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A study on the customer perception of mobile phone service providers in erode district with special reference to bsnl

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A study on the customer perception of mobile phone service providers in erode district with special reference to bsnl

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A study on the customer perception of mobile phone service providers in erode district with special reference to bsnl

A study on the customer perception of mobile phone service providers in erode district with special reference to bsnl

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A study on the customer perception of mobile phone service providers in erode district with special reference to bsnl

  1. 1. Projectsformba.blogspot.com A STUDY ON THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF MOBILE PHONE SERVICE PROVIDERS IN ERODE DISTRICT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BSNL By Reg.No. of KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERUNDURAI. A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION JUNE, 2006 Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Projectsformba.blogspot.com BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  3. 3. Projectsformba.blogspot.com BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “A STUDY ON THE CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF MOBILE PHONE SERVICE PROVIDERS IN ERODE DISTRICT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BSNL” is the bonafide work of …………………………………. who carried out the research under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Supervisor Director Viva – Voce held on __________ Internal Examiner External Examiner Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  4. 4. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ABSTRACT Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  5. 5. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ABSTRACT “A study on the customer perception of mobile phone service providers in Erode district with special reference to BSNL” is a project aimed at studying the competitive position of BSNL, the strength and weakness of BSNL’s competitors, accessing the present level of service provided by BSNL and identifying the areas which require attention by BSNL for improving its services. The type of research undertaken for the study was descriptive research and the sampling design used is stratified proportionate random sampling. The sample size was 420.The target respondents were the customers of AIRTEL, AIRCEL, BPL, BSNL, and RELIANCE in a proportionate number. The data was collected using a standardized questionnaire, through the interview mode. From the analysis it was found that AIRTEL and AIRCEL are the main competitors for BSNL. AIRTEL’s promotional campaign has played a significant role in attracting customers and its huge amount of value added services and add-on card features has also added to its success. AIRCEL’s call tariff and its early entry into the market and its SMS facilities has made customers choose its service. It is also found that the good network coverage, call tariff and roaming facilities are the strengths of BSNL whereas SMS charges, poor customer care, lack of value added services, lack of effective promotional campaigns and high network congestion are some of BSNL’s weakness. It is found from the analysis Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Projectsformba.blogspot.com that the awareness of the schemes that BSNL introduce is not known to the public. The study has also revealed that there are small proportions of BSNL customers who are not satisfied with the services that BSNL offers. The study has brought out factors which the mobile service providers should concentrate upon to offer the best of services. The factors are customers care, coverage, performance, pricing and accessibility. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  7. 7. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  8. 8. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to acknowledge and thank the various people who contributed to this project. I acknowledge my sincere gratitude to our Director and my project guide ………………………………………., for his constant motivation and management insight. His encouragement and valuable suggestions helped me throughout the project. I express my deepest sense of gratitude to ………………………………, Erode for granting me the permission to carry out my research work in BSNL and also for his constant encouragement and support during the tenure of my project. I would like to thank …………………………………, and ……………………………………………, Faculty , of the Department of Management Studies, Kongu Engineering College for helping me in statistical analysis. I would also like to thank all members of the Faculty, of the Department of Management Studies, Kongu Engineering College and my family and friends who supported me at various stages in completing this project work successfully. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  9. 9. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE OF CONTENTS Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CONTENTS Chapter Page Particulars No. No. ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) ABSTRACT (TAMIL) LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Telecommunication 1.2 Indian Telecommunication Industry 1.3 Cellular phones & Importance 1.4 Company Profile 1.5 About The Project 2 AIM, OBJECTIVES & LIMITATIONS 2.1 Aim of the Project 2.2 Objectives 2.3 Minor Objectives 2.4 Limitations 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 The Research Design 3.2 Data Sources 3.3 Questionnaire Design 3.4 Pre-Testing, Revision, Final Draft 3.5 Sampling Technique 3.6 Test Used 4 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 4.1 Analysis of Data 4.2 Chi Square Analysis 4.3 Factor Analysis 4.4 Kruskal Wallis Test 4.5 Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test 5 FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Findings 5.2 Suggestions 6 CONCLUSION APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 BIBILIOGRAPHY REFERENCES Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Projectsformba.blogspot.com LIST OF TABLES Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  13. 13. Projectsformba.blogspot.com LIST OF TABLES Tabl Page e Particulars No. No. 4.1.1 Profile of the Respondents 4.1.2 Table showing the reasons for selection of AIRTEL service 4.1.3 Table showing the reasons for selection of AIRCEL service 4.1.4 Table showing the reasons for selection of BPL service 4.1.5 Table showing the reasons for selection of BSNL service 4.1.6 Table showing the reasons for selection of Reliance service 4.1.7 Table showing the service providers and the schemes selected by the customers 4.1.8 Table showing why people do not prefer BSNL 4.1.9 Table showing the overall ranking obtained by various service providers in terms of various attributes 4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type of scheme selected by AIRTEL customers 4.2.2 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type of scheme selected by AIRCEL customers 4.2.3 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type of scheme selected by BPL customers 4.2.4 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type of scheme selected by BSNL customers 4.2.5 Table showing the relationship between income level and the type of scheme selected by Reliance customers 4.2.6 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the corresponding customer satisfaction level 4.2.7 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the gender of the respondents Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  14. 14. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4.2.8 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the age of he respondents 4.2.9 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the occupation of the respondents 4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between the service providers and the 0 income level of the respondents 4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of 1 scheme selected by Airtel customers 4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of 2 scheme selected by Aircel customers 4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of 3 scheme selected by BPL customers 4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of 4 scheme selected by BSNL customers 4.2.1 Table showing the relationship between gender and the type of 5 scheme selected by Reliance customers 4.3.1 Table showing the factor analysis-rotated component matrix 4.4.1 Table showing the Kruskal Wallis Test for ranking done by BSNL customers 4.4.2 Table showing the K test results performed on the ranking of Airtel, Aircel, Bpl & Reliance customers over other service providers. 4.5.1 Table showing the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test calculation for the other service providers 4.6.1 Table showing the income level of the respondents and the satisfaction level of the BSNL customers Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  15. 15. Projectsformba.blogspot.com LIST OF FIGURES Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  16. 16. Projectsformba.blogspot.com LIST OF FIGURES Tabl Page e Particulars No. No. 1.1 Market share of mobile services in India 4.1.1 Chart showing the reasons for choosing Airtel service 4.1.2 Chart showing the reasons for choosing Aircel service 4.1.3 Chart showing the reasons for choosing BPL service 4.1.4 Chart showing the reasons for choosing BSNL service 4.1.5 Chart showing the reasons for choosing Reliance service 4.1.6 Chart showing the service providers and the percentage of Prepaid & Postpaid customers 4.1.7 Chart showing the reasons for not choosing BSNL service 4.2.1 Chart showing the service providers and the gender of the respondents 4.2.2 Chart showing the service providers and the age group of the respondents 4.2.3 Chart showing the service providers and the occupation of the respondents 4.2.4 Chart showing the service providers and the income level of the respondents Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  17. 17. Projectsformba.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  18. 18. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. TELECOMMUNICATION Telecommunications is the communication of information over a distance. The term comes from a contraction of the Greek tele, meaning 'far', and communications, meaning "n: the discipline that studies the principles of transmitting information and the methods by which it is delivered (as print or radio or television etc.)". The world becomes more and more reliant on telecommunication technologies for commerce, communication and access to information. 1.2. INDIAN TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY The Indian telecommunications industry has experienced high growth in recent years. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India or TRAI (established in the year 1997) is the independent regulator established by the Government of India to regulate the telecommunications business in India, to lay down the standards of quality ,and to issue telecom tariff orders[1]. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  19. 19. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1.2.1. Regulatory Framework The government has liberalized the telecommunication services sector and opened it for private participation. The regulatory norms for certain telecommunication services are as follows: o Mobile services: Four licenses have been awarded in each of the 22- telecom circles. Three licenses have been awarded to private service providers and one to the government operator. The private licenses have been issued based on a bidding process. o Fixed line Services: There is no restriction on the number of players in the fixed line segment. The licenses have been awarded based on a fixed entry fee, issued on a non-exclusive basis for a period of 10 years, extendable by 10 years at a time. o National & International Long Distance Services: There is no restriction on the number of players in the long distance markets. Licenses are issued based on an entry fee, on a non-exclusive basis for 10 years, extendable by 10 years at a time. o Internet Services: There is no restriction on the number of players in the ISP segment. 1.2.3. Industry Structure The present operational regulatory structure of telecommunications services industry in India is set forth below: Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  20. 20. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Ministry of Communications Telecom Commission DOT TRAI &TDS (Policy maker & (Regulation & (Policy Role) Licensor) Adjudication) Private Private Other MTNL Mobile Fixed line BSNL VSNL Private Licensees Licensees Licensees 1.2.4. Factors responsible for the growth of telecommunication industry The Indian telecommunications market is under penetrated and hence offers tremendous growth potential. The mobile and fixed line penetration levels in India are lower than those in most developed countries in the world. The following factors are expected to contribute to the growth of the Indian Telecommunications Industry: o Economic Growth and continued development of the Indian Economy o Higher growth rate of service oriented sector, leading to an increased demand for telecommunication services; o Increased use of Information Technology and Internet, leading to a large demand for data communication services; o Declining tariff, reduced equipment cost and reduced handset costs over time. o Increasing customer choice and demand for value added services. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  21. 21. Projectsformba.blogspot.com o Increasing globalization of the Indian Business, leading to increase international voice & data traffic. 1.3. CELLULAR PHONES & ITS IMPORTANCE A technological triumph in telecommunication industry is the cell phone, a radio-linked device that is taking the world by storm. Over the last few years, mobile phones have become a more and more widespread means of communication. They have become a part of everyday life with ever more people enjoying the service and extra freedom they provide. The widespread use of mobile phone has increased over the past decade to the point of becoming an essential part of business, commerce and society. Mobile phones are convenient because they are small and mobile. To own one often confers status and power. Most important, mobile phones give access to the world anytime, anywhere and have come to provide great assistance to users. Mobile phones are also economically priced to be affordable by the majority. Technological improvements are continuing to place mobile phones on the forefront of communication tools. They let the users to embrace constant communication. Their use of mobile phone is diverse, and depends on design and usability. Cell phones were used —not just talking on them but also playing games, getting information off the Internet, sending short text messages, listening music, setting alarms, to organize work and much more. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  22. 22. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1.3.1. Indian Cellular market After the liberalization of the Indian Telecom Sector in 1994, the Indian cellular market witnessed a surge in cellular services. By 2005, there were a total of 12 players in the market with the five major players being Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited (Bharti), Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Hutchinson-Essar limited (Hutch), Idea Cellular limited (Idea) and Reliance India Mobile (RIM). All the players except RIM offered services based on the Global System for Mobile (GSM) technology. RIM provided services based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. As competition in the telecom arena intensified; service providers took new initiatives to woo customers. The market shares of major players are shown in the figure below: FIG 1.1.Market share of mobile services in India Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  23. 23. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1.3.2. India-The fastest growing mobile markets in the world India has become one of the fastest growing mobile markets in the world. The mobile services were commercially launched in August 1995 in India. In the initial 5-6 years the average monthly subscribers additions were around 0.05 to 0.1 million only and the total mobile subscribers base in December 2002 stood at 10.5 millions. However, after the number of proactive initiatives taken by regulator and licensor, the monthly mobile subscriber additions increased to around 2 million per month in the year 2003-04 and 2004-05. For the year 2005-06, the first 9 months have seen an addition of 26 million mobile subscribers, which translates into average addition of 3 million subscribers monthly. The additions in the month of December 2005 alone have touched around 4.5 million [2]. At the time of launch of GSM cellular service in the country there were a number of impediments in the form of high handset costs, exorbitant tariffs, high initial entry/activation charges, Mobile Party Pays (MPP) regime etc. With the passage of time these initial barriers have almost disappeared as on date [2]. Tariff: The mobile tariffs in India have also become lowest in the world. A new mobile connection can be activated with a monthly commitment of Rs.200 to Rs.250. The average mobile tariffs prevalent in India are much lower than the rates that are prevalent in different countries in the neighborhood. In India the approximate per minute cellular tariff is Rs.1 where as its Rs.1.50 in China, Rs.3 in Bangladesh and Nepal, Rs.3.80 in Pakistan and Rs.5 in Srilanka [2]. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  24. 24. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Handset Sales: The data pertaining to sale of handsets in India provided by Indian Cellular Association (ICA) for the last three years is as under:- * 2003: 19 Million * 2004: 24 Million * 2005: 32 Million The above data also is in synchronization, which supports the high growth of mobile subscribers in last 3 years. With the monthly additions of about 5 million subscribers, the sale of handsets is likely to pick up substantially in 2006 and may reach somewhere in the range of 60-65 millions per annum. The replacement market in India is mentioned to be about 10% of the total subscriber base [2]. Mobile telephony services are rapidly expanding and have contributed approximately 91% to new subscriber additions in December 2005. The segment’s subscriber base grew a record 6.24% month on month (mom) to 75.92mn. Of the total subscriber’s added, almost 71% subscribers belonged to the GSM segment and the rest were CDMA segment. This strong growth is largely attributed to the lifetime validity cards launched by all major operators. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  25. 25. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 1.4. COMPANY PROFILE (BSNL) On October 1, 2000 the Department of Telecom Operations, Government of India became a corporation and was christened Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). Today, BSNL is the No. 1 Telecommunications Company and the largest Public Sector Undertaking of India with authorized share capital of Rs.179 billion million and net worth of Rs.646 billion. It has a network of over 45 million lines covering 5000 towns with over 35 million telephone connections. With latest digital switching technology like OCB,EWSD,AXE-10,FETEX,NEC etc. and widespread transmission network including SDH system upto 2.5 gbps, DWDM system upto 80 gbps,Web telephony,DIAS,VPN, Broadband and more than 400,000 data customers , BSNL continues to serve this great nation . Its responsibilities include improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom network, introduction of new telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers. BSNL has managed to shoulder these responsibilities remarkably and deftly. Today with over 45 million line capacity, 99.9% of its exchanges digital, nation wide Network management & surveillance system (NMSS) to control telecom traffic and over 4,00,000 route kms of OFC network, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd is a name to reckon with in the world of connectivity. Along with its vast customer base, BSNL's financial and asset bases too are vast and strong. Consider the figures, as they speak volumes on BSNL’s standing: Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  26. 26. Projectsformba.blogspot.com o The telephone infrastructure alone is worth about Rs.1,00,000 crore (US $ 22.74 billion) o Turnover of Rs.31,400 crore ( US $ 7.14 billion) BSNL's nationwide coverage and reach, comprehensive range of telecom services and a penchant for excellence; have provided the ingredients for restructuring India for a bright future. Today, BSNL is most trusted Telecom Brand of India. When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation, and much beyond, one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle - BSNL. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of a leader. It is working round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class telecom services for people of India. BSNL is India's no. 1 Telecom Service provider and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it connects each inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable the customer to step into tomorrow. Here is an overview of the World Class services offered by the BSNL: 1. Basic telephone services 2. Dataone broadband 3. SancharNet internet 4. Integrated Service Digital Network Service (ISDN) 5. Intelligent Network Service 6. I-NET 7. Leased lines and datacom Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  27. 27. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 8. Cellular mobile service 9. Tarang-Wireless in local loop 1.4.1. Cellular mobile service from BSNL Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited on October 19, 2002, launched its much- awaited cellular services CellOne. BSNL is the first in India to launch Cellular Service, Nationwide at one time. India’s fastest growing cellular service , along with (pre-paid service) has brought cellular telephony to the masses, through innovative technology and strategic pricing. This ambitious service uses state-of-the-art GSM technology to attain global excellence and leadership in business. BSNL’s entry into this sector has brought GSM cellular service at an affordable cost to the common man. All serving a single objective, to provide better communication to millions across India. Customers have reposed tremendous faith in BSNL and it has enrolled over 30 Lakh cellular customers within ten months of launch of Cellular service, an unprecedented mark in Indian Cellular Market. 1.5. ABOUT THE PROJECT BSNL cellular mobile service division in India faces a very tough competition from the various private players. Even though BSNL cellular service is doing extremely well within a short time of its launch when compared to other players, it still has some drawbacks. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  28. 28. Projectsformba.blogspot.com BSNL cellular service in the Erode district competes with players like Airtel, Aircel, BPL, and Reliance, Tata Indicom. With so many cellular network services in the fray, competition is expected to be tough as the companies scramble to live up to customer expectations. Continuous improvements are being made by the management to capture a very high market share. Various promotional schemes are being introduced by BSNL to out beat the competition but still could not rise up to the customer expectations. BSNL cellular service division in Erode would like to analyze the competition it faces from other players, to know the weak areas and to identify the unique selling proposition of its services. In a nutshell the study proposes, 1. To assess the present level of service provided by BSNL. 2. To identify areas which require attention by BSNL for improving its services. 