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Pricing
Pricing is not a math problem 
It's a judgment problem
Toast 
© Harrison Metal
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
© Harrison Metal
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
© Harrison ...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
How much would you pay? 
○ Toaster 
○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer 
○ Faster wa...
Dualit Classic Toaster 
© Harrison Metal
Dualit Classic Toaster 
$259.95 
© Harrison Metal
How might we think about pricing? 
● Standard model of supply and demand is powerful. It has some very nice 
features for ...
... in a different way? 
● Behavioral economics offers helpful modifications to the standard model 
○ Intuition and reason...
Standard model - classical economics 
Paul Samuelson 
Daniel Bernoulli 
Milton Friedman 
Adam Smith 
© Harrison Metal
Standard model - supply & demand 
Price 
Quantity 
Supply 
Demand 
p 
q 
© Harrison Metal
Nice features - demand 
Price 
Downward sloping demand curves 
based on utility and preference 
Quantity 
Demand 
p 
q 
El...
Nice features - supply 
Price 
Quantity 
Supply 
p 
q 
Based on marginal costs of production 
and variable cost per unit 
...
Nice features - rational actors 
Price 
Quantity 
Supply 
Demand 
p 
q 
Buyers and sellers use reason to make 
decisions t...
Problems with the standard model 
● In new markets preferences and utility have not been 
established, therefore no demand...
The psychologists 
Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky 
© Harrison Metal
Behavioral economics helps 
Kahneman and Tversky described a compound cognitive system, where intuition and reason operate...
Behavioral economics helps 
Buyers make hard decisions by accessing mental anchors like substitutes or complements, and st...
How do we sort all this out? 
© Harrison Metal
Synthesis 
Core truths of the standard model 
+ Insights into humans of the behaviorists 
+ Practical tools that help mana...
Four tools 
● Map out your product's substitutes and complements -- 
they anchor your buyers' thinking in S1 
● Design wit...
#1: Substitutes and complements 
These are the highly accessible anchoring ideas that your buyers fall back on when they t...
#2: Intuitive and rational thinking 
● Intuitive (S1): immediate, automatic thoughts that "lean in" or "push back" 
● Rati...
#3: Value-based pricing 
○ Dolan's genius was to identify two 
separate gaps that drive product 
decisions 
○ He accidenta...
Robert Dolan's genius 
$0 
Cost 
© Harrison Metal
Robert Dolan's genius 
$0 
Price 
Cost 
© Harrison Metal
Robert Dolan's genius 
$0 
Perceived value 
Price 
Cost 
© Harrison Metal
Robert Dolan's genius 
$0 
Perceived value 
Price 
Cost 
Incentive 
to sell 
© Harrison Metal
Robert Dolan's genius 
$0 
Perceived value 
Price 
Cost 
Incentive 
to buy 
Incentive 
to sell 
© Harrison Metal
Robert Dolan's genius 
○ Dolan's genius was to 
identify two separate 
gaps that drive product 
decisions 
○ Price > cost ...
Dualit Classic Toaster 
$0 
Substitutes, analogs, 
values, vanity, insecurity, 
aspirations, features, 
messaging, brand, ...
#4: Build assortments for the win 
Horizontal 
Assortment 
Vertical 
Assortment 
Optional add-ons 
© Harrison Metal
#4: Build assortments for the win 
Best 
Better Still 
(decoy) 
Better 
Good 
Vertical 
© Harrison Metal
#4: Build assortments for the win 
Best 
Better Still 
(decoy) 
Anchor your brand 
Vertical Increase conversion by increas...
#4: Build assortments for the win 
Apples 
(segment 1) 
Increase conversion by increasing utility 
per transaction (real o...
