Not Feeling Normal (e.g. :- I don’t feel right)
Specific Symptoms (e.g. :- physiological /
Specific Illness (e.g. :- Cancer, Cold, Depression)
Consequences of Illness (e.g. :- I cant do, what I
The absence of Health (e.g. :- Not being healthy)
IDENTITY (Diagnosis, Symptoms)
CONSEQUENCES (The possible effects)
TIMELINE (How long it will last?)
CAUSE (What caused the illness?)
CONTROL (How and whether it can be treated?)
When faced with the problem of
illness, the individual will therefore
develop coping strategies in an
attempt to return to a state of
In psychology, coping is expending
efforts to solve personal and
interpersonal problems, and seeking to
master, minimize or tolerate stress or
Health related behavior is one of the
most important element in people’s health
and well being. Health behavior is any
activity people perform to maintain or
improve their health, regardless of their
perceived health status or whether the
behavior actually achieves that goal.
• These are self
• Behaviors that cause
illness and lead to
Abuse of illicit drugs
Health promoting behavior change is a key outcome
of many health promotion programmes ; however
behavior change is complex and involves many
An awareness of these factors is essential when
planning, implementing and evaluating health
promotion programmes. It is difficult to develop
appropriate coping strategies unless the reasons why
individuals and populations behave in certain ways
These are the factors that influence health either
positively or negatively and may include:Heredity
Access to health care system
Recognizes the strong influence of society on health
and that some group of people, due to their positions
and role in their societies do not have equitable
access to resources that they need to ensure good
Berkman and Kawachi (2007)- Most behaviors are
not randomly distributed in the population. Rather
they are socially patterned and often cluster with one
WHO identifies 10 key social determinants
described by Wilkinson and Marmot
Social Gradient / Class
You might lose your friends – analyze the situation
in a positive way.
Talk about your problems but not all the time.
Some friends can take advantage of your present
situation and drain you emotionally.
Surround yourself with people with whom you feel
great and avoid those who make you feel low or
Very much depressed? Seek a professional help.
Accept the reality and be enthusiastic about life
Stay depressed and
keep on complaining
OK for short
In long term
will take you
Make most of your life
with all your limitations
Best for long
For e.g. :- Cancer patients with positive attitude live
longer than those who become very depressed.
Same applies to other illnesses and disabilities.
Start thinking about your strengths rather than
concentrating on your limitations.
Talk to them about your problems they don’t get
bored as they are suffering from same illness.
You can learn how others are dealing with it.
People support each other.
Doesn’t solves the problem naturally but they can
help overcome some of the unpleasant sides of life.
Don’t think “Y ONLY ME?”
WHO IS THE MOST PRECIOUS PERSON IN YOUR
But, there can be times when even they can let you
down. “THE ONLY PERSON YOU CAN TRUST IS YOU”.
So, take care of yourself and keep yourself as
healthy as possible.
You cant cure your illness but you can learn how to
live your life to the best.
Do what you like, develop an interest / a hobby.
Nobody will praise you for coping with your illness
so praise yourself each day… “WELL DONE FOR
COPING SO WEEL”.
But, the problem is you don’t feel like exercising
because you experience too much pain, stiffness and lack
However, it helps to ease stiffness/muscular pain.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO FIND RIGHT EXERCISE.
Do not expect immediate results.
Aerobic exercise stimulates and strengthens the heart
and lungs, improves body utilization of oxygen.
A mere 30 minutes of exercise a day can decrease the
risk of chronic disease including heart disease and some
cancers including breast cancer.
64%- men, 72%-women do not have any regular
leisure time source of physical activity.
2/3rds of older adults are not as active as they
Surprising fact- health practitioners do not
uniformly recommend physical exercise to their
patients who could especially benefit from it; yet
studies show that a physician recommendation is one
of the fact that lead people to increase their exercise
(Calfas et al., 1997).
Diet effects health through an individual’s weight in
terms of the development of eating disorders/obesity.
Eating disorders - physical problems (heart
irregularities, heart attacks, reproduction, etc).
Obesity – diabetes, heart diseases, some forms of
Some researches suggest a direct link between diet
and illness (heart diseases, cancer and diabetes).
Diet also has a role to play in treating illness once
Don’t go for drastic diets to lose weight
Very often people who lose weight after dieting gain
it back sooner or later.
This is more dangerous for health.
