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How to write a scientific paper?

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How to write a scientific paper?

  1. 1. HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC PAPER FOR SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNALS? By Prof. Dr. Zahid Anwar Political Science Department University of Peshawar, PAKISTAN zauop@yahoo.com
  2. 2. The presenter is thankful to all those who have helped in the preparation of this presentation. 4/14/2015 zahid 2
  4. 4. PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES • To know about academic writing • To explain few terms frequently used in research in Social Sciences • To comprehend techniques of writing research papers for peer reviewed journals. 4/14/2015 zahid 4
  5. 5. KNOWLEDGE • Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. The theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. What is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information. 4/14/2015 zahid 5
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  7. 7. EDUCATION & PEDAGOGICS 4/14/2015 zahid 7 •Education is the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction. •The theory and practice of teaching. .The act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment. •Pedagogics is the science or art of teaching. •Pedagogy means teaching (the function or work of a teacher)
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  9. 9. RESEARCH • Research is the systematic study of materials/sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. • It is an endeavour to discover new or collect old facts by the scientific study of a subject. • Research is what we do when we have a question or a problem we want to resolve 4/14/2015 zahid 9
  10. 10. RESEARCH • Research refers to a search for knowledge • Research means a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic • In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. • The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures 4/14/2015 zahid 10
  11. 11. RESEARCH PAPER 4/14/2015 11zahid
  12. 12. RESEARCH PAPER • Research paper is a paper written to reflect a search that will present information to support a point of view on a particular topic. P. Berge and C. Saffioti. Basic College Research 4/14/2015 zahid 12
  13. 13. PURPOSE & CONTEXT OF A RESEARCH PAPER • What is the purpose of your paper • What is the context of your paper • Text without context is a pretext • A research paper analyzes a perspective or argues a point. 4/14/2015 zahid 13
  14. 14. FURTHER EXPLANATION •A research paper is an expanded essay that presents your own interpretation or evaluation or argument. •A research paper involves surveying a field of knowledge in order to find the best possible information in that field. 4/14/2015 zahid 14
  15. 15. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ESSAY AND RESEARCH PAPER • When you write an essay, you use everything that you personally know and have thought about a subject. • When you write a research paper you build upon what you know about the subject and make a deliberate attempt to find out what experts know. 4/14/2015 zahid 15
  16. 16. RESEARCH PAPER • Research papers are original written works of several typed pages in length, which use information gathered through a search of other sources to describe an event, explain a concept, or argue a point. • Each type of research paper has its own stylistic traits and purposes. • Two of the most common types of research papers are the argumentative research paper and the analytical research paper. 4/14/2015 zahid 16
  17. 17. Common Elements of Research Papers • There are two common traits all research papers share. First, research papers include information from other sources, which may be primary or secondary sources. • Second, research papers are original works. Plagiarism, or the representation of someone else's work as your own, is a serious offense. • To avoid plagiarism, information from other sources must be properly cited and all direct quotations must be properly formatted. 4/14/2015 zahid 17
  18. 18. ARGUMENTATIVE RESEARCH PAPER • An argumentative research paper presents two sides of an issue and aims to persuade the reader that one side is more correct than the other. • In the introduction, you clearly state the issue and include a thesis statement that informs the reader which side you intend to argue for. In the body of the paper, you present the two sides of the issue one at a time. • Your explanation of each side should include both pros and cons, and be supported by evidence from primary and secondary sources. • In the conclusion, you restate your thesis and explain why the evidence you have provided in the body proves that your viewpoint on the issue is the most valid. 4/14/2015 zahid 18
  19. 19. ANALYTICAL RESEARCH PAPER • An analytical research paper presents several points of view on an issue but, unlike an argumentative research paper, does not aim to persuade the reader that any side is more correct than the rest. • In the introduction, you clearly state the issue and provide a very short summary of each point of view you are going to examine. 4/14/2015 zahid 19
