Types of pie & pastries formulation,mixing and moulding methods
1. TYPES OF PIE &PASTRIES-
M.TECH(FOOD SCIENCE AND
• A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of
a pastry dough casing that covers or
completely contains a filling of
various sweet or savoury ingredients.
• Pastry is a dough
of flour, water and shortening (solid fats,
including butter) that may be savoury or
4. INGREDIENTS USED IN
MAKING OF PASTRY
Flour is the main structure builder in pastry.
Pastry flour generally produces superior pie
doughs, however, a combination of 60 percent
bread flour and 40 percent cake flour can
produce quality pies if the dough is mixed
5. • Sugar
• Sucrose sugar is generally used. Use of
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) improves the
eating quality and shelf life. Moisture content
(about 30 percent) of HFCS should be taken
into consideration while calculating water
absorption. Higher sugar content slows down
fermentation rate. To offset this slowing
effect, yeast content should be raised.
6. • Yeast
Yeast content of a dough depends on the
amount of sugar and fat in the dough.
Compressed, dry or instant yeast can be used.
Dry yeast should be soaked in Luke warm (45C)
water. It should never be put in cold water as
glutathione, a powerful reducing agent bleaches
out which will make the dough sticky and
difficult to handle.
7. • Salt
Salt content of Danish pastry dough is
generally 2 per cent. if salted buttered is used
as roll in fat, the salt content should be
8. • Water
• Water dissolves the salt, develops the flour
proteins, and controls the consistency and
temperature of the dough. Excessive water in
the dough is undesirable because it takes
longer to bake the crust, and toughens the
9. • Eggs
Eggs provides structural to the pastry specially
when fat content is high and the dough has to
support extra weight of fillings and toppings.
Egg contribute to the eating quality medium
rich doughs contain 20-30 per cent eggs.
Coffee cakes with higher amount of fillings
may require more eggs
10. • Dough fat
• Fat imparts tenderness to the pastry and
subscribes to the dough handling properties
by way of rendering it more extensible. The
amount varies from 10-20 percent.
11. • Flavouring
• If butter is used as dough fat, it imparts a
rich flavour to the pastry. Other flavour are
contributed by fillings, toppings and icings.
However, vanilla and other citrus flavour add
to the overall flavour of the pastry and should
be used in the dough
12. • Dough Conditioners
• Dough conditioners are required to mellow
the dough for better handling during sheeting
and folding and also be to strengthen it to
support the extra weight of fillings, toppings
and icing. Reducing agents like sodium
metabisulphite are used to mellow the dough
and sodium strearoyl Lactylate (SSL) is used to
strengthen the dough.
• There are several types of starches available to the pie baker for
thickening the fruit juices and or milk and water.
• PURE FOOD POWDERED STARCH:
A pure refined corn starch prepared from ordinary field corn. This type of
starch is not as stable as the Waxy Maize Starch and will break down and
become watery after long storage or when used to thicken fruit juices
containing a high acid content such as cherry or pineapple juices. It
contains amylase and amylopectin
• WAXY STARCH:
This type of starch is refined and modified. It is prepared from waxy maize.
This is an exceptionally clear, gel-producing starch with a short tender
body and extreme stability. Waxy starches generally swell faster than
other starches, but they also become thinner during cooking. The cooked
filling will not get thicker when the pie cools as does that made with
17. • PRE-GELATINIZED STARCH (COLD WATER STARCH):
This starch is generally know as INSTANT STARCH. It does
not require cooking. The juice is drained from the fruit. If
insufficient juices are present in the fruit, water can be
added to make up the shortage. All the dry ingredients
(starch, sugar,salt, spiced, etc.) of the filling are blended
together thoroughly in a dry mixing bowl. Add the liquids
(juices and water when used) gradually to the dry
ingredients and mix until smooth. Carefully fold drained
fruit into thickened mixture. Chill filling in refrigerator until
ready to be used.
• TAPAIOCA STARCH:
This type of starch is also used in pie fillings by some
18. • FRUIT USED IN PIES: The following types of fruits will
produce quality pies if processed properly:
• FRESH FRUIT:
Wash, drain and mix into a slurry of cooked starch, sugar,
salt, drained juice and water plus any spices or other
ingredients such as lemon juice, and butter that may used.
Refrigerate until ready to use.
Thaw, drain the juice, cook a slurry of drained juice and
water, starch, sugar and salt, etc. and mix the fruit into the
• CANNED FRUIT:
Drain the juice, if insufficient juice is present, add water to
make up the shortage. Cook a slurry of drained juice, water
when added, starch, sugar, salt and other ingredients when
used. Then mix the fruit into the cooked mixture.
23. • Method of mixing
a) Rubbing, b) Creaming, c) Boiling
• Fat & flour mixes rubbed gently.
• Then water is added with & dough is mixed
until it is cleared.
• Must not be rub hardly otherwise it will be
hard & flinty instead of short.
24. b) Creaming
• Mix is prepared as a flour-batter method of
• Fat with an equal weight of flour is creamed
• Then reaming flour & water is mixed until a
clear paste is obtained.
25. • c) Boiling
• This method used for meat pie pastes.
• Water, fat & salt mixes are boiled together
then add to flour for prepare gelatinized
• For rich, sweet paste may be used eggs as part
of the liquor.
26. • Sheeting
• After mixing the dough cool for 1 hour.
• Before sheeting it should be generated by
rolling pin for avoid fat separation from the
• Fat should be distributed evenly in the dough.
• Then it will be cut & placed one over the other
& pressed for second sheeting.
Temperature depends on the filling employed.
Tarts - 2150C (Notched jam, lemon tarts, fruit tarts,
custard tarts, small meat pies , patties, madeira &
Sweet pastry - 1820C
28. PUFF PASTRY
• Puff pastry products such as sausage rolls,
eggless cakes, cream horns, vol-au-vents,
Palmiers , Mille-feuille, etv., all require
different amounts of lift and lightness and
whilst they all could be made from any of the
following methods, it is more practical to
make a paste that is suitable for the product
that is to be produced
29. • The three main types of puff pastry are
FULL,THREE-QUARTER and HALF. The
Difference between them being the total fat
• FULL puff contains flour and fat in equal ratio.
• THREE-QUARTER puff contains 75% of fat to
each pound of flour.
• HALF contains 50% of the flour weight.