3. To evaluate the strength and weakness of its competitors, to develop a USP for its services. To address all these issues, so that the management can take appropriate measures, a research has been called to provide information on the areas where BSNL needs attention. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  29. 29. Projectsformba.blogspot.com AIM, OBJECTIVES & LIMITATIONS Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  30. 30. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CHAPTER 2 AIM, OBJECTIVES & LIMITATIONS 2.1. AIM OF THE PROJECT The Indian Telecommunication industry has grown into a billion dollar industry. In this highly competitive industry it is not just enough doing something right that matters but it is also important that it is doing nothing wrong. Making profit does not only mean a large customer base but also, on usage level of the services provided to the customers. The telecom companies come out with many schemes and offers, to attract customers and to make them use the various features provided by these companies. The aim of this study would supplement this effort of the company in a small way. 2.2. OBJECTIVES 1. To identify the features that encourages customers to avail services from mobile service providers. 2. To evaluate various features provided by mobile service providers to identify their USP. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  31. 31. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3. To assess the present level of service provided by BSNL and compare the same with its competitors. 4. To identify new areas which require attention by BSNL for attaining customer delight. 5. To evaluate the strength and weakness of competitors of BSNL and to furnish recommendations for meeting the competition. 2.3. MINOR OBJECTIVES 1. To find out the future expectations of customer’s from BSNL. 2. To study the effectiveness of promotional campaign of BSNL. 2.4. LIMITATIONS 1. The sample size of 420 respondents may not be representative of the entire population. 2. The respondents consisted of various classes of people with varying levels of education, hence during the interview process the language and words that was used to ask the question was modifies suitably. This might have made the respondents interpret the question in a different fashion, Hence there is a possibility of bias. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  32. 32. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3. The linking or loyalty of the respondents to a particular service provider might have made them to respond in a biased manner. 4. Time at the disposal for the research was limited and hence a more elaborate study could not be conducted. 5. The area of study is limited to Erode District only; hence the result may not be true to other geographical regions. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  33. 33. Projectsformba.blogspot.com RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  34. 34. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. THE RESEARCH DESIGN 3.1.1. Exploratory Research The basic problem to be addressed is to assess the strength and weakness of BSNL vis-à-vis its competitors. In order to gain a sharper perspective of the problem and develop the research dilemma into a more precise formulation and state the problem clearly, a few days was spent in studying the actual problem. The objective and the problem became clear only after interacting with the various people in the BSNL office and various other persons who use mobile phones frequently. As a part of the exploration process a study was also made about BSNL’s competitors. By this process the objectives of the study could be stated clearly. 3.2. DATA SOURCES 3.2.1. Primary Data The primary data was collected through an administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a variety of questions that lay consistent with the objectives of the research. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  35. 35. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3.2.2. Secondary Data The websites of the service providers and various other researches done in this area along with websites of TRAI, Cellular Operators Association of India served as the secondary sources of data. 3.3. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Proper care has been taken to ensure that the information needs match the objectives which in turn match the data collected through the questionnaire. The basic cardinal rules of questionnaire design like using simple and clear words, the logical and sequential arrangement of questions has been taken care of. 3.4. PRE-TESTING, REVISION, FINAL DRAFT The questionnaire was pretested with 25 respondents chosen at random. After the pretesting some question regarding the open ended question as to why people do not prefer BSNL was added. Other minor errors like spell check was also performed after the pretest and appropriate corrections were made. The ‘validity’ of the questionnaire was also looked into. Validity refers to whether the Questionnaire is measuring what it is purported to measure. Content Validity, i.e. the contents of the questionnaire whether it is aligned with the objectives was looked into by the guide in charge in the BSNL office and approval was given. By going through the process of validity confidence was developed that the questionnaire is free from systematic errors. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  36. 36. Projectsformba.blogspot.com The ‘reliability’ of a questionnaire refers to a measurement free from random errors or put in another way, whether the results obtained from the measurement are the same for a particular respondent when interviewed between two intervals. Around 10 respondents who were involved in pre-testing the questionnaire were interviewed after a period of 10 days and the results did not show any deviation. Hence reliability was achieved. Hence pretesting, the validity and the reliability aspects of the questionnaire were taken care of. 3.5. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE The sampling technique used for this research is Stratified Proportionate Random Sampling. This technique is used when a population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogenous group, stratified sampling technique is generally applied in order to obtain a representative sample. Under stratified sampling the population is divided into several sub-populations that are individually more homogeneous than the total population (the different sub- populations are called ‘strata’) and then we select items from each stratum to constitute a sample. Since each stratum is more homogenous than the total population, we are able to get more precise estimates for each stratum and by estimating more accurately each of the component parts; we get a better estimate of the whole. In brief, stratified sampling results are more reliable [3]. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  37. 37. Projectsformba.blogspot.com We usually follow the method of proportional allocation under which the sizes of the samples from different strata are kept proportional to the sizes of the strata. [3] 3.5.1. Illustration: Sample size (n) = 420 Population Size (N) = 309900 Airtel - 80000 Aircel - 70000 BPL - 47600 BSNL - 77000 Reliance - 35300 Total 309900 Adopting the proportional allocation, the sample sizes for different strata are: Airtel - 108 (80000/309900*420) Aircel - 95 (70000/309900*420) BPL - 65 (47600/309900*420) BSNL - 104 (77000/309900*420) Reliance - 48 (35300/309900*420) Thus, using proportional allocation, the sample sizes for different strata are 108:95:65:104:48. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  38. 38. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3.6. TEST USED 3.6.1. Chi Square Test Chi Square tests can be used to determine whether the two attributes are independent of each other if the population is classified into several categories with respect to two attributes [4]. The test statistics is given in the appendix 1. 3.6.2. Factor Analysis Factor Analysis is generally used for data reduction and summarization.It is used to find certain relationships among the observed values. It also analyses the interdependence or interrelations among total set of variables. 3.6.3. Kruskal Wallis Test This ANOVA procedure was concerned with whether several population means are equal. The data were interval/ratio level and it was also assumed that the populations follow the normal distribution and their S.D was equal. If the data are ordinal scale and/or the populations do not follow a normal distribution then this K test is used. The K test requires no assumptions about the shape of the populations. For K test to be applied, the samples selected from the population must be independent. [5] Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  39. 39. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 3.6.4. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test Wilcoxon Signed Rank test is a non parametric test based on the differences in dependent samples. [5] 3.6.5. Kendall’s Tau c Test This test is based on the concept of concordant and discordant pairs. This Kendall’s statistics does not require the assumption of a bivariate normal distribution, yet by incorporating order most produce a range from -1.0(a perfect negative relationship) to +1.0(a perfect positive one). Within this range, a coefficient with a larger magnitude (absolute value of the measure) is interpreted as having a stronger relationship. These characteristics allow the analyst to interpret both the direction and strength of the relationship. [6] 3.6.6. Cross tabulation with simple percentage analysis is also used in places where it is appropriate along with graphs and charts. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  40. 40. Projectsformba.blogspot.com ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  41. 41. Projectsformba.blogspot.com CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.1. ANALYSIS OF DATA TABLE 4.1.1 PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS a)SERVICE PROVIDERS No. Of S.No Service providers % Respondents 1 Airtel 108 25.7 2 Aircel 95 22.6 3 Bpl 65 15.5 4 Bsnl 104 24.8 5 Reliance 48 11.4 Total 420 100 b)GENDER No. Of S.No Gender % Respondents 1 Male 275 65.5 2 Female 145 34.5 Grand Total 420 100 c)AGE No. Of S.No Age % Respondents 1 Under 25 yrs 106 25.2 2 Between 25-34 yrs 156 37.1 3 Between 35-44 yrs 99 23.6 4 Between 45-54yrs 41 9.8 Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  42. 42. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 5 Greater than 55 18 4.3 Grand Total 420 100 Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  43. 43. Projectsformba.blogspot.com d)OCCUPATION No. Of S.No Occupation % Respondents 1 Businessman 131 31.2 2 Professional 63 15.0 3 Executive 124 29.5 4 Student 66 15.7 5 Housewife 36 8.6 Grand Total 420 100 e)INCOME LEVEL No. Of S.No Income level % Respondents 1 Less than Rs.1 lakh 177 42.1 2 Between Rs.1lakhs-Rs.3lakhs 151 36.0 3 Between Rs.3lakhs-Rs.5lakhs 73 17.4 4 Greater than Rs.5lakhs 19 4.5 Grand Total 420 100 INFERENCE: The general profile of the respondents given above is self explanatory.66% interviewed were males and 34% females. Most of the respondents were between age group 25 to 34 yrs. A large percentage of them were into business and 42% of the respondents come under the income level of less than Rs.1 lakh. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  44. 44. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.2 TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF AIRTEL SERVICE Reasons for selection of AIRTEL No. Of % service by AIRTEL Respondents Customers Call Rate 45 14.6 Good Network 51 16.5 Coverage Network availability 33 10.7 Good Customer 22 7.1 Care Promotional offers 14 4.5 Free SMS 43 13.9 Roaming Facilities 31 10.0 Add-on card/Closed 25 8.1 user groups Influence from 25 8.1 Friends/Relatives Value Added 20 6.5 Services Total 309 100.0 INFERENCE 16.5% of the respondents who are AIRTEL customers have chosen Airtel because of good network coverage, 15% of the respondents because of call rates and 14% because of free SMS. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  45. 45. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.1.1 CHART SHOWING THE REASONS FOR CHOOSING AIRTEL SERVICE Value Added Services 6.50% Influence from Friends/Relatives 8.10% Add-on card/Closed user groups 8.10% Roaming Facilities 10.00% Free SMS 13.90% Promotional offers 4.50% Good Customer Care 7.10% Network availability 10.70% Good NetworkCoverage 16.50% Call Rate 14.60% 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 % % % % % % % % % % Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  46. 46. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.3 TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF AIRCEL SERVICE Reasons for No. Of selection of AIRCEL Respondent % service by AIRCEL s Customers Call Rate 46 24.9 Good Network 14 7.6 Coverage Network availability 4 2.2 Good Customer 20 10.8 Care Promotional offers 10 5.4 Free SMS 49 26.5 Roaming Facilities 8 4.3 Add-on card/Closed 16 8.6 user groups Influence from 17 9.2 Friends/Relatives Value Added 1 0.5 Services Total 185 100.0 INFERENCE 27% of the respondents who are Aircel customers have chosen its service because of free SMS, 25% of the respondents have chosen it because of call tariffs and Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  47. 47. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.1.2 CHART SHOWING THE REASONS FOR CHOOSING AIRCEL SERVICE Value Added Services 0.50% Influence from Friends/Relatives 9.20% Add-on card/Closed user groups 8.60% Roaming Facilities 4.30% Free SMS 26.50% Promotional offers 5.40% Good Customer Care 10.80% Network availability 2.20% Good Network Coverage 7.60% Call Rate 24.90% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  48. 48. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.4 TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF BPL SERVICE Reasons for selection of BPL No. Of % service by BPL Respondents Customers Call Rate 32 16.8 Good Network 20 10.5 Coverage Network availability 23 12.0 Good Customer Care 28 14.7 Promotional offers 6 3.1 Free SMS 14 7.3 Roaming Facilities 14 7.3 Add-on card/Closed 12 6.3 user groups Influence from 27 14.1 Friends/Relatives Value Added 15 7.9 Services Total 191 100.0 INFERENCE 17% of the respondents who are BPL customers have chosen its service because of call rates, 15% of the respondents have chosen it because of good customer care and 14% have chosen it because of the influence from the friends and relatives. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  49. 49. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  50. 50. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.1.3 CHART SHOWING THE REASONS FOR CHOOSING BPL SERVICE Value Added Services 7.90% Influence from Friends/Relatives 14.10% Add-on card/Closed user groups 6.30% Roaming Facilities 7.30% Free SMS 7.30% Promotional offers 3.10% Good Customer Care 14.70% Network availability 12.00% Good Network Coverage 10.50% Call Rate 16.80% 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 % % % % % Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  51. 51. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.5 TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF BSNL SERVICE Reasons for selection of BSNL No. Of % service by BSNL Respondents Customers Call Rate 50 24.8 Good Network 80 39.6 Coverage Network availability 12 5.9 Good Customer Care 10 5.0 Promotional offers 4 2.0 Free SMS 4 2.0 Roaming Facilities 29 14.4 Add-on card/Closed 4 2.0 user groups Influence from 7 3.5 Friends/Relatives Value Added 2 1.0 Services Total 202 100.0 INFERENCE 40% of the respondents who are BSNL customers have chosen its service because of good network coverage, 25% of the respondents have chosen it because of call rates and 15% have chosen it because of the roaming facilities. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  52. 52. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  53. 53. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.1.4 CHART SHOWING THE REASONS FOR CHOOSING BSNL SERVICE Value Added Services 1.00% Influence from Friends/Relatives 3.50% Add-on card/Closed user groups 2.00% Roaming Facilities 14.40% Free SMS 2.00% Promotional offers 2% Good Customer Care 5.00% Network availability 5.90% Good Network Coverage 39.60% Call Rate 24.80% 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 % % % % % % % % % % Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  54. 54. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.6 TABLE SHOWING THE REASONS FOR SELECTION OF RELIANCE SERVICE Reasons for selection of No. Of RELIANCE % Respondents service by RELIANCE Customers Call Rate 16 13.8 Good Network 26 22.4 Coverage Network availability 10 8.6 Good Customer Care 8 6.9 Promotional offers 6 5.2 Free SMS 10 8.6 Roaming Facilities 12 10.3 Add-on card/Closed 14 12.1 user groups Influence from 6 5.2 Friends/Relatives Value Added Services 8 6.9 Total 116 100.0 INFERENCE 22% of the respondents who are RELIANCE customers have chosen its service because of good network coverage, 14% of the respondents have chosen it because of call rates and 12% have chosen it because of the add on cards/closed user group option. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  55. 55. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.1.5 CHART SHOWING THE REASONS FOR CHOOSING RELIANCE SERVICE Value Added Services 6.9% Influence from Friends/Relatives 5.2% Add-on card/Closed user groups 12.1% Roaming Facilities 10.3% Free SMS 8.6% Promotional offers 5.2% Good Customer Care 6.9% Network availability 8.6% Good Network Coverage 22.4% Call Rate 13.8% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  56. 56. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.7 TABLE SHOWING THE SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE SCHEMES SELECTED BY THE CUSTOMERS Prepaid % Postpaid % Grand Total 59.26 40.74 Airtel 64 % 44 % 108 (100%) 43.16 56.84 Aircel 41 % 54 % 95 (100%) 46.15 53.85 Bpl 30 % 35 % 65 (100%) 30.77 69.23 Bsnl 32 % 72 % 104 (100%) 54.17 45.83 Reliance 26 % 22 % 48 (100%) Grand Total 193 227 420 INTERPRETATION: 30.77% of the respondents who are customers of BSNL have chosen Prepaid scheme and 69.23% of the respondents are postpaid customers. Where as 59.26% of Airtel customers use prepaid connection while 40.74% use postpaid connection. Airtel holds the highest market share in the prepaid segment of the market. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  57. 57. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.1.6 CHART SHOWING THE SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE PERCENTAGE OF PREPAID & POSTPAID CUSTOMERS 69.23% 70.00% 59.26% 56.84% 60.00% 53.85% 54.17% 46.15% 45.83% 50.00% 43.16% 40.74% 40.00% 30.77% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Airtel Aircel Bpl Bsnl Reliance Prepaid Postpaid Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  58. 58. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  59. 59. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.8 TABLE SHOWING WHY PEOPLE DO NOT PREFER BSNL No. of S.No Reasons for not choosing BSNL % Respondents 1 No free SMS 76 26.2 2 Very poor customer care 65 22.4 3 High network congestion 41 14.1 4 Lack of bill collection centers 25 8.6 5 No proper CUG facilities 16 5.5 6 Time delay in getting the connection 14 4.8 7 Lack of awareness 13 4.5 8 Not available at the time their purchase 12 4.1 9 High tariff 8 2.8 10 No free network calls 6 2.1 11 There is no clear clarity 6 2.1 12 No value added services 4 1.4 13 Need the same number 2 0.7 14 Problem in calling Aircel mobiles 2 0.7 Total 290 100.0 INFERENCE There were 290 (26 did not answer and 104 were BSNL customers who were not eligible to answer this question) who responded to the open ended question. Their views were classified carefully into 14 categories as shown above.18% of the respondents did not choose BSNL because of SMS charges and 15% of the respondents feel that the customer care is very poor. 14% feel that there is high network congestion.9% feel that there is not enough bill collection centers to pay their bills at ease. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  60. 60. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.1.7 CHART SHOWING THE REASONS FOR NOT CHOOSING BSNL SERVICE Problem in calling Aircel mobiles 0.7% Need the same number 0.7% No value added services 1.4% There is no clear clarity 2.1% No free network calls 2.1% High tariff 2.8% Not available at the time their purchase 4.1% Lack of awareness 4.5% Time delay in getting the connection 4.8% No proper CUG facilities 5.5% Lack of bill collection centres 8.6% High network congestion 14.1% Very poor customer care 22.4% No free SMS 26.2% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  61. 61. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.1.9 TABLE SHOWING THE OVERALL RANKING OBTAINED BY VARIOUS SERVICE PROVIDERS IN TERMS OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES A) Cheaper Call Rates Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 67 89 164 68 24 8 1177 2 Aircel 59 70 68 141 55 27 1404 4 Bpl 45 43 53 87 134 58 1656 5 Bsnl 188 93 54 43 30 12 930 1 Reliance 57 107 61 54 121 20 1395 3 Tata Indicom 4 18 20 27 56 295 2258 6 B) Network Coverage Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 64 75 154 64 45 18 1265 3 Aircel 8 34 116 126 52 84 1692 4 Bpl 24 110 75 532 635 336 1712 5 Bsnl 198 128 39 26 21 8 828 1 Reliance 123 228 180 112 270 246 1159 2 Tata Indicom 3 14 18 43 121 221 2188 6 C) Network Congestion/Uptime Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 70 58 80 73 40 99 1512 4 Aircel 173 95 47 53 29 23 999 1 Bpl 14 76 167 65 50 48 1465 3 Bsnl 105 121 51 67 42 34 1182 2 Reliance 41 56 59 112 121 31 1569 5 Tata Indicom 17 14 16 48 138 187 2097 6 Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  62. 62. Projectsformba.blogspot.com D) Roaming Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 69 117 110 72 32 20 1201 2 Aircel 24 32 86 105 63 110 1741 5 Bpl 26 62 44 74 173 41 1689 4 Bsnl 224 96 51 24 15 10 800 1 Reliance 73 96 110 40 71 30 1290 3 Tata Indicom 4 17 21 105 64 209 2095 6 E) Good Advertisements Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 160 111 77 42 20 10 941 1 Aircel 16 40 44 147 132 41 1722 5 Bpl 38 40 42 107 110 83 1720 4 Bsnl 40 49 57 40 63 171 1810 6 Reliance 61 94 144 40 53 28 1274 2 Tata Indicom 105 86 60 42 42 85 1345 3 F) SMS Facilities Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 131 166 60 30 14 19 947 2 Aircel 186 108 72 28 15 11 871 1 Bpl 50 47 157 91 45 30 1384 3 Bsnl 28 43 49 80 93 127 1808 5 Reliance 20 48 64 145 106 37 1640 4 Tata Indicom 116 5 24 54 176 735 2158 6 4 G) Value Added Services Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 196 93 52 34 30 15 914 1 Aircel 53 101 159 53 45 9 1223 2 Bpl 50 57 89 139 45 40 1452 4 Bsnl 61 39 28 91 69 132 1724 5 Reliance 54 110 67 39 95 55 1436 3 Tata Indicom 6 20 25 64 136 169 2071 6 Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  63. 63. Projectsformba.blogspot.com H) Add On Cards/CUG Facilities Service providers 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wt.Sum Rank Airtel 152 122 80 32 22 12 946 1 Aircel 107 143 86 43 24 17 1045 2 Bpl 60 52 88 155 43 22 1395 3 Bsnl 32 43 44 101 91 109 1763 5 Reliance 57 50 112 48 127 26 1476 4 Tata Indicom 12 12 10 37 115 234 2193 6 INFERENCE From the figures it is seen that BSNL occupies first place in the minds of the cell phone users when it comes to cheaper call rates, Network Coverage and Roaming. It occupies second place when it comes to Network congestion, sixth place for its advertisements and fifth place for SMS facilities, Value added services and add on cards. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  64. 64. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4.2. CHI SQUARE ANALYSIS TABLE 4.2.1 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRTEL CUSTOMERS INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Less than Rs.1lakh 28 12 40 Rs1-3 lakhs 18 18 36 Greater than Rs.3 lakhs 18 14 32 Grand Total 64 44 108 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 3.31 Table Value = 5.991 Degrees of Freedom = 2 Probability Value = 0.1911 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  65. 65. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.2 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRCEL CUSTOMERS INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Less than Rs.1lakh 30 20 50 Greater than Rs.1 lakh 11 34 45 Grand Total 41 54 95 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 12.21 Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1 Probability Value = 0.0005 Phi Coefficient = 0.358 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers. But the association is not strong. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  66. 66. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.3 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BPL CUSTOMERS INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Less than Rs.1lakh 20 11 31 Greater than Rs.1 lakh 10 24 34 Grand Total 30 35 65 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 8.04 Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1 Probability Value = 0.0046 Phi Coefficient = 0.352 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers but the association is not very strong. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  67. 67. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.4 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BSNL CUSTOMERS INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Less than Rs.1lakh 14 26 40 Between Rs1-3 lakhs 10 30 40 Greater than Rs.3 lakhs 8 16 24 Grand Total 32 72 104 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 1.04 Table Value = 5.991 Degrees of Freedom = 2 Probability Value = 0.5960 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  68. 68. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.5 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INCOME LEVEL AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY RELIANCE CUSTOMERS INCOME LEVEL Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Less than Rs.1lakh 11 5 16 Between Rs1-3 lakhs 6 10 16 Greater than Rs.3 lakhs 6 10 16 Grand Total 23 25 48 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) -There is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 4.17 Table Value = 5.991 Degrees of Freedom = 2 Probability Value = 0.1241 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the income level and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  69. 69. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.6 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE CORRESPONDING CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION LEVEL Neither Satisfied SERVICE PROVIDERS Dissatisfied Satisfied Grand Total Nor Dissatisfied Airtel 4 10 94 108 Aircel 8 18 69 95 Bpl 4 14 47 65 Bsnl 7 14 83 104 Reliance 5 8 35 48 Grand Total 28 64 328 420 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service providers and their customer satisfaction level ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service providers and their customer satisfaction level CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 10.22 Table Value = 15.5.7 Degrees of Freedom = 8 Probability Value = 0.2502 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the service providers and their customer’s satisfaction level. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  70. 70. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.7 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS SERVICE PROVIDERS Male Female Grand Total Airtel 62 46 108 Aircel 61 34 95 Bpl 47 18 65 Bsnl 79 25 104 Reliance 26 22 48 Grand Total 275 145 420 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service providers and gender of the respondents. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service providers and the gender of the respondents. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 12.29 Table Value = 9.488 Degrees of Freedom = 4 Probability Value = 0.0153 Coefficient of Contingency = 0.169 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  71. 71. Projectsformba.blogspot.com association between the service providers and gender of the respondents. From the coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not strong. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  72. 72. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.2.1 CHART SHOWING THE SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS 45.80% Reliance 54.20% 24.00% Bsnl SERVICE PROVIDERS 76.00% 27.70% Bpl 72.30% 35.80% Aircel 64.20% 42.60% Airtel 57.40% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% Male Female Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  73. 73. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.8 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS 25-3 35-4 Under25 Greater than SERVICE PROVIDERS 4 4 Grand Total yrs 45 yrs yrs yrs Airtel 39 36 23 10 108 Aircel 30 37 19 9 95 Bpl 8 23 26 8 65 Bsnl 21 36 21 26 104 Reliance 8 24 10 6 48 Grand Total 106 156 99 59 420 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service providers and age of the respondents. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service providers and the age of the respondents. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 37.33 Table Value = 21.026 Degrees of Freedom = 12 Probability Value = 0.0002 Coefficient of Contingency = 0.286 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  74. 74. Projectsformba.blogspot.com association between the service providers and age of the respondents. From the coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not very strong. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  75. 75. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.2.2 CHART SHOWING THE SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE AGE GROUP OF THE RESPONDENTS 12.50% Reliance 20.80% 50.00% 16.70% 25.00% Bsnl 20.20% 34.60% 20.20% 12.30% Bpl 40.00% 35.40% 12.30% 9.50% 20.00% Aircel 38.90% 31.60% 9.30% 21.30% Airtel 33.30% 36.10% 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Under25 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs Greater than 45 yrs Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  76. 76. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.9 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE OCCUPATION OF THE RESPONDENTS SERVICE Business Professional Executive Student Housewife Grand Total PROVIDERS Airtel 25 14 37 26 6 108 Aircel 28 10 35 12 10 95 Bpl 24 14 13 5 9 65 Bsnl 36 19 27 17 5 104 Reliance 18 6 12 6 6 48 Grand Total 131 63 124 66 36 420 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service providers and occupation of the respondents. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service providers and the occupation of the respondents. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 28.34 Table Value = 26.296 Degrees of Freedom = 16 Probability Value = 0.0288 Coefficient of contingency = 0.251 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  77. 77. Projectsformba.blogspot.com association between the service providers and occupation of the respondents. From the coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not strong. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  78. 78. Projectsformba.blogspot.com Fig 4.2.3 CHART SHOWING THE SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE OCCUPATION OF THE RESPONDENTS % .5 % % 40.0% 37 .8 % .9 36 .6 36 % 34 .3 34 35.0% % .5 % 29 30.0% % .0 .0 26 % 25 % % .1 .1 .5 24 25.0% 21 23 % .0 % 20 .3 % 20.0% 18 .3 16 % % % .0 % .8 % % .5 .6 13 13 15.0% .5 .5 12 % % 12 10 12 .5 .5 12 10 7% 10.0% 7. 