Horizontal assortment increases utility and conversion rate (shifts demand curve out) 
© Harrison Metal
Horizontal assortment in house dresses, Sears catalog, 1903 
© Harrison Metal
Horizontal assortment in BB guns, Daisy, 1950s 
© Harrison Metal
Vertical assortment (good, better, best) captures more of the area under the demand curve 
© Harrison Metal
Vertical assortment in Teddy Bears, 1909 
Idea #2 
Good-Better-Best Wins 
© Harrison Metal
Vertical assortment in "talking machines," early 20th century 
© Harrison Metal
#4: Build assortments for the win 
Horizontal 
Assortment 
Vertical 
Assortment 
Optional add-ons 
© Harrison Metal 
Optio...
Improve your pricing judgment 
Buyer's anchors 
Substitutes Complements 
Intuitive (S1) Rational (S2) 
Perceived 
value 
$...
Applying the Toolkit 
The Case of the Dualit Toaster 
© Harrison Metal
Nice features - wealth, utility, risk 
People's utility from changes in wealth can be measured and used to assess risk. 
U...
Behavioral economics helps 
Buyer's intuition is dominated by reference dependence and loss-aversion. This creates the 
"e...
Dualit Classic Toaster 
○ Stainless steel with a lever to lower, raise 
bread 
○ Mechanical timer allows the degree of 
to...
#1: Substitutes and complements 
The target user is an affluent, status-conscious household where the key decision-maker g...
#2: Intuition and reason 
Intuition POV (S1) Reasoning POV (S2) 
Demand side ● High-status kitchen 
● High performance 
ap...
#3: Value-based price prototype 
$0 
Perceived value 
~$130 wholesale 
~$72 mfg. cost 
W-S incentive 
to distribute 
Duali...
#4: Build assortment 
© Harrison Metal
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Harrison Metal's Michael Dearing on Pricing

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In this Heavybit Speaker Series Presentation, Harrison Metal's Michael Dearing discusses the finer points of multivariate pricing and go-to-market strategy for developer companies. Former SVP and General Merchandise Manager at eBay and now Harrison Metal founder Michael Dearing has dedicated his life to helping companies productize emerging technologies, build go-to-market strategy, and perfect their product marketing and pricing.

Video available here: http://www.heavybit.com/library/developer-go-to-market/video/2013-07-16-michael-dearing

Publicada em: Tecnologia
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Harrison Metal's Michael Dearing on Pricing

  1. 1. Pricing
  2. 2. Pricing is not a math problem It's a judgment problem
  3. 3. Toast © Harrison Metal
  4. 4. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster © Harrison Metal
  5. 5. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer © Harrison Metal
  6. 6. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice © Harrison Metal
  7. 7. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting © Harrison Metal
  8. 8. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting ○ Bagel setting to warm one side and toast the other © Harrison Metal
  9. 9. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting ○ Bagel setting to warm one side and toast the other ○ Award-winning ProHeat elements guaranteed for two years © Harrison Metal
  10. 10. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting ○ Bagel setting to warm one side and toast the other ○ Award-winning ProHeat elements guaranteed for two years ○ Superlative quality, hand-assembled in England © Harrison Metal
  11. 11. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting ○ Bagel setting to warm one side and toast the other ○ Award-winning ProHeat elements guaranteed for two years ○ Superlative quality, hand-assembled in England ○ Iconic design, stainless steel costs manufacturer $130 to make it © Harrison Metal
  12. 12. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting ○ Bagel setting to warm one side and toast the other ○ Award-winning ProHeat elements guaranteed for two years ○ Superlative quality, hand-assembled in England ○ Iconic design, stainless steel costs manufacturer $130 to make it ○ Dualit brand, available at Williams-Sonoma © Harrison Metal