  20. 20. ANALYTICAL RESEARCH PAPER • In the first section of the body, you provide a more in-depth summary of each point of view. • In the second section, you make a claim about how the points of view presented interact, contradict and/or support each other, followed by an analysis that supports this claim using information from the first section as evidence. • In the conclusion, you summarize your findings and may also choose to suggest avenues for further research. 4/14/2015 zahid 20
  21. 21. OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH PAPER • Other types of research paper that you may come across include critical analysis research papers, descriptive research papers, expository research papers, opinion research papers, exploratory research papers and definition research papers. • With any research paper, it is helpful to know the requirements and structure of the type you are using before you begin. 4/14/2015 zahid 21
  22. 22. MAJOR STEPS OR MEASURES • A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. • A series of steps will lead you through writing a research paper. • These research writing measures represent a movement through the research writing process. 4/14/2015 zahid 22
  23. 23. TOPIC SELECTION Think of the who, what, when, where and why questions: • WHY did you choose the topic? What interests you about it? Do you have an opinion about the issues involved? • WHO are the information providers on this topic? Who might publish information about it? Who is affected by the topic? Do you know of organizations or institutions affiliated with the topic? 4/14/2015 zahid 23
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  25. 25. • WHAT are the major questions for this topic? Is there a debate about the topic? Are there a range of issues and viewpoints to consider? • WHERE is your topic important: at the local, national or international level? Are there specific places affected by the topic? • WHEN is/was your topic important? Is it a current event or an historical issue? Do you want to compare your topic by time periods? 4/14/2015 zahid 25
  26. 26. ABSTRACT ORDER OF TYPICAL ELEMENTS • B=some background information • P=the principal activity (or purpose) of the study and its scope • M=some information about the methodology used in the study • R=the most important results of the study • C=a statement of conclusion or recommendation
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  28. 28. RESEARCH QUESTION • Try to develop a research question first • You will need unfocused research before identifying your own viewpoint. • That view point which you will eventually need to support. 4/14/2015 zahid 28
  29. 29. 4/14/2015 zahid 29 THEORITICAL FRAME • Research often begins with a question, answering that question requires mapping the context of the question and describing the conditions that determine the validity of proposed answers i.e, the theoretical framework that leads to an answer. • A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts.
  30. 30. 4/14/2015 zahid 30 • A theoretical framework guides your research, determining what things you will measure, and what statistical relationships you will look for. • Theoretical frameworks provide the organization for the study. • A theoretical framework provides a broad explanation of relationships that exists between concepts.
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  32. 32. HYPOTHESIS • Hypothesis is the tentative solution to a research problem • Hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question, which you finalize only after completing the research. 4/14/2015 zahid 32
  33. 33. HYPOTHESIS II • In a hypothesis you gather information and evidence from appropriate, valid sources to support your perspective on a topic or stand on an issue. • Developing a good working hypothesis is an important research skill 4/14/2015 zahid 33
  34. 34. SYNERGY BETWEEN RESEARCH QUESTION & HYPOTHESIS • Hypothesis is not just your topic, but what you're saying about your topic. • once you've come up with the central question, your hypothesis is an answer to that question • Hypothesis should be in the form of a statement, not a question 4/14/2015 zahid 34
  35. 35. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TWO • Make sure your hypothesis covers exactly the topic you want to talk about, no more and no less. • Shape your hypothesis to fit the question you wish to answer 4/14/2015 zahid 35
  36. 36. TOPIC & METHODOLOGY • In conducting research one needs methodology • Methodology is selected as per topic • The point is, `your modus Vivendi shapes your modus operandi`. • It may be historical, analytical, descriptive, experimental, case study so on & so forth 4/14/2015 zahid 36
  37. 37. FINDING SOURCES • We use sources to support our ideas in a research paper. • Many sources are now available in electronic format. • The trick is to find and then match appropriate, valid sources to your own ideas. 4/14/2015 zahid 37
  38. 38. MAJOR SOURCES • Popular options: • Library, computer (CDs, Databases), knowledgeable people, internet, books, magazines, newspapers, journals, Indexes & Abstracts etc 4/14/2015 zahid 38
  39. 39. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES • Primary sources are original, first-hand documents. • Secondary sources are comments about primary sources. • One can use a combination of primary and secondary sources to answer a research question. 4/14/2015 zahid 39
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  41. 41. Books • There are many general reference books that may be useful to your research in a variety of ways. • 1. General Encyclopedias (Britannica, Americana, etc.) • 2. Specialized Encyclopedias and dictionaries 4/14/2015 zahid 41
