongly Agree 20 30.76 Agree 19 29.23 No opinion 17 26.15 Disagree 6 9.23 Strongly Disagree 3 4.61 TOTAL 65 100 (Source: Primary data) CHART NO: 3.1.19 Leaving organization due to salary difference
  63. 63. 13 INFERENCE The above table shows that 30.76% of respondents a Strongly agrees that employee leaving organization due to salary difference,29.23% respondent agrees ,26.15% of respondent have no opinion,9.23% of respondents are disagrees and 4.61% of respondents are strongly disagrees. 3.2STATISTICAL TOOLS 3.2.1ANALYSIS USING KARL PEARSON’S CORRELATION Correlation analysis is the statistical tool used to measure the degree to which two variables are linearly related to each other. Correlation measures the degree of association between two variables. Null hypothesis (Ho): There is negative relationship between age of the employees and reason for leaving from organization is difference in salary. Alternate hypothesis (H1): There is positive relationship between age of the employees and reason for leaving from organization is difference in salary. TABLE 3.2.1 Correlations Table Correlations age leaving the organization age Pearson Correlation 1 -.224 Sig. (2-tailed) .072 N 65 65 leaving the organization Pearson Correlation -.224 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .072 N 65 65
  64. 64. 13 = -0.224 INFERENCE: Since r is negative, there is positive relationship between age of the employees and reason for leaving from organization is difference in salary. 3.2.2 ONE-WAY ANOVA CLASSIFICATION Null hypothesis (Ho): There is a no significance difference between gender and work life balance of the employees. Alternate hypothesis (H1): There is a significance difference between gender and work life balance of the employees. TABLE 3.2.2 Descriptive Descriptive N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Minimum MaximumLower Bound Upper Bound male 60 2.82 1.380 .195 2.43 3.21 1 5 female 5 3.20 1.320 .341 2.47 3.93 1 5 Total 65 2.91 1.366 .169 2.57 3.25 1 5 TABLE 3.2.3 Anova ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 1.666 1 1.666 .891 .349 Within Groups 117.780 63 1.870 Total 119.446 64 INFERENCE:
  65. 65. 13 The calculated value of F is less than the tabulated value. Hence, we accept the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significance difference between gender and work life balance of the employees. 3.2.3 T-TEST Null hypothesis (Ho): There is a no significance difference between gender and employee to retain in the organization.. Alternate hypothesis (H1): There is significance difference between gender and employee to retain in the organization. TABLE 3.2.4 Group Statistics Group Statistics gendar N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean employee preference vital role male 60 2.90 1.313 .186 female 5 2.27 1.280 .330 TABLE 3.2.5 Independent sample Test
  66. 66. 13 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2- tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper employee preference vital role Equal variances assumed .034 .855 1.647 63 .104 .633 .384 -.135 1.402 Equal variances not assumed 1.671 23.568 .108 .633 .379 -.150 1.416 INFERENCE: The calculated value of T is less than the tabulated value. Hence, we accept the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significance difference between gender and employee to retain in the organization.
  67. 67. 13 CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  68. 68. 13 4.1 FINDINGS  Most of the respondents (76%) option to salary hike for the retention strategy adopted in company.  Most of the respondents (44.6%) are aged between 26 – 35 years in Esab India Ltd.  Most of the respondents (90.76%) are male employees working in Esab India Ltd.  Most of the respondents (33.84%) are pursued BE/B.tech.  Most of the respondents (76.9%) are married.  Most of the respondents (40%) have more the 11 years of total work experience.  Most of the respondents (38.46%) are in between 3 – 5 years of experience in Esab India ltd.  Most of the respondents (80%) feel that unique retention strategy will help in retaining employees.
  69. 69. 13  Most of the respondents (46.15%) are no opinion to organization give importance to retain employee.  Most of the respondent (55.13%) are feels that location of the company play one of the role in stay longer in organization  Most of the respondent (53.84%) are feels that career opportunity is good in company  Most of the respondent (55.39%) are feels that employee benefit is one of the factor to stay longer in company  Most of the respondent (47.69%) are feels that employee performance play a vital role in retaining employees  Most of the respondent(63.07%) are feels that Quality and attitude of supervisor is one of cause for attrition  Most of the respondents (61.53%) are feels that organization culture is good.  Most of the respondent (50.76%) are feels that work life balanced in company.  Most of the respondents (63.07%) are feels that after retention employee performance is good.  Most of the respondents (30.76%) are strongly agreed that employees leave the organization due to salary difference.  There is positive relationship between age of the employees and reason for leaving from organization is difference in salary.  There is no significance difference between gender and work life balance of the employees.  There is no significance difference between gender and employee to retain in the organization.