6% 8% 5. 4. 5.0% 0.0% Airtel Aircel Bpl Bsnl Reliance Business Professional Executive/Employed Student Housewife Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  79. 79. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.10 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE INCOME LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS Less Between Greater SERVICE PROVIDERS than Rs1-3 than Grand Total Rs.1 lakh lakhs Rs3 lakhs Airtel 40 36 32 108 Aircel 50 39 6 95 Bpl 31 20 14 65 Bsnl 40 40 24 104 Reliance 16 16 16 48 Grand Total 177 151 92 420 NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the service providers and income of the respondents. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the service providers and the income of the respondents. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 22.91 Table Value = 15.507 Degrees of Freedom = 8 Probability Value = 0.0035 Coefficient of contingency = 0.227 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is greater than the table value and hence we reject the null hypothesis. Therefore there is an association between the service providers and income of the respondents and Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  80. 80. Projectsformba.blogspot.com from the coefficient of contingency it is found that the association is not very strong. Fig 4.2.4 CHART SHOWING THE SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THE PERCENTAGE OF INCOME LEVEL OF THE RESPONDENTS 60.00% 52.60% 47.70% 50.00% 41.10% 37.00% 38.50% 38.50% 40.00% 33.30% 33.30% 30.80% 33.30% 33.30% 29.60% 30.00% 23.10% 21.50% 20.00% 6.30% 10.00% 0.00% Airtel Aircel Bpl Bsnl Reliance Lesser than Rs.1 lakh Between Rs 1-3 lakhs Greater than Rs 3 lakh Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  81. 81. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.11 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRTEL CUSTOMERS Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Male 34 28 62 Female 30 16 46 Grand 64 44 108 Total NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 1.18 Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1 Probability Value = 0.2777 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRTEL customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  82. 82. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.12 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY AIRCEL CUSTOMERS Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Male 23 38 61 Female 18 16 34 Grand 41 54 95 Total NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 2.07 Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1 Probability Value = 0.1506 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the AIRCEL customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  83. 83. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.13 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BPL CUSTOMERS Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Male 22 25 47 Female 8 10 18 Grand 30 35 65 Total NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 0.03 Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1 Probability Value = 0.8642 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BPL customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  84. 84. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.14 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY BSNL CUSTOMERS Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Male 26 53 79 Female 6 19 25 Grand 32 72 104 Total NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 0.71 Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1 Probability Value = 0.4001 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the BSNL customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  85. 85. Projectsformba.blogspot.com TABLE 4.2.15 TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND THE TYPE OF SCHEME SELECTED BY RELIANCE CUSTOMERS Gender Prepaid Postpaid Grand Total Male 14 12 26 Female 12 10 22 Grand 26 22 48 Total NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) - There is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (H1) - There is association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers. CALCUALTIONS Chi square value = 0.00 Table Value = 3.841 Degrees of Freedom = 1 Probability Value = 0.9614 Level of significance = 5% INFERENCE: It is found from the above analysis that chi square value is less than the table value and hence we accept the null hypothesis. Therefore there is no association between the gender and the type of scheme selected by the RELIANCE customers. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  86. 86. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4.3. FACTOR ANALYSIS TABLE 4.3.1 TABLE SHOWING THE FACTOR ANALYSIS-ROTATED COMPONENT MATRIX Component 1 2 3 4 5 STATEMENT I.A 1.770E-02 .850 4.224E-02 -5.562E-02 .137 STATEMENT I.B 3.840E-02 .862 .156 6.513E-02 .165 STATEMENT II.A -9.405E-02 .148 .311 9.142E-02 .733 STATEMENT II.B .333 7.157E-02 .742 .179 .122 STATEMENT II.C .131 .181 .838 -1.955E-02 .101 STATEMENT III.A -.122 .172 1.007E-02 .779 .101 STATEMENT IV.A .368 -.104 5.147E-02 .659 9.371E-02 STATEMENT IV.B .261 -2.686E-02 .475 .539 7.718E-02 STATEMENT IV.C .384 .419 .219 .393 -.109 STATEMENT IV.D .526 .564 3.604E-02 .243 -.146 STATEMENT V.A .677 5.901E-02 .221 9.234E-02 3.342E-02 STATEMENT V.B .776 7.275E-02 .270 3.962E-02 1.063E-02 STATEMENT V.C .758 -1.270E-03 .175 6.435E-02 -9.057E-02 STATEMENT VI.A .622 .121 -9.875E-02 .224 .612 STATEMENT VI.B .724 .168 -2.552E-02 .109 .483 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a) Rotation converged in 8 iterations. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  87. 87. Projectsformba.blogspot.com FACTOR 1 1. There is an easy access to the customer care centers (nearness). 2. Availability of bill payment centers is extremely good. 3. There is an easy availability of SIM/recharge coupons. 4. There is a huge variety of value added services. 5. It is very easy to use the value added service provided by my service provider. FACTOR 2 1. My service provider’s network coverage is good. 2. Geographical coverage (signal coverage on roaming) is good. FACTOR 3 1. The clarity of sound is good. 2. There is no call cutting / call drop. FACTOR 4 1. Prices are very reasonable when compared to other operators. 2. There is always an easy possibility of choosing different tariff packages. FACTOR 5 1. I have access to network always. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  88. 88. Projectsformba.blogspot.com From the above classification of statements into factors, each factor is given a name to represent the statements below them. FACTOR 1 - CUSTOMER CARE FACTOR 2 - COVERAGE FACTOR 3 - PERFORMANCE FACTOR 4 - PRICING FACTOR 5 - ACCESSABILITY INFERENCE Hence to satisfy a customer these five factors are to be concentrated by cellular service provider to make their service excel its competitors. Projectsformba.blogspot.com
  89. 89. Projectsformba.blogspot.com 4.4. KRUSKAL WALLIS TEST Null Hypothesis (H0) : There is no significant difference between the ranking given by the BSNL customers about the AIRTEL, AIRCEL, BPL, BSNL and RELIANCE service providers. Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : There is significant difference between the ranking given by the BSNL customers about the AIRTEL, AIRCEL, BPL, BSNL and RELIANCE service providers. 4.4.1. Test Statistics H = {12/n (n+1) [(∑R1)2 / n1 + (∑R2)2 / n2 + ………..+ (∑Rk) 2 / nk]} – 3(n+1) Within (k-1) degrees of freedom (k is the number of populations i.e. it is 6 in this case) where: ∑R1, ∑R2……∑Rk are the sums of the ranks of samples 1, 2….k, respectively. n1, n2…nk are the sizes of samples 1, 2…k, respectively. N is the combined number of observations for all samples. The following table shows the Kruskal Wallis test of BSNL customers have ranked the other service providers as well as their own service in comparison with others. Projectsformba.blogspot.com

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