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  43. 43. LIMITATIONS OF A BOOK AS A SOURCE • The important thing to remember here is that, by the time a book is printed, the information is at least a couple of years old. • So if you're doing research that requires very recent information, a newspaper, magazine, or journal is your better choice. 4/14/2015 zahid 43
  44. 44. INTERNET • The Internet can offer valuable information in a quick, and easy way. • You also have to be critical of what you find, since anyone can post and even change anything that's out there in cyberspace 4/14/2015 zahid 44
  45. 45. LIMITATIONS OF INTERNET AS A SOURCE • Be sure that your internet information is from a recognized source such as the government, an agency that you are sure is a credible source. • 'Being a good writer is 3% talent, and 97% not being distracted by the Internet'. 4/14/2015 zahid 45
  46. 46. HOW TO TAKE NOTES? • Taking notes is an important part of research paper • Be sure when you take notes that you write down the source that they are from. • You should not write the words down exactly as they appear on the page, unless you are putting them in quotations. 4/14/2015 zahid 46
  47. 47. HOW TO TAKE NOTES? II • Notes can be in one of the three forms: summary, paraphrase or direct quotation • When you summarize or paraphrase, you record ideas as opposed to exact language; the language is yours. 4/14/2015 47zahid
  48. 48. HOW TO TAKE NOTES? III • Do not include your own ideas or commentary in the body of the summary or paraphrase. • Your own ideas should come after the summary or paraphrase 4/14/2015 zahid 48
  49. 49. DOCUMENTING YOUR SOURCES • How to document sources? • Help for preparing bibliographies and footnotes can be found in: • MLA handbook for writer of research papers or http://www.umuc.edu/library/libhow/ mla_examples.cfm 4/14/2015 zahid 49
  50. 50. DOCUMENTATION YOUR SOURCES •Chicago / Turabian style: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citation guide.html or http://www.ubc.ca/okanagan/library/__shared/asset s/chicago14394.pdf or http://web.plattsburgh.edu/library/instruction/files/ chicago-turabian_guide.pdf • Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: •http://www.landmark.edu/library/citation- guides/landmark-college-citation-guides/apa- citation-style-guide 4/14/2015 50zahid
  51. 51. CHICAGO MANUAL: SAMPLE CITATION Book One author 1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100. 2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3. Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006. Two or more authors 1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941– 1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52. 2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61. Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941– 1945. New York: Knopf, 2007. 4/14/2015 51zahid
  52. 52. EVALUATING YOUR SOURCES • Is the information presented objectively from an unbiased viewpoint? • Do the authors let you know their sources of information? • Do the authors let you know their research methods as well as results? • How Well does the Source answer the Research Question? • Is the writer field expert 4/14/2015 zahid 52
  53. 53. REORGANIZING YOUR NOTES • Reorganizing your notes should enable you to outline the major sections and then the paragraphs of your research paper 4/14/2015 zahid 53
  54. 54. BUILDING THE FIRST DRAFT • Five points should be kept in mind while writing the first draft: • Start with a focused introduction • Allow yourself to write a bad first draft • Make a distinction between drafting and editing • Don't stick to your plan too closely • Don't worry if you get stuck 4/14/2015 zahid 54
  55. 55. WHAT IS DRAFTING? • Draft means rough copy of a writing. • It is preliminary sketch from which final copy is made. • In drafting you are presenting your ideas rather than refining your argument. 4/14/2015 zahid 55
  56. 56. WHAT IS PROOF READING? • Proofreading is polishing and checking over a draft to make sure that everything is complete and correct ; spelling, grammar, sentence structure, punctuation so on & so forth 4/14/2015 zahid 56
  57. 57. WHAT IS EDITING? 4/14/2015 zahid 57 Editing is reviewing and changing a document by making additions, deletions, or other changes to conform to some agreed- upon standard.
  58. 58. FINAL DRAFT • After rereading, reorganizing regrouping and proofreading you will have a nice clean final draft 4/14/2015 zahid 58
  59. 59. PAPER INTRODUCTION INCLUDES • In introduction state your topic, purpose, reason, major points of your paper plan and why readers should be interested in your topic 4/14/2015 zahid 59
  60. 60. PAPER BODY INCLUDES • Body – Here you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. 4/14/2015 zahid 60
  61. 61. PAPER CONCLUSION INCLUDES • Conclusion - Restate your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. 4/14/2015 zahid 61
  62. 62. CRUX OF THE PROBLEM • Your finished research paper should present your own thinking backed up by others' ideas and information. 4/14/2015 zahid 62
  63. 63. CONCLUSION • Art is long and life is short. These slides do not cover all aspects nevertheless it is hoped that they have introduced you to the major steps to be taken care of while writing a research paper. • Practice makes perfect. The taste of the pudding is in the eating 4/14/2015 zahid 63
  64. 64. THANKS