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Chapter 1 Part 1

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For ENGL 3150 Online

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Chapter 1 Part 1

  1. 1. 1 Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
  2. 2. Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 2 1) What did Barry Marshall and Robin Warren claim in their technical letters in the Lancet? 2) What did Marshall claim at the conference? 3) Who would such a claim affect? 4) How was this claim received? At what point did it become accepted? Why? 5) How long did it take for Marshall and Warren to win the Nobel Prize? Questions
  3. 3. Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 3 1) The methods/science itself (4) -Marshall admitted that he was more interested in curing patients than in developing adequate methods and conducting large clinical experiments. He though clinical success of patients would be good enough. 2) Adherence to conventions of the field (5) -Marshall induced acute gastritis in himself to prove that it could be cured with antibiotics. This made critics even more skeptical. 3) Prevailing assumptions in scientific disciplines (5) -Stomach had been considered too acidic for bacteria to survive The Shaping of Knowledge in Science Science is accepted and rejected because of:
  4. 4. Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 4 1) Scientific beliefs and assumptions are “social” in nature 2)Communication is central to the growth of scientific knowledge 3) Persuasion is an integral part of scientific communication 4) Scientific fields are governed by explicit conventions about how and what to communicate 5) Collaboration and cooperation are central to the development of scientific theories, research, and knowledge The Shaping of Knowledge in Science Five important points about how science is shaped (6)
  5. 5. Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 5 1. Science is shaped by the values of the dominant culture (assumptions, goals, biases, problems) The Social Nature of Science
  6. 6. Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 6 2. Scientists in a discipline constitute a community (who develop systems of assumptions and beliefs that govern the way we think) a. Consider the nine-dot problem b. Kuhn’s “gestalt” switch The Social Nature of Science
  7. 7. Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 7 3. “Paradigms” (Kuhn) are learned tacitly through observation and imitation and explicitly through education, textbooks, and specific practices. a. Marshall was “outside the current paradigm” (8) Students of science engage in learning paradigms b. Paradigms constrain thinking; yet they also provide support and context for discovery c. Discovery of new paradigms is reliant upon previous paradigms The Social Nature of Science
  8. 8. Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 8 4. Science often involves subjective dimensions (value-laden judgments, personal desires, personality, and style) (pages 8 – 9) a. Subjective and personal must be validated by social convention b. “Paradigm shift” occurs when values of a community shift towards new assumptions— known commonly as a “scientific revolution” (Thomas Kuhn) c. What is a recent paradigm shift? The Social Nature of Science
  9. 9. 9 Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 9 1. Centrality? Isn’t the science itself central? Without communication, science becomes personal, redundant, and futile (10) The Centrality of Communication in Science 2. “Communication is the engine that drives the social mechanism” of science (10) 3. Credit is given to the scientist who communicates a discovery first a. Royal Society of London (17th Century) credited for urging publication and protecting the rights of an author b. Goal was to have open communication among scientists
  10. 10. 1010 Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 10 4. Publishing quickly has become a common practice a. Watson and Crick’s letter about the double- helix structure of DNA in Nature is a famous example b. Learning to write quick and well is imperative in science 5. Peer review is the gatekeeping mechanism in science The Centrality of Communication in Science
  11. 11. 1111 Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 11 6. Funding agencies (NSF, Dept. of Energy, National Institute of Health) oversee who gets money to conduct research (12) 7. “Pre-publication” is when scientists publish something outside of peer review just to get their name on the research 8. Papers must be tailored to journal editors—they must also be accessible and testable, following scientific method that tests hypotheses (12) The Centrality of Communication in Science
  12. 12. 1212 Science as a Social Enterprise (Part 1) Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 12 9. Francis Bacon known for instigating the idea of replication to address untrustworthiness of the senses (13) 10. Hypotheses, theories, experiments, and results are primarily presented, obtained, and critiqued through publication The Centrality of Communication in Science

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