O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
A project report on training and development with reference to hal
<br /> “A Project Report on Training and Development of HAL”<br />Dissertation Submitted <br />In Partial Fulfillment for the<br /> <br />Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management<br />By<br /> <br />Roll No.: <br />Batch <br />IVth Semester<br />Specialization<br />Human Resource<br />NSB SCHOOL OF BUSINESS B-II/1, MCIE, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi<br /> <br /> <br /> ACKNOWLEDGEMENT<br />I take the opportunity to express our gratitude to all the concerned people who have directly or indirectly contributed towards completion of this project. I extend my sincere gratitude towards HAL for providing the opportunity and resources to work on this project.<br />I am extremely grateful to ………………… faculty of NSB School Of Business, whose insight encouraged me to go beyond the scope of the project and this broadened me learning on this project.<br />I also want to show my gratitude to whose insight helped me to complete this project<br /> <br /> <br />PREFACE<br /> The global economy of the day has endangered the survival of every organization and in particular those who want to have a competitive edge over the others. The competitive<br />edge may be a distant dream in the absence of Superior Quality Products which otherwise<br />is the function of well-trained employees. Today resources are scarce and have to be used<br />carefully and trainers of all kinds are required to justify their position and account for<br />their activities. Training activities, which are ill, directed and inadequately focused, do not<br />serve the purpose of the trainers. The trainees or the organization hence identification of<br />training needs becomes the top priority of every progressive organization. Identification<br />of training needs, if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training<br />activities can be considered and will lead to multiskilling, fitting people to take extra<br />responsibilities increasing all round competence and preparing people to take on higher<br />level responsibility in future.<br /> <br /> DECLARATION<br /> <br />I …………………, student of NSB School of Business, New Delhi here by solemnly declare that the project titled “Training and Development of HAL” is my original as all the information, facts and figure in this report is based on my own experience and study during my summer training procedures.<br />Date: <br />PLACE: NEW DELHI <br /> CONTENTS<br /> TOPIC PAGE NO.<br /><ul><li>CHAPTER-1 6-8
Bibliography</li></ul>CHAPTER-1<br />INTRODUCTION<br />Employee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends in itself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth.<br />Training refers to the teaching or learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities, and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.<br />In today’s scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and grow. Employees have become central to success or failure of an organization they are the cornucopia of ideas. So it high time the organization realize that “train and retain is the mantra of new millennium.”<br />SCOPE OF THE STUDY<br />The scope of the study covers in depth, the various training practices, modules, formats being followed and is limited to the company HAL and its employees. The different training programmes incorporated/facilitated in HAL through its faculties, outside agencies or professional groups. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness.<br />OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY<br />The broad objective of the study of training policies in HAL is to study the impact of training on the overall skill development of workers. The specific objectives of the study are:<br />1. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of<br />workforce.<br />2. To examine the impact of training on the workers.<br />3. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training.<br />4. To measure the differential change in output due to training<br />5. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes.<br />EXECUTIVE SUMMARY<br />Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. It is being increasing common for individual to change careers several times during their working lives. The probability of any young person learning a job today and having those skills go basically unchanged during the forty or so years if his career is extremely unlikely, may be even impossible. In a rapid changing society employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force.<br />The entire project talks about the training and development in theoretical as well as new concepts, which are in trend now. Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if we ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the money invested in terms like (ROI) i.e. return on investment. What are the ways we can identify the training need of any employee and how to know what kind of training he can go for? Training being covered in different aspect likes integrating it with organizational culture. The best and latest available trends in training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together. Some of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other to follow as to how to train and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out of it.<br /> CHAPTER-2<br /> HAL AN OVER VIEW<br />MISSION<br />“To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an instrument for achieving self-reliance in design, manufacture and maintenance of aerospace defence equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the business on commercial lines in a climate of growing professional competence "<br />VALUES<br />CUSTOMER SATISFACTION<br />We are dedicated to building a relationship with our customers where we become partners in fulfilling their mission. We strive to understand our customers ' needs and to deliver products and services that fulfill and exceed all their requirements.<br />COMMITMENT TO TOTAL QUALITY<br />We are committed to continuous improvement of all our activities. We will supply products and services that conform to highest standards of design, manufacture, reliability, maintainability and fitness for use as desired by our customers.<br />COST AND TIME CONSCIOUSNESS<br />We believe that our success depends on our ability to continually reduce the cost and shorten the delivery period of our products and services. We will achieve this by eliminating waste in all activities and continuously improving all processes in every area of our work.<br />INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY<br />We believe in striving for improvement in every activity involved in our business by pursuing and encouraging risk-taking, experimentation and learning at all levels within the company with a view to achieving excellence and competitiveness.<br />TRUST AND TEAM SPIRIT<br />We believe in achieving harmony in work life through mutual trust, transparency, co-operation, and a sense of belonging. We will strive for building empowered teams to work towards achieving organizational goals.<br />RESPECT FOR THE INDIVIDUAL<br />We value our people. We will treat each other with dignity and respect and strive for individual growth and realisation of everyone's full potential.<br />INTEGRITY<br />We believe in a commitment to be honest, trustworthy, and fair in all our dealings. We commit to be loyal and devoted to our organization. We will practice self discipline and own responsibility for our actions. We will comply with all requirements so as to ensure that our organization is always worthy of trust.<br />Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile<br />princely State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in 1942.<br />Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design Centers in 7 locations in India. The Company has an impressive product track record – 12 types of aircraft manufactured with in-house R & D and 14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured over 3550 aircraft 3600 engines and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engines. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defense and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects:<br />· Dhruv, which is Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH)<br />· Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)<br />· Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT)<br />· Various military and civil upgrades.<br />HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs by participating in the manufacture of structures for Satellite Launch Vehicles like<br />· PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle)<br />· GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)<br />· IRS (Indian Remote Satellite)<br />· INSAT (Indian National Satellite)<br /> HAL has formed the following Joint Ventures (JVs):<br />· BAeHAL Software Limited<br />· Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL)<br />· Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd<br />· SAMTEL HAL Display System Limited<br />· HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd<br />· HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd<br />· INFOTECH HAL Ltd<br />Apart from these seven, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and Airport Services. Several Co-production and Joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defense Services, Coast<br />Guards and Border Security Forces. Transport Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness.<br />HAL has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, Managerial Performance, Exports, Energy Conservation, Quality and Fulfillment of Social Responsibilities.<br />· HAL was awarded the “INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD” for Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency at the International Summit (Global Rating Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating, UK in conjunction with the International Information and Marketing Centre (IIMC).<br />· HAL was presented the International - “ARCH OF EUROPE” Award in Gold Category in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, Technology and Innovation.· At the National level, HAL won the "GOLD TROPHY" for excellence in Public Sector Management, instituted by the Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE).<br />The Company scaled new heights in the financial year 2006-07 with a turnover of Rs.7,783.61 Crores.<br />HAL PRODUCT PROFILE<br />Su 30 MKI<br />Twin-seater, Multi-role, Long range Fighter / Bomber / Air Superiority Aircraft<br />MiG-27 M<br />Single-seater Tactical Fighter / Bomber with variable sweep wings<br />EJECTION SEAT<br />The Ejection Seat is installed to provide safe escape to the Pilot from the Aircraft while<br />catapuling is effected with the help of a combined Ejection Gun. The Division has the facilities and expertise in the manufacture and overhaul of ejection seats for both MiG-27M and MiG-21 variants.<br />Jaguar International<br />HAL commenced production of Jaguar International - deep penetration strike and battlefield tactical Support Aircraft in 1979 under licence from British Aerospace, including the engine, accessories and avionics.Jaguar aircraft is designed with 7 hard points ( 4 under wing, 2 over wing and 1 under fuselage) capable of.<br />Dhruv (Advanced Light Helicopter)<br />With a proven track record and established technology for manufacture of helicopters and<br />its components, the Helicopter Division commenced series production of Dhruv (Advanced Light Helicopter) in 2000 - 2001. The ALH is a multi-role, multi-mission helicopter in 5.5 ton class, fully designed and developed by HAL. Built to FAR 29 specifications, Dhruv is designed to meet the requirement of both military and civil operators.<br /> Major Features<br />· Designed to perform both utility and attack roles<br />· Twin engine configuration which allows continued flight virtually throughout the flight envelope<br />· Incorporates a number of advanced technologies – Integrated Dynamic System (IDS) , Anti-resonance Vibration Isolation System (ARIS) , Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) , Hingeless Main Rotor, Bearingless Tail Rotor and Automatic Flight Control<br />System<br />· 7 Dhruv Helicopters were delivered to Indian Defence Forces in 2000-2001 Exports :<br />· Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors<br />· Boeing 757 Over Wing Exit Doors<br />· Boeing 777 Uplock Box Assembly<br />· Boeing 767 Bulk Cargo Doors<br />· Boeing 737 Freighter Conversion Kits<br />· BAE Systems – Tornado Pylons<br />· Fokker Aerostructures – F50 Horizontal Stablizers<br />· Boeing -3D-Modelling / Digitisation of Drawings<br />HAL in India<br />Corporate Office<br />· Bangalore<br />Liaison Offices<br />· Mumbai<br />· Delhi<br />· Chennai<br />· Vishakapatnam<br />· Manufacturing Units<br />· Bangalore<br />· Hyderabad<br />· Lucknow<br />· Korwa ( UP)<br />· Koraput (Orissa )<br />· Kanpur<br />· Nasik ( Maharashtra)<br />Design Centers<br />· Bangalore<br />· Hyderabad<br />· Nasik.<br />Liaison Offices out of India<br />· London<br />· Moscow<br />FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS<br />Rupees in Crores<br />Particulars 2007-08 2008-09 Growth over Previous Year<br />Sales 8625 10373 20.27%<br />VOP 8791 11811 34.35%<br />Profit before tax 2164 2335 7.90%<br />Profit after tax 1632 1740 6.62%<br />Gross Block 2255 2638 16.98%<br /> CHAPTER-3<br /> TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT<br />It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.<br />TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT<br />Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.<br />The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.<br />TRAINING DEFINED<br />It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior<br />• It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it<br />• It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there<br />• It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off<br />• It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome<br />• It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it<br />• It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision<br />• It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it<br />Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.<br />Importance of Training and Development<br />• Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.<br />• Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.<br />• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees<br /> • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal<br />• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees<br />• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.<br />• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.<br />• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.<br />• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.<br />• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.<br />• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.<br />• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.<br />• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.<br />• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.<br />• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.<br />TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES<br />The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.<br />Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.<br />Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.<br />Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.<br />Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.<br />Importance of Training Objectives<br />Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives.<br />1. Trainer<br />2. Trainee<br />3. Designer<br />4. Evaluator<br />Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.<br />Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise.<br />Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is Set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.<br />Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.<br />Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.<br />Training and Human Resource Management<br />The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education.<br />Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.