2. Food and Beverage cycle
This book is meant to be a guide to all hotel personnel in food and beverage service who
are involved in the day-to-day training of staff either part-time. Furthermore, it ensures a
uniform system of training inputs. It also acts as a self-study guide to any individual who
wishes to develop himself/ herself in the vocation of a waiter or restaurant supervisor.
The book was developed after understanding the problems that personnel in hotel and
restaurant operations face in imparting training.
Some of these problems are:
Non-availability of training material
Limited time to prepare a lecture
Limited time to train
Not knowing what to teach
Not knowing how much to teach
Not knowing the sequence in which to teach
The material and design of the manual facilitate a “trainer” at a moments notice, or an
individual who need spare just half-an-hour a day, to execute a programme.
Here is a brief introduction to the approach of the manual. After a thorough “job analysis”
of the position in food and beverage outlets, the job positions are divided into two
sections- The waiter and the Supervisor. Each is broken into three aspects that are
important in the development of an individual-Knowledge, Skills, Attitude.
Knowledge Pertains to all cognitive inputs directly or indirectly connected with a
job. These inputs act as a background to skill functions to enable a job to be done
Skill Concentrates on the methodology of doing a particular activity manu-ally or
through the use of motor functions coordinated with other senses.
Attitude Deals with the psychology desired of staff. Each person comes with his own
values and ideas, which may not be conducive to organizational efficiency. Changing the
thinking is as important as knowledge and skill.
At the end of some the lessons the appropriate Training Methodology and Training Aids
that should be employed have been mentioned as a guide to “trainers”
3. Food and Beverage cycle
Training Methodologies and Aids
Part I The Waiter
Lesson 1 The Restaurant 13
Lesson 2 Basic Etiquette for Restaurant Staff 15
Lesson 3 Knowledge of Other Departments 16
Lesson 4 The Menu 19
Lesson 5 Grooming 20
Lesson 6 Service Equipment 21
Lesson 7 Briefing 21
Lesson 8 Preparation for Service 27
Lesson 9 Safety 31
Lesson 10 Sanitation and Hygiene 32
Lesson 11 Food Service 33
Lesson 12 Breakfast 36
Lesson 13 The Cover 38
Lesson 14 Beverage Service 39
Lesson 15 Taking an Order 41
Lesson 16 Preparing a check and Receiving Payment 44
4. Food and Beverage cycle