  70. 70. 13 4.2 SUGGESTIONS  Good salary hike and motivation to the employees will facilitate to perform better in their roles and responsibilities  Clear and wider responsibilities and good compensation will improve retention  Arrange more training programs and by creating friendly atmosphere will reduce attrition.  Recognition to employee will improve the retention strategy  Providing equal opportunity for career growth and reward will help for retention  Employee satisfaction level should help in improve retention  Performing employees can be valued and to be retained for the growth of the company  Clearly laid down Polices and practicing organizational values will improve the retention.  Motivate employee from bottom to top level which would results in improvements in their performance and allocate right person for right job  Job rotation should be periodically followed and improved  Conduct job analysis to improve retention strategy  Implement some innovative programs for benefit of the employees
  71. 71. 13 4.3 CONCLUSIONS The study has been made an attempt to find out the reasons for attrition at ESAB India limited, Amabttur plant in Chennai and to understand the retention followed in the company. It has been found that location of company, career opportunities, employees benefit, Quality and attitude of supervisor and work life imbalance are the major factor influences to retain employees. Most of the employees leave the organization due to difference in salary. The company mostly following the same salary hike strategy to retain the employee irrespective of the cadre. So, the management can relook into the aspiration of the employees by looking into wage structure on par with competitors.
  72. 72. 13 REFERENCES AND BIBILOGRAPHY 1. V.S.P. Rao, “Human Resource Management”, 2nd edition, Excel books, 2005. 2. Uma Sekaran, “Research Methods of Business”, 4th edition, Wiley student edition, 2007. 3. Clark, C S. "Job Stress." CQ Researcher. 4 Aug. 1994. CQ Researcher. 1 Mar. 2007 . 4. G.C.Beri, “Business Statistics”, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. 5. Richard I. Levin, “Statistics for Management”, 7th edition, Prentice Hall India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2005. 6. Kothari C.R., “Research Methods and Techniques”, Wishwa Prakashan Publication, New Delhi, 1996. 7. C.B.Mamoria, s.v.Gankar, “Human Resource Management”,5th edition ,Himalaya publishing house,2006 8. P.C.Tripati,” “Human Resource development”, 5th edition, sultan chant & sons. WEBSITES 1. www.google.com 2. www.cityhr.com 3. www.shrm.org 4. www.scribd.com 5. www.managementparadise.com 6. www.mbaguys.net
  73. 73. 13 APPENDICES Questionnaire A Study on Retention Strategies with Reference to ESAB INDIA Dear sir/Madam kindly spare few minutes and provide data for a project work. I assure you that all data collected will be used only for academic purpose and will be kept confidential. 1) Age a) 20-25 b) 26-35 c) 36-45 d) Above45 2) Gender a) Male b) Female 3) Educational Qualification a) MBA b) MSW c) B.E/ B.Tech d) Other’s please specify_________ 4) Marital status a) Married b) Unmarried 5) Designation: 6) Total Years of Experience a) 0-2 b) 3-5 c) 6-10 d) 11 and above 7) Years of Experience with the Org. a) 0-2 b) 3-5 c) 6-10 d) 11 and above
  74. 74. 13 8) What is the retention strategy adopted in your company? a) Salary hike b) Promotion c) Award d) others please specify ______________ 9) Do you think that unique retention strategy will help in retain employees? a) Yes b) No 10) Do you feel that organization gives importance to retain employees? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 11) Do you feel that Location of the company influence employees to remain in your organization? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 12) Do you think career opportunity is one of the factors to remain long in your organization? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 13) Do you think employee benefits play a vital role to stay longer in your organization? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 14) Do you feel that employee performance play a vital role in Retaining Employees in your organization? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 15) Quality and attitude of supervisors can contribute to employee’s retention? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 16) Organizational culture and the job itself will make the employee to stay longer in your company? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 17) Challenging jobs, incentives, recognition and flexi time schedule are today’s employees’ expectation from work?
  75. 75. 13 a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 18) Do you consider that Work-life balance is one of the major factor for employees to stay longer in your organization? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 19) Does the retention have any impact on the motivation levels and performance of an employee? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 20) Do you think the employees are leaving the organization due to difference in Salary? a) Strongly agree b) Agree c) No opinion d) Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 21) Please give the valuable suggestion to improve Retention strategy _________________ THANK YOU FOR SPENDING YOUR TIME Homework Help
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