<br />Role of HRD Professionals in Training<br />This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:<br />1. Active involvement in employee education<br />2. Rewards for improvement in performance<br />3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth<br />4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training<br />5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training.<br />Models of Training<br />Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).<br />THE TRAINING SYSTEM<br />A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort,<br />one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.<br />The three model of training are:<br />1. System Model<br />2. Instructional System Development Model<br />3. Transitional model<br />System Model Training<br />The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. <br />Model of training are as follows:<br />1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc.<br />2. The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated.<br />3. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.<br />4. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives.<br />5. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.<br />6. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices Instructional System Development Model(ISD)Model Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.<br />The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:<br />1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.<br />2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.<br />3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.<br />4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.<br />5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.<br />The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.<br />Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the<br />defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few<br />years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal<br />transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines<br /> Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the<br />community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.<br /> Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.<br />The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further<br />DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:<br />Training and development go hand in hand and are often used synonymously but there is a difference between them. Training is the process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is an application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behavior. It intends to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job.<br />Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those, which bring about growth of the personality. It helps individual in the progress towards maturity and actualization of potential capabilities so that they can become not only good employees but better human beings.<br /> CHAPTER-4<br /> LEARNING AND TRAINING<br />Irrespective of the type or method of training, a trainer has to keep in mind some of the principles of learning or motivation, which would enhance internationalization of what is taught.<br />PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br /> MOTIVATION<br />Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated. Learning experience must be designed so learners can see how it will help in achieving the goals of the organization. Effectiveness of training depends on motivation.<br /> FEEDBACK<br />Training requires feedback. It is required so the trainee can correct his mistakes. Only getting information about how he is doing to achieve goals, he can correct the deviations.<br /> REINFORCEMENT<br />The principle of reinforcement tells the behaviors that are positively reinforced are encouraged and sustained. It increases the likelihood that a learned behavior well be repeated.<br /> PRACTICE<br />Practice increases a trainee’s performance. When the trainees practice actually, they gain confidence and are less likely to make errors or to forget what they have learned.<br /> INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES<br />Individual training is costly. Group training is advantageous to the organization. Individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude from person to person. Training must be geared to the intelligence and aptitude of individual trainee.<br />OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING<br /> TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY<br />An instructor can help employees increase their level of performance on their assignment. Increase in human performance leads to increase in the operational productivity and also the increase in the profit of the company.<br /> TO IMPROVE QUALITY<br />Better-trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. It can be in relationship to the company or in reference to the intangible organizational employment atmosphere.<br /> TO HELP A COMPANY FULFILL ITS FUTURE PERSONNEL NEEDS<br />The organizations having good internal training and development programmes will have to make less changes and adjustments. When the need arises, vacancies can be easily staffed.<br /> TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE<br />An endless chain of positive reactions result from a well planned training programme.<br /> TO IMPROVE HEALTH AND SAFETY<br />Proper training can prevent industrial accidents. A safer atmosphere leads to<br />more stable attitudes on part of the employees.<br /> PERSONAL GROWTH<br />Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational expressions. Training programmes give them wider awareness and skills<br /> NEED FOR TRAINING<br /> To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they need for definite tasks.<br /> To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to new concepts.<br /> To build a line of competent people and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions.<br /> To reduce the supervision time, wastage and spoilage of new material.<br /> To reduce the defects and minimize the industrial accidents.<br /> To ensure the economical output of the required quality.<br /> To prevent obsolescence.<br /> To promote individual and collective morale, responsibility and cooperative attitudes etc.<br />TRAINING INPUTS<br />There are three basic types of inputs;<br />(i)Skills<br />(ii)Attitude<br />(iii)Knowledge.<br />The primary purpose of training is to establishing a sound relationship is at its best when the workers attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills. Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employee so that they perform their jobs most efficiently and effectively<br />.<br />BEST TIME TO IMPART TRAINING TO EMPLOYEE<br />1. NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANY<br />These have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business activities and personnel policies and provisions, the terms, conditions and benefits appropriate to the particular employee, and the career and advancement opportunities available.<br />2. TRANSFEREES WITHIN THE COMPANY<br />These are people who are moved from one job to another, either within the same work area, i.e. the same department or function, or to dissimilar work under a different management. Under this heading we are excluding promotions, which take people into entirely new levels of responsibility.<br />3. PROMOTIONS<br />Although similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in new surroundings, he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of supervisory or management responsibility. The change is usually too important and difficult to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilities and personal skills necessary for effective performance.<br />4. NEW PLANT OR EQUIPMENT<br />Even the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on which he works. There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process management, as well as for technical service production control and others.<br />5. NEW PROCEDURES<br />Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also for those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which there <br />is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for, say the withdrawal of materials from stores, the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims, there needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances, a note bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient, but there are cases, such as when total new systems in corporating IT up dates are installed, when more thorough training is needed.