  13. 13. How much would you pay? ○ Toaster ○ Mechanical timer lets you get exactly the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting ○ Bagel setting to warm one side and toast the other ○ Award-winning ProHeat elements guaranteed for two years ○ Superlative quality, hand-assembled in England ○ Iconic design, stainless steel costs manufacturer $70 to make it ○ Dualit brand, available at Williams-Sonoma ○ It's the same toaster that Queen Elizabeth uses at Buckingham Palace © Harrison Metal
  14. 14. Dualit Classic Toaster © Harrison Metal
  15. 15. Dualit Classic Toaster $259.95 © Harrison Metal
  16. 16. How might we think about pricing? ● Standard model of supply and demand is powerful. It has some very nice features for understanding pricing ○ Downward sloping demand curves, utility and preference ○ "Elasticity" that links change in quantity to change in price ○ Supply curves, marginal costs of production and variable unit costs ○ Buyers and sellers use reason to make decisions ● But the standard model is less useful when managing pricing ○ New markets where demand is highly uncertain ○ Software, digital services where variable unit costs approach zero ○ Markets where humans make decisions only partly based on reason © Harrison Metal
  17. 17. ... in a different way? ● Behavioral economics offers helpful modifications to the standard model ○ Intuition and reasoning operate together in a compound system ○ "Utility" is reference-dependent and loss-averse ○ Complex decision-making is simplified using prototypes as anchors, and accessible analytic techniques ● You can use four simple tools to improve your pricing judgment ○ Map substitutes and complements for your product ○ Design for both the intuitive and the rational p.o.v. of users ○ Create value-based prototypes (perceived value > price) ○ Build assortments to probe demand and increase conversion © Harrison Metal
  18. 18. Standard model - classical economics Paul Samuelson Daniel Bernoulli Milton Friedman Adam Smith © Harrison Metal
  19. 19. Standard model - supply & demand Price Quantity Supply Demand p q © Harrison Metal
  20. 20. Nice features - demand Price Downward sloping demand curves based on utility and preference Quantity Demand p q Elasticity of demand (% change in q / % change in p) p' q'
  21. 21. Nice features - supply Price Quantity Supply p q Based on marginal costs of production and variable cost per unit © Harrison Metal
  22. 22. Nice features - rational actors Price Quantity Supply Demand p q Buyers and sellers use reason to make decisions that maximize their own utility © Harrison Metal
  23. 23. Problems with the standard model ● In new markets preferences and utility have not been established, therefore no demand curves ● In software and digital services, variable costs and marginal costs may approach zero, makes supply curves behave in weird ways ● Dis-utility from losses is not proportional to utility from gains ● Human psychology is burdened with / blessed by perception and intuition alongside reason © Harrison Metal
  24. 24. The psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky © Harrison Metal
  25. 25. Behavioral economics helps Kahneman and Tversky described a compound cognitive system, where intuition and reason operate together Intuition (S1) Reason (S2) ● "Trusting plausible judgment" ● Fast (like perception) ● Automatic (like perception) ● Quickly accesses prototype answers and suppresses uncertainty ● Low processing cost, low cognitive load ● Prone to errors ● Careful, based on doubt ● Slower, more effortful ● Accesses stored analytic techniques and methods ● Higher processing costs, higher cognitive load ● Good at monitoring S1 but only if prompted to investigate Source: "Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioral Economics," Daniel Kahneman's lecture December 8, 2002 when he received the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, Stockholm, Sweden. Reprinted in The American Economic Review, vol 93, no 5 (December 2003). © Harrison Metal
  26. 26. Behavioral economics helps Buyers make hard decisions by accessing mental anchors like substitutes or complements, and stored analytic methods (in that order) "I don't know if I should buy this product. What does it remind me of?" S1: "It's kind of like that other product I bought that time." S2: "Nothing comes to mind. What tools can I use to decide?" Substitutes Complements Stored, accessible analytics Breakeven Expected value Downside calculation Switching cost calculation NPV Others... or © Harrison Metal
