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# Cu06997 the basics_26052013

Hogeschooldocent em Hogeschool Zeeland,Hz University of applied sciences.
26 de May de 2013
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### Cu06997 the basics_26052013

1. Course CU06997 Fluid Dynamics The 13 situations you are able to calculate at the end of this course 1
2. Water Stagnant not flowing u = 0 m/s In motion flowing u > 0 m/s Hydrostatics Fluid dynamics Pipes Open channel [Gesloten leidingen] [Open water] 1
3. Classification of flows. 1. Steady uniform flow [Eenparig uniform] example: pipe with constant D and Q example: channel with constant A and Q 2. Steady non-uniform flow example: pipe with different D and constant Q example: channel with different A and constant Q 3. Unsteady uniform flow[Niet eenparig , uni..] example: pipe with constant D and different Q example: channel with constant A and different Q 4. Unsteady non-uniform flow example: pipe with different D and Q example; channel with different A and Q1
4. Basics 𝑄 = 𝑢 ∙ 𝐴 P A R  21 2 2 22 2 1 11 22  H g u zy g u zy u1 Reference /datum [m] [Referentie] Surface level [m] [Waterstand] Total head H [m] [Energiehoogte] P1 z1 y1 u1 2/2g Velocity head [m] [Snelheidshoogte] y = Pressure head [m] [drukhoogte] z = Potential head [m] [plaatshoogte] 1
5. Turbulent or laminar flow [Turbulente of laminaire stroming] 𝑅𝑒 = 𝑉. 4𝑅 𝜈 Subcritical or Supercritical flow [Stromend of Schietend water] 𝑦𝑐 = 𝑄2 𝑔 ∙ 𝐵2 3 𝑉𝑐 = 𝑔 ∙ 𝑦𝑐 2 𝐹𝑟 = 𝑉 𝑉𝑐 1
6. Downstream Upstream Cross-section Culvert HeadLoss Length Culvert Velocity 1. Discharge culvert [Debiet duiker] 2. Dimensions culvert [Afmetingen duiker] 2
7. Downstream Upstream Cross-section Culvert HeadLoss Length Culvert Velocity Culvert,submerged [Duiker,volledig gevuld] 2 1 1         i 1o R L f 4   [m] 2g u )ξξξ(ΔΗ 2 culvert oficulvert  2
8. DownstreamUpstream Cross-section Length Culvert Flow velocity 3. Discharge partly submerged Culvert [Debiet gedeeltelijk gevulde duiker] 2
9. DownstreamUpstream Cross-section Length Culvert Flow velocity Culvert, partly filled [Duiker, gedeeltelijk gevuld] Is a broad crested weir [Is een lange overlaat] 2
10. Free flow broad crested weir [Volkomen lange overlaat] 2 3 HBcq vv  Total Head or Energy line H Free flow broad crested weir Super critical flow Hydraulic Jump 2
11. Submerged broad crested weir flow [Onvolkomen lange overlaat] )(2 33 hHghBcq olv  Total Head or Energy line H Submerged broad crested weir Bottom eddy 2
12. Bed Slope Depth HeadLoss Cross-sectionProfile 4. Discharge open channel 5. Dimensions open channel 6. Equilibrium depth open channel 3
13. Bed Slope Depth HeadLoss Cross-sectionProfile Open channel, bed slope > 0 [Open watergang, bodemverhang > 0] 𝑉 = 𝑅 2 3 ∙ 𝑆 𝑏 1 2 𝑛 𝑉 = 𝐶 ∙ 𝑅 ∙ 𝑆 𝑏 𝑆 𝑏 = 𝑆𝑓 𝑦𝑛 = 𝑞2 𝑏2 ∙ 𝐶2 ∙ 𝑆 𝑏 3 3
14. Depth Depth HeadLoss Hydraulic gradient Horizontal bed Cross-sectionProfile 7. Hydraulic Gradient open channel [Energieverhang open watergang] 3
15. Depth Depth HeadLoss Hydraulic gradient Horizontal bed Cross-sectionProfile Open channel, bed slope <= 0 [Open watergang, bodemverhang <=0] 𝑉 = 𝑅 2 3 ∙ 𝑆𝑓 1 2 𝑛 𝑉 = 𝐶 ∙ 𝑅 ∙ 𝑆𝑓 3
16. SpecificHead Width Weir Hydraulic Gradient Cross-sectionProfile 8. Upstream water level Weir 9. Dimensions Weir [Afmetingen stuw] 3
17. SpecificHead Width Weir Hydraulic Gradient Cross-sectionProfile Short crested weir [Korte overlaat, meetstuw] 𝑄 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝐵 ∙ 𝐻 3 2 3
18. Hydraulic Gradient HeadLoss Water level Cross-sectionProfile Submerged Pipe 10. Flow rate Pipe [Debiet buis] 11. Dimensions Pipe [Afmetingen buis] 4
19. Hydraulic Gradient HeadLoss Water level Cross-sectionProfile Submerged Pipe Flow rate Pipe [Debiet buis] 𝑉 = 𝐶 ∙ 𝑅 ∙ 𝑆𝑓 𝐶 = 18 ∙ 𝑙𝑜𝑔 12𝑅 𝑘 𝑆𝑓 = ΔH 𝐿 4
20. Waterdepth W aterpressure Wall Water level Profile 12. Force by water [Kracht door water] 4
21. Waterdepth W aterpressure Wall Water level Profile Force by water [Kracht door water] 𝑝 = 𝜌 ∙ 𝑔 ∙ 𝑦 [𝑃𝑎] F = p ∙ A [N] 4
22. Culvert Empty Ground water level Cross-section 13. Buoyancy [Opdrijving] 4
23. Culvert Empty Ground water level Cross-section Buoyancy, [Opdrijving] Upward force = weight of fluid displaced by the body 4
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