<br />6. NEW STANDARDS, RULES AND PRACTICES<br />Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by the manager to his subordinates, and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new responsibility. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling. Even the simplest looking instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may not understand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which he now believes to be ‘messing about’, or he may understand the purpose and have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late.<br />7. NEW RELATIONSHIP AND AUTHORITIES<br />These can arise, as a result of management decisions, in a number of ways. In examples, the recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between the section leaders of credit control, invoicing and customer records, although there is no movement of staff between the sections (i.e. no transfers). Although the change in work content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new procedures, there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he stands in the new set up, which is responsible for what, and where to direct problems and enquiries as they arise in the future.<br />8. MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS<br />We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training, for it must be remembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible for standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. Although it is generally agreed that some retraining from time to time, taking varied forms even for the on group of employees, does act as both a reminder and a stimulus, there is not much agreement on the next frequency and form that such retraining should take, of there is as yet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial situations.<br />9. THE MAINTENANCE OF ADAPTABILITY<br />Again, whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those cases where people spend a long time without change, and without the need to learn, there is increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial employment. Add, of course, there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of psychologists.<br />10. THE MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS &<br />STANDARDS<br />Skills in supervising, employee appraisal, communications, leadership etc are important in all companies. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company organisation, culture, employee empowerment and so on. Initial training in these skills is not uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. But continuous training and performance monitoring is rare, despite the common knowledge that standards are as varied as human nature.<br />11. RETIREMENT AND REDUNDANCY<br />Employees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement will benefit from learning about health, social life, work opportunities money management etc. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date, in a few companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required.<br />TYPES OF TRAINING<br />Training is required for several purposes. Accordingly training programmes may be of the following types:<br /> Orientation training: Induction or orientation training seeks to adjust newly appointed employees to the work environment. Every new employee needs to be made fully familiar with his job, his superiors and subordinates and with the rules and regulations of the organization. Induction training creates self-confidence in the employees. It is also knows as pre-job training.<br />It is brief and informative.<br /> Job training: It refers to the training provided with a view to increase the knowledge and skills of an employee for performance on the job. Employees may be taught the correct methods of handling equipment and machines used in a job. Such training helps to reduce accidents, waste and inefficiency in the performance of the job.<br /> Safety training: Training provided to minimize accidents and damage to machinery is known as safety training. It involves instruction in the use of safety devices and in safety consciousness.<br /> Promotional training: It involves training of existing employees to enable them to perform higher-level jobs. Employees with potential are selected and they are given training before their promotion, so that they do not find it difficult to shoulder the higher responsibilities of the new positions to which they are promoted.<br /> Refresher training: When existing techniques become obsolete due to the development of better techniques, employees have to be trained in the use of new methods and techniques. With the passage of time employee may forget some of the methods of doing work. Refresher training is designed to revive and refresh the knowledge and to update the skills of the existing employees. Short-term refresher courses have become popular on account of rapid changes in technology and work methods. Refresher or re-training programmes are conducted to avoid obsolescence of knowledge and skills.<br />METHODS OF TRAINING<br /> ON-THE-JOB TECHNIQUES<br />On the job techniques enables managers to practice management skills, make mistakes and learn from their mistakes under the guidance of an experienced, competent manager. Some of the methods are as:<br />· Job Rotation: It is also referred to as cross straining. It involves placing an employee on different jobs for periods of time ranging from a few hours to several weeks. At lower job levels, it normally consumes a short period, such as few hours or one or two days. At higher job levels, it may consume much larger periods because staff trainees may be learning complex functions and responsibilities. Job rotation for managers usually involves temporary assignments that may range from several months to one or more years in various departments, plants and offices. Job rotation for trainees involves several short-term assignments, that touch a variety of skills and gives the trainees a greater understanding of how various work areas function.For middle and upper level management, it serves a slightly different function. At this stage, it involves lateral promotions, which last for one or more years. It involves a move to different work environment so that manager may develop competence in general management decision-making skills.<br />· Enlarged and enriched job responsibilities:<br />METHODS OF TRAINING<br />ON- THE- JOB METHODS<br />OFF- THE- JOB METHODS<br />By giving an employee added job duties, and increasing the autonomy and responsibilities associated with the job, the firm allows an employee to learn a lot about the job, department and organization.<br />· Job instruction training:<br />It is also known as step-by-step training. Here, the trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. In simple words, it involves preparation, presentation, performance, and tryout and follow up.<br />· Coaching:<br />The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides the feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some duties and responsibilities of the coach and relives him of his burden. A drawback is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.<br />· Committee assignments:<br />Here in, a group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. This develops team work and group cohesiveness feelings amongst the trainees.<br /> OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING<br />It includes anything performed away from the employee’s job area or immediate work area.<br />Two broad categories of it are:<br />· IN HOUSE PROGRAMMES<br />These are conducted within the organizations own training facility; either by training specialists from HR department or by external consultant or a combination of both.<br />· OFF-SITE PROGRAMMES<br />It is held elsewhere and sponsored by an educational institution, a professional association, a government agency or an independent training and development firm. The various off- the- job-training programmes are as follows:<br />· Vestibule training: Herein, actual work conditions are simulated in a classroom. Material, files and equipment those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semiskilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.