  27. 27. How do we sort all this out? © Harrison Metal
  28. 28. Synthesis Core truths of the standard model + Insights into humans of the behaviorists + Practical tools that help managers make better judgments = A better way to manage pricing © Harrison Metal
  29. 29. Four tools ● Map out your product's substitutes and complements -- they anchor your buyers' thinking in S1 ● Design with the buyer's intuitive (S1) and rational (S2) thinking in mind ● Prototype a value-based price for your product (perceived value > price) ● Build an assortment around to probe demand curve and increase conversion © Harrison Metal
  30. 30. #1: Substitutes and complements These are the highly accessible anchoring ideas that your buyers fall back on when they think about your new product using S1 Substitutes Complements Without your product, how would your target user solve this problem? ○ Do nothing ○ Buy a competitor's product ○ Jury rig a DIY solution ○ Eliminate the underlying problem ○ Hire someone to deal with it ○ Keep using your earlier version of the product What are the other products you'd expect to find in nature alongside your product? ○ A left shoe to go with a right shoe ○ Printer with a desktop computer ○ Cocktail table with a sofa ○ Github subscription with a Heroku account © Harrison Metal
  31. 31. #2: Intuitive and rational thinking ● Intuitive (S1): immediate, automatic thoughts that "lean in" or "push back" ● Rational (S2): careful, effortful analytic tools that monitor S1 ● To make a sale, bolster S1 or call on S2 to influence decision-making Intuitive (S1) Rational (S2) Buyer's POV Anchor ideas / prototypes / analogies Endowment state they don't want to lose Loss aversion Household budget constraint Personal utility function Breakeven analysis Competitive price-value NPV © Harrison Metal
  32. 32. #3: Value-based pricing ○ Dolan's genius was to identify two separate gaps that drive product decisions ○ He accidentally created a tool for S2 to monitor S1 $0 Substitutes, complements, status, current endowment, vanity, insecurity, aspirations, features, brand, references, etc ... Perceived value Price Cost Incentive to buy Incentive to sell © Harrison Metal
  33. 33. Robert Dolan's genius $0 Cost © Harrison Metal
  34. 34. Robert Dolan's genius $0 Price Cost © Harrison Metal
  35. 35. Robert Dolan's genius $0 Perceived value Price Cost © Harrison Metal
  36. 36. Robert Dolan's genius $0 Perceived value Price Cost Incentive to sell © Harrison Metal
  37. 37. Robert Dolan's genius $0 Perceived value Price Cost Incentive to buy Incentive to sell © Harrison Metal
  38. 38. Robert Dolan's genius ○ Dolan's genius was to identify two separate gaps that drive product decisions ○ Price > cost is a given ○ Perceived value > price is a true insight $0 Perceived value Price Cost Incentive to buy Incentive to sell © Harrison Metal
  39. 39. Dualit Classic Toaster $0 Substitutes, analogs, values, vanity, insecurity, aspirations, features, messaging, brand, references, etc ... Perceived value Price Cost Incentive to buy Incentive to sell © Harrison Metal
  40. 40. #4: Build assortments for the win Horizontal Assortment Vertical Assortment Optional add-ons © Harrison Metal
  41. 41. #4: Build assortments for the win Best Better Still (decoy) Better Good Vertical © Harrison Metal
  42. 42. #4: Build assortments for the win Best Better Still (decoy) Anchor your brand Vertical Increase conversion by increasing utility Better Good per transaction (real or perceived) Capture more of the area under the demand curve © Harrison Metal
  43. 43. #4: Build assortments for the win Apples (segment 1) Increase conversion by increasing utility per transaction (real or perceived) Oranges (segment 2) Pears (segment 3) Best Better Still (decoy) Better Good Vertical Horizontal Anchor your brand Capture more of the area under the demand curve © Harrison Metal
  44. 44. Horizontal assortment increases utility and conversion rate (shifts demand curve out) © Harrison Metal
  45. 45. Horizontal assortment in house dresses, Sears catalog, 1903 © Harrison Metal