It is important to eat regularly.
Include all food groups in your diet.
Follow a health and well balanced diet.
Salt has been linked to hypertension and to
cardiovascular disease in some individuals.
Dietary habits have also been implicated in the
development of several cancers, including
colon, stomach, pancreas and breast (Potter et
40% of chances increase for cancer due to diet
Changing the diet can improve health.
For e.g. :- a diet high in fiber may protect against
obesity and cardiovascular disease by lowering insulin
When our body senses danger it prepares flee in
which case our heart rate increases.
Experiencing such states too often affects our
SLOWER THE HEART RATE LONGER THE LIFE WILL
There are several techniques to calm down
influencing heart in a positive way.
Try & live in HARMONY with everyone.
Prayers have a positive effect and keep you
They work very much like hypnosis.
Make it simple- Thank God for everything you have.
Praying is all about making you a happier and
It is also well known that people who would
worship God regularly live healthier, longer and
happier lives- this is because of social contact and
support from people over there.
THEY GIVE FULL
ATTENTION ON THE
BEHVAIOUR AND BODY
LANGUAGE AND THEN
WHOM TO TAKE.
AT THE TIME OF
THEY CHECK THEIR
HISTORY AND THEY
DO NOT PREFER
THOSE PEOPLE WHO
ARE SUFFERING FROM
ANY KIND OF
Even if they select such kind of people they keep
in mind that they make proper arrangements for
For e.g. :- If someone is ASTHEMATIC they will
keep in mind about this deficiency.
And they also do have a clinic in their campus
TV, radio, newspaper and magazines plays a
vital role in creating awareness among people.
Help them knowing about the negative
consequences activities such as
smoking, drinking, etc.
These are some sources through
which we get information.
People interested in promoting their health have
frequent access on all internet of health promotion
People can learn how to avoid health problems, and
if they become ill, they can get the detailed
information about it over the internet.
Government apply public policy and legal
approaches to reduce per capita income consumption
of tobacco alcohol and drugs by creating awareness to
buying and using them.
Prohibiting underage persons from buying or
For preventing drug use, the main approaches have
been to outlaw possessing. Selling and consuming
awareness program to every
class of people through
WHO is a specialized
agency of the UN that is
concerned with the
international public health.
Providing leadership on the matters of critical to
Setting norms and standards promoting and
monitoring the implementation.
Providing technical support and building sustainable
Monitoring the health situation and assessing
Through statistics we can see that India still needs to
invest enough for the better health condition .
• Screening : Origin : Medical sciences.
• It is a strategy used in a population.
• AIM : To identify an unrecognized disease in
individuals without signs or symptoms.
• To identify disease in a community early, thus
enabling earlier intervention and management in
the hope to reduce mortality and suffering from a
• Universal screening involves screening of all
individuals in a certain category (for example, all
children of a certain age).
• Case finding involves screening a smaller group
of people based on the presence of risk factors
(for example, because a family member has
been diagnosed with a hereditary disease).
• Mass screening : Mass screening means, the
screening of a whole population or a subgroup. It
is offered to all, irrespective of the risk status of
• High risk or selective screening : High risk
screening is conducted among risk populations
• Multiphasic screening : It is the application of two
or more screening tests to a large population at
one time instead of carrying out separate
screening tests for single diseases.
The condition should be an important health problem.
There should be a treatment for the condition.
Facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be available.
There should be a latent stage of the disease.
There should be a test or examination for the condition.
The test should be acceptable to the population.
The natural history of the disease should be adequately
• There should be an agreed policy on whom to treat.
• The total cost of finding a case should be economically
balanced in relation to medical expenditure as a whole.
• Case-finding should be a continuous process, not just a
"once and for all" project.
• Screening can involve cost and use of medical
resources on a majority of people who do not need
• Adverse effects of screening procedure (e.g. stress
and anxiety, discomfort, radiation exposure, chemical
• Stress and anxiety caused by a false positive screening
• Unnecessary investigation and treatment of false
• Stress and anxiety caused by prolonging knowledge of
an illness without any improvement in outcome.
• A false sense of security caused by false
negatives, which may delay final diagnosis.
• Screening targets the nature of health
- It helps in the PREVENTION of illness.
- It helps in the PREVENTION of dysfunction in
currently healthy person.
- It helps in the maintenance of good health.
- It helps in the treatment of the illness.
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