<br />· Role-playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. This method involves action doing and practice. The participants play the<br />role of certain characters, such as production manager, HR manager, foreman, workers etc. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.<br />· Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instruction organizes the material and gives it to the group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of this method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees.<br />· Conference or discussion: It is a method in training the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. It involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts and data, test assumptions and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. It has an advantage that it involves two way communication and hence feedback is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. Success depends upon the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group.<br />· Programmed instruction: This method has become popular in recent years. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to mere complex levels of instructions. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive and time consuming.<br />EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS<br />Executives are the people who shape the policies, make the decisions and see their implementation in any business organization. They are the president, the vice-president, the managing director, works manager, plant superintendent, controller, treasurer, office managers, engineers, directors of functions such as purchasing, research, personnel, legal, marketing etc.<br />Executive development may be stated as the application of planned efforts for raising the performance standards of high level managers, and for improving the attitudes and activities that enter into or influence their work and their work relations.<br />Following are the steps, which are involved in the development process of executives:<br /> OBJECTIVES<br />The first and foremost step is to define the long- term objectives of training and development of executives.<br /> STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS<br />An inventory of managers is taken with special focus on their strength in terms of managerial skills and other attributes. Their unique capabilities, specialist knowledge and achievements are listed down against each. A comparison with the requirement of the organization will bring the gap in knowledge and skills of existing executive. This is the weakness.<br /> LONG- RANGE PLANS<br />Here the management prepares long-term training and development plans for their executives, which include the annual training targets, the annual budgets and the specific area of training.<br /> SHORT- TERM PROGRAMME<br />This programme specify the duration, starting time, ending time, number of executives being trained, identify the resources etc.<br /> IMPLEMENTATION<br />The training programme envisaged before is put into operation. The actual training is initiated by proper timetable and other arrangements.<br /> EVALUATION<br />In this step, the effectiveness of the executive training programme is evaluated by measuring the improved performance of executives who underwent the programme, on their job. There are various criteria of measuring effectiveness such as validity, reliability etc.<br />EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING<br />An Investor in People evaluates the investment in training and development to assess achievement and improve future effectiveness. Kearns (1994) suggests that there are four groups of ‘measures’ of training effectiveness, which are used by organization.<br />The groups are as follows:<br />- No Measurement<br />- Subjective Measures<br />- Qualitative Measures<br />- Objective Measures<br />The first group, in which no real measurement occurs, includes activities undertaken as an “Act of Faith”, where no form of measurement is attempted, such as initiatives to improve communications in organization, which seem to make people feel good and appear to have worked in some intangible manner. <br />The second group includes subjective responses from trainees/course delegates, as exemplified by the “Happy Sheet”. The main question asked is about how individuals feel after the training. Organizations often make the assumption that positive responses indicate training success and therefore value to the organization. However, course delegates may well give strong positive response scores for a number of reasons, including the presentational skills of the trainer, the quality of the venue, and the “feel good” factor of indulging in a creative work group, and so on. Quality measures appear to be more objective than the previous group, but are often flawed by subjectivity as well. They are typified by questionnaires asking delegates to “put a value on” the likely benefits of a training programme. Objective measures are the only really meaningful ones. However, they challenge the provider of training to demonstrate how their training activities feed through to the “bottom line”: in terms of return on investment and return on the capital employed. There has often been an assumption, in times past,that training somehow “justifies itself”, because it is all about developing people. However, it is incumbent on organizations to look critically at the ways in which they evaluate their training activities, lest they fall prey to the subject approach and are badly caught out when a rigorous analysis of all the functions of the organization’s business is called for. A desirable, if not essential, characteristic of all training programmes is a built-in provision for evaluation.<br />The four main dimensions of evaluation are:<br /> EVALUATION OF TRAINING INPUTS<br />This involves the evaluation of the training curriculum and its sequencing.<br /> EVALUATION OF THE TRAINING PROCESS<br />The climate of the training organization, the relationship between participants and trainers, the general attitude, and approaches of the trainers, training methods, etc are some of the important elements of the training process which also needs to be evaluated.<br /> EVALUATION OF TRAINING OUTCOMES<br />Measuring the carry-home value of a training programme in terms of what has been achieved and how much is the main task of evaluation. This, however, is a complex technical and professional task. Benefits of a training programme are not obvious and they are not readily measurable. Payoffs from training are intangible and rather slow to become apparent. A central problem is the absence of objective criteria and specific definitions of relevant variables by which to measure the effectiveness either of specific programmes or changes in employee behaviour. Nevertheless, the good personnel managers do make an effort to systematically appraise the benefits and results of their programmes.<br />In job-related training, the objective is to train people for specific job skills so that their productivity may increase. Evaluation can be done either to the direct criterion of increase in output or to the indirect criteria of decrease in cost, breakage or rejects. Even more indirect are measures that point out changes in absenteeism or turnover. The most difficult problems of evaluation lie in the area of human relations skill training, which is given to the supervisors and middle- level managers. Supervisory and managerial training programmes are, for this reason, less amenable to objective review procedures. Much subjectivity enters into evaluations of these programmes, since exact standards and criteria are hard to devise.<br /> CHAPTER-5<br /> TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN HAL<br />HAL follows the philosophy to establish and build a strong performance driven culture with greater accountability and responsibility at all levels. To that extent the Company views capability as a combination of the right people in the right jobs, supported by the right processes, systems, structure and metrics. The Company organizes various training and development programmes, both inhouse and at other places in order to enhance the skills and efficiency of its employees. These training and development programmes are conducted at various levels for officers.