  46. 46. Horizontal assortment in BB guns, Daisy, 1950s © Harrison Metal
  47. 47. Vertical assortment (good, better, best) captures more of the area under the demand curve © Harrison Metal
  48. 48. Vertical assortment in Teddy Bears, 1909 Idea #2 Good-Better-Best Wins © Harrison Metal
  49. 49. Vertical assortment in "talking machines," early 20th century © Harrison Metal
  50. 50. #4: Build assortments for the win Horizontal Assortment Vertical Assortment Optional add-ons © Harrison Metal Optional add-on features increase margin, utility, and improve price "customization"
  51. 51. Improve your pricing judgment Buyer's anchors Substitutes Complements Intuitive (S1) Rational (S2) Perceived value $0 Price Cost Apple Best Bette r Good Horizontal Vertical Orange Pear 1 2 3 Value-based 4 Assortment prototype Buyer's cognitive system © Harrison Metal Bette r still
  52. 52. Applying the Toolkit The Case of the Dualit Toaster © Harrison Metal
  53. 53. Nice features - wealth, utility, risk People's utility from changes in wealth can be measured and used to assess risk. Utility Daniel Bernoulli (1732) Wealth loss Wealth gain Source: "Exposition of a New Theory on the Measurement of Risk," Daniel Bernoulli, 1738. Translated from Latin to English by Louise Sommer in Econometrica, vol 22, issue 1 (January 1954). © Harrison Metal
  54. 54. Behavioral economics helps Buyer's intuition is dominated by reference dependence and loss-aversion. This creates the "endowment effect" -- a tendency to overestimate the pain of a potential loss Utility Daniel Bernoulli (1732) Wealth loss Wealth gain Kahneman & Tversky (1991) Source: "Exposition of a New Theory on the Measurement of Risk," Daniel Bernoulli, 1738. Translated from Latin to English by Louise Sommer in Econometrica, vol 22, issue 1 (January 1954); "Maps of Bounded Rationality: Psychology for Behavioral Economics," Daniel Kahneman's lecture December 8, 2002 when he received the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, Stockholm, Sweden. Reprinted in The American Economic Review, vol 93, no 5 (December 2003). © Harrison Metal
  55. 55. Dualit Classic Toaster ○ Stainless steel with a lever to lower, raise bread ○ Mechanical timer allows the degree of toasting you prefer ○ Faster warm-up ensures perfect browning right from the first slice ○ Defrost setting for frozen bread before toasting ○ Bagel setting to warm one side and toast the other ○ Superlative quality, hand-assembled in England ○ Iconic design, costs manufacturer $72 to make it ○ It's the same toaster that Queen Elizabeth uses at Buckingham Palace © Harrison Metal
  56. 56. #1: Substitutes and complements The target user is an affluent, status-conscious household where the key decision-maker gets her or his self-esteem from the quality of the kitchen Substitutes Complements Without your product, how would your target user solve this problem? ○ Do not eat toast ○ Buy a toaster at Target or amazon that looks sort of like this one but isn't ○ Toast in the oven ○ Delegate decision to the cook ○ Keep using the old toaster and hide it in the cupboard What are the other products you'd expect to find in nature alongside your product? ○ Sub-zero refrigerator ○ Bread bought at local bakery ○ Calphalon pots and pans ○ Henckels knives © Harrison Metal
  57. 57. #2: Intuition and reason Intuition POV (S1) Reasoning POV (S2) Demand side ● High-status kitchen ● High performance appliances ● Basic functionality is excellent ● Style points for design ● Heritage of the product ● Household budget = $25k / month, 30% discretionary ● Lasts 3x longer so $/slice is not so bad Supply side ● Aspire to be the premier brand forever ● German brands must be crushed ● 100 years of leadership ● Premium position is more important than volume ● Rely on high-end retailers to bring to market ● Unit cost = $72 fully loaded ● Retailer needs to make 50% margin ● Revenue growth ● Customer segmentation © Harrison Metal
  58. 58. #3: Value-based price prototype $0 Perceived value ~$130 wholesale ~$72 mfg. cost W-S incentive to distribute Dualit incentive to make $259.95 retail Consumer incentive to buy © Harrison Metal
  59. 59. #4: Build assortment © Harrison Metal

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