<br />TRAINING IN HAL<br />HAL provides training to all its employees as per the policy of the organization.<br />PURPOSE OF TRAINING: To ensure availability of trained manpower.<br />SCOPE: All categories of employees<br />IDENTIFICATION OF NEEDS<br />MANAGEMENT STAFF<br />The Performance Appraisal form of the organization has a section in which the training and development needs are filled up. The Individual Officer first identifies the training needs of himself and then it is recommended by the reporting Officer and then by the Departmental Head.<br />The Training needs as identified in the PAR are recorded by the HRD Department and necessary action is taken for imparting the identified training. Training needs are identified based on:<br />- Company’s strategy and policy.<br />- Organizational Thrust Areas.<br />- New Emerging Areas.<br />PREPARATION OF TRAINING PLAN :<br />The training of Executives in HAL is given by :<br />HAL Management Academy a unique body for imparting training to the Executives of HAL & Out side agencies.<br />IMPARTING OF TRAINING<br />Actual training is imparted with the help of in-house and outside agencies. The selection of these agencies is done on the basis of reputation; programmes offered by them, past experience and feedback received from the earlier participants. Training is also imparted by nominating the concerned employee for an external training programme. All records of the training are maintained at branch as per Record of Training in the Personnel folder and the same is intimated to the Executive Office Personnel through the Monthly Personnel Report.<br />FEEDBACK<br />A feedback is taken from the participants through a questionnaire on the programme and their impressions in order to further improve upon the same. There are three such questionnaires available and one of these is used depending upon the nature of the training programme and the level of participants. Also, a person from the personnel department sits through the final session of the programme and takes the verbal feedback about the programme.<br />INDUCTION TRAINING<br />This is carried out as the very first step for any new entrant into Company. The department prepares a schedule for the employee as per which he is required to spend specific time in each department. During such period, he is reporting to the respective department head. The objective of the induction programme is to familiarize the participant to the function of different department. The copies of the same are sent to the General Manager and all concerned. At the end of the induction, the trainee has to submit a report to the Personnel Department.<br />MANAGEMENT TRAINEE’S TRAINING<br />Management trainees are given a fortnight of induction programme. Corporate HR advises it as per Management Trainee Training programme designed by them. Thereafter, a detailed training programme is carried out whereby the incumbent is to understand in depth of working of each department at various locations as per the programme given by the Corporate HR. Corporate HR<br />maintains all relevant records pertaining to Management Trainee’s training at Bangalore.<br />A person gets nominated for the training programme in the following two ways:<br />a) Training programme flowing from the training needs.<br />b) Training programme for testing out the training/ increased awareness/ general information/ omnibus training types etc.<br />TRAINING PROGRAMMES FLOWING FROM TRAINING NEEDS:<br />The programmes are divided into three broad categories:<br />- Functional<br />- Behavioral<br />- General/ Omnibus programmes<br />1. Functional: The outcome of the training is measured by comparing the data pre-training and post-training. A scale is developed for measuring the effectiveness of training based on the % achievement of the objectives.<br />2. Behavioral: The effectiveness of the training of this nature is measured annually. This is seen through the training need identification for the coming year for the employee. If the training need is repeated there, then the training provided is taken as ineffective. If the training need is repeated but with focus on a part of the need, then the training is partially effective. If not<br />repeated, then the training is effective.<br />3. General: These are the training needs flowing directly from the organizational needs. Examples of these can be ISO 9000 training, ISO 14000 training and any awareness training. These are omnibus training programmes, which are run for a large number of employees.<br />The effectiveness of the training is measured by:<br />- Achievement of those organizational objectives within the time lines.<br />- Number of audit issues raised on the areas covered in the training.<br />- Any other such thing as defined in the training brochure.<br />The effectiveness of the outside training programme is measured on the same line as above. However, no detailed brochure is prepared for the same. The measurement criterion for the programme is defined in the beginning of the programme and effectiveness measured against the same. A consolidated effectiveness report of the training programme is prepared at the end of the year. The programmes that are found to be ineffective are reworked.<br />Training programme for testing out the training<br />Also there are training programmes, which are not flowing directly from the training needs measurement of effectiveness of the training is not needed to be measured.<br />CHAPTER-6<br />RESEARCH OBJECTIVES<br />OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY<br />The first & foremost step in any research work is to identify the problems or objectives on which the researcher has to work on.<br />MAJOR OBJECTIVE<br /> To analyze the existing training practices, its effectiveness and recommend measures to improve the training practices in HAL.<br />MINOR OBJECTIVES<br /> To study the frequency of training, training methods and their effects on the trainees and recommend certain measures for improvement.<br /> To understand the present practices enforced in respect of training at the personnel department and recommend any changes if necessary.<br /> To take feedback and analyze the level of satisfaction amongst the employees in respect of training activities and suggest alternatives.<br />RESEARCH METHODOLOGY<br />Every project work is based on certain methodology, which is a way to systematically solve the problem or attain its objectives. It is a very important guideline and lead to completion of any project work through observation, data collection and data analysis .<br />According to Clifford Woody, “Research Methodology comprises of defining & redefining problems, collecting, organizing &evaluating data, making deductions &researching to conclusions.”<br />Accordingly, the methodology used in the project is as follows: -<br /> Defining the objectives of the study<br /> Framing of questionnaire keeping objectives in mind (considering the objectives)<br /> Feedback from the employees<br /> Analysis of feedback<br /> Conclusion, findings and suggestions.<br />SELECTION OF SAMPLE SIZE<br />In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to disturb the functioning of the organization, a sample size of reasonable strength of the Company has been taken in order to arrive at the present practices of training in the Company.<br />Accordingly, 50 officers have been selected at random from all the departments of the organization and feedback forms (questionnaire) have been obtained. The data has been analyzed in order to arrive at present training practices in the organization.<br />SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED<br />The technique of Random Sampling has been used in the analysis of the data/Random sampling from a finite population refers to that method of sample selection, which gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in the entire population to have an equal chance of being included in the sample. This sampling is without replacement, i.e. once an item is selected for the sample, it cannot appear in the sample again.<br />DATA COLLECTION<br />To determine the appropriate data for research mainly two kinds of data was collected namely primary & secondary data as explained below:<br />PRIMARY DATA<br />Primary data are those, which were collected afresh & for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. However, there are many methods of collecting the primary data; all have not been used for the purpose of this project. The ones that have been used are:<br /> Questionnaire<br /> Informal Interviews<br /> Observation<br />SECONDARY DATA<br />Secondary data is collected from previous researches and literature to fill in the respective project. The secondary data was collected through:<br /> Text Books<br /> Articles<br /> Journals<br /> Websites<br />STATISTICAL TOOLS USED<br />The main statistical tools used for the collection and analyses of data in this project are:<br /> Pie Charts<br /> Tables<br />LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY<br />The following are the limitations of the study:<br /> The sample size was small and hence the results can have a degree of variation.<br /> The response of the employees in giving information was lukewarm.<br />SCOPE OF THE STUDY<br />Training Effectiveness is the process wherein the management finds out how effective it has been at training and developing the employees in an organization.<br /> This study gives some suggestions for making the present training and development system more effective.<br /> It gives organization the direction, how to deal differently with different employees.<br /> It identifies the training & development needs present among the employees.<br />DATA ANALYSIS<br />1) How many training programmes have you attended in last 5 years?<br />No. of Programmes No. of Respondents % of Responses<br /> 0-5 20 40%<br /> 6-10 12 26%<br /> 10-15 10 20%<br /> More than 15 8 15%<br /> Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />45% of the officers have attended 6-15 training programmes in the last 5 years, which is an indication of an effective training policy of the organization. However, 40% of the officers have attended only 0-5 training programmes, which needs to be evenly monitored by the organization.<br />2) The programme objectives were known to you before attending it.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 12 25%<br />Moderately agree 20 35%<br />Can’t Say 6 15%<br />Moderately Disagree 2 5%<br />Strongly Disagree 10 20%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />35% of the respondents moderately agree to the fact of knowing the training objectives beforehand, in addition to 25% who strongly agree. But a small population disagrees as 20% strongly disagree to this notion. Training objectives should therefore be made known compulsorily before imparting training in the organization.<br />3) The training programme was relevant to your developmental needs.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 15 30%<br />Moderately agree 20 40%<br />Can’t Say 7 15%<br />Moderately Disagree 5 10%<br />Strongly Disagree 3 5%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />70% of the respondents feel that the training programmes were in accordance to their developmental needs. 15% respondents could not comment on the question and 15% think that the programmes are irrelevant to their developmental needs and the organization must ensure programmes that satisfy the developmental needs of the officers.<br />4- The period of training session was sufficient for the learning.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 15 31%<br />Moderately agree 10 21%<br />Can’t Say 10 21%<br />Moderately Disagree 9 16%<br />Strongly Disagree 6 11%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />52% respondents feel that the time limit of the training programme was adequate but 25% feel that it was insufficient. Also, 21% could not comment on the question. All the respondents though felt that increase in time limit of the programmes would certainly be beneficial and the organization should plan for this to be implemented in the near future.<br />5) The training methods used during the training were effective for understanding the subject.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 10 20%<br />Moderately agree 20 40%<br />Can’t Say 8 15%<br />Moderately Disagree 7 15%<br />Strongly Disagree 5 10%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />40% of the respondents believe that the training methods used during the programmes were helpful in understanding the subject, yet 25% disagree to this notion. The organization should use better, hi-tech methods to enhance the effectiveness of the methods being used during the training programmes.<br />6) The training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 12 25%<br />Moderately agree 20 40%<br />Can’t Say 5 10%<br />Moderately Disagree 8 15%<br />Strongly Disagree 5 10%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />65% respondents believe that the training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience. 10% respondents could not comment on this while 25% differ in opinion. They feel that the training sessions could have been more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.<br />7) The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 10 20%<br />Moderately agree 12 25%<br />Can’t Say 18 35%<br />Moderately Disagree 7 15%<br />Strongly Disagree 3 5%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />40% of the respondents believe that the training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness, yet 20% disagree to this notion. 35% respondents did not comment on the issue. Yet the total mindset of the respondents was that the organization should use better scientific aids to enhance the presentation and acceptance value of the training programme.<br />8) The training was effective in improving on- the- job efficiency.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 8 15%<br />Moderately agree 15 30%<br />Can’t Say 10 20%<br />Moderately Disagree 10 20%<br />Strongly Disagree 7 15%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />45% respondents believe that the training programmes increase their job efficiency but 35% disagree to this. The view of the respondents were towards having more technological and current topics for the training programmes which could help them satisfy their creative urge and simultaneously increase their on-the-job efficiency.<br />9) In your opinion, the numbers of training programmes organized during the year were sufficient for officers of HAL.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 5 10%<br />Moderately agree 7 15%<br />Can’t Say 13 25%<br />Moderately Disagree 5 10%<br />Strongly Disagree 20 40%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />25% respondents have the opinion that the frequency of the training programmes is sufficient but 50% of the respondents differ to this. They believe that the number of training programmes organized in a year should be increased and some in house training programmes should also be organized by the organization regularly.<br />10) Please suggest any changes you would like to have in the existing training programmes.<br />The major suggestions for changes in the existing training programmes are as follows:-<br /> The frequency of the training programmes organized in a year should be increased.<br /> The duration of the training sessions should be amplified.<br /> New programmes for personal as well as professional development of the officers should be developed.<br /> Officers should be referred for the training programmes as per their developmental needs.<br /> The training programmes should be organized outside the office in order to avoid disturbance in the work.<br /> Some training sessions should also be organized in house for the officers who find it difficult to attend them if held outside the office premises.<br /> Better presentation technologies should be used in order to increase the effectiveness of the programmes.<br /> The course curriculum for the training programmes should be current in terms of the new developments in the world.<br />10) How many training programmes have you attended during the last year?<br />No. of Programmes No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Upto 2 31 62%<br />3-5 12 25%<br />6-8 6 10%<br />More than 8 1 3%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />35% of the workers have attended 3-8 training programmes in the last year, which is the clue of a useful training policy of the organization. However, 62% of the workers have attended only 0-2 training programmes, which should be effectively seen by the organization. Also, every worker should be given chances to attend as many training programmes as possible.<br />11) The training given is useful to you.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 24 47%<br />Moderately agree 12 24%<br />Can’t Say 6 13%<br />Moderately Disagree 6 13%<br />Strongly Disagree 2 3%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />71% of the respondents feel that the training programmes were useful. 13% respondents could not comment on the question and 16% think that the programmes were irrelevant to their objective of being useful. The organization must ensure programmes that are useful and prove to cater to the developmental needs of the workers.<br />12) The time limit of the training programme was sufficient.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 9 18%<br />Moderately agree 18 34%<br />Can’t Say 6 13%<br />Moderately Disagree 7 15%<br />Strongly Disagree 10 20%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />42% respondents feel that the time limit of the training programme was adequate but 35% feel that it was insufficient. Also, 13% could not comment on the question. All the respondents though felt that increase in time limit of the programmes would certainly be advantageous and the organization should take some steps in this direction.<br />13) The time limit of the training programme, if increased would make it more effective.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 23 45%<br />Moderately agree 10 20%<br />Can’t Say 5 10%<br />Moderately Disagree 10 20%<br />Strongly Disagree 2 5%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />65% respondents feel that the increase in the duration of the training programmes would be beneficial but 25% differ to this opinion. Going by the majority, the organization should make required changes to increase the duration of the programmes and also take the opinion of the workers to have an effective training session.<br />14) The training was effective in improving your on-the-job efficiency.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 19 37%<br />Moderately agree 13 25%<br />Can’t Say 6 13%<br />Moderately Disagree 7 15%<br />Strongly Disagree 5 10%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />62% respondents believe that the training programmes increase their job efficiency but 25% disagree to this. The respondents were of the opinion that having current topics for the training programmes and also some sessions by an external faculty would help them increase their on the job efficiency.<br />15) The training aids used were effective in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme.<br />Options No. of Respondents % of Responses<br />Strongly agree 13 25%<br />Moderately agree 5 10%<br />Can’t Say 15 30%<br />Moderately Disagree 10 20%<br />Strongly Disagree 7 15%<br />Total 50 100%<br />INTERPRETATION<br />35% respondents believe that the training aids were effective in improving the overall efficiency of the programme. Contrary to this, 35% disagree and 30% could not comment on the issue. The organization should ensure positive awareness about the training aids used. Also, the use of better presentation aids should be facilitated.<br />CHAPTER-7<br />QUESTIONNAIRE<br />Dear Sir / Madam<br />I am a student of NSB School of Business. I am doing my IVth semester of PGDBM. As part of my curriculum I have selected the subject “Executive Training and Development at Aircraft Division” as my project work. Thus, I am submitting my questionnaire to your kind opinion. This questionnaire is only for the study purpose.<br />Thanking you<br />Yours Faithfully<br />Manjari Baranwal<br />PERSONAL DATA ( OPTIONAL)<br />NAME:<br />DESIGNATION:<br />QUALIFICATION:<br />EXPERIENCE:<br />QUESTIONNAIRRE ON EXECUTIVE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN HAL, AIRCRAFT DIVISION<br />1) How many training programmes have you attended in last 5 years?<br />0-5<br />6-10<br />10-15<br />More than 15<br />2) The programme objectives were known to you before attending it.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />3) The training programme was relevant to your developmental needs.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />4) The period of training session was sufficient for the learning.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />5) The training methods used during the training were effective for understanding the subject.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />6) The training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />7) The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />8) The training was effective in improving on- the- job efficiency.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />9) In your opinion, the numbers of training programmes organized during the year were sufficient for officers of HAL.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />10) How many training programmes have you attended during the last year?<br /> Upto 2<br /> 3-5<br /> 6-8<br /> More than 8<br />11) The training given is useful to you.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />12) The time limit of the training programme was sufficient<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />13) The time limit of the training programme, if increased would make it more effective.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />14) The training was effective in improving your on-the-job efficiency.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />15) The training aids used were effective in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />16) The number of training programmes organized for workers in a year are sufficient.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />17) The participation of workers in training programme would help increase its effectiveness.<br /> Strongly agree<br /> Moderately agree<br /> Can’t Say<br /> Moderately Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />CHAPTER-8<br />CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS<br />The major findings of the project are enumerated as follows:<br /> Training is considered as a positive step towards augmentation of the knowledge base by the respondents.<br /> The objectives of the training programmes were broadly known to the respondents prior to attending them.<br /> The training programmes were adequately designed to cater to the developmental needs of the respondents.<br /> Some of the respondents suggested that the time period of the training programmes were less and thus need to be increased.<br /> Some of the respondents also suggested that use of latest training methods will enhance the effectiveness of the training programmes.<br /> Some respondents believe that the training sessions could be made more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.<br /> The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the training programmes.<br /> The training programmes were able to improve on-the-job efficiency.<br /> Some respondents also recommended that the number of training programmes be increased.<br />CHAPTER-9<br />RECOMMENDATIONS<br />Based on the data collected through the questionnaire and interactions with the Officers of HAL the following recommendations are made for consideration:<br /> The organization may utilize both subjective and objective approach for the training programmes.<br /> The organization may consider deputing each employee to attend at least one training programmes each year.<br /> The In-house training programmes will be beneficial to the organization as well as employees since it will help employees to attend their official work while undergoing the training.<br /> The organization can also arrange part time training programmes in the office premises for short durations, spanning over a few days, in order to avoid any interruption in the routine work.<br /> The organization can arrange the training programmes department wise in order to give focused attention towards the departmental<br />CHAPTER-10<br />BIBLIOGRAPHY<br /><ul><li> Effective Planning in Training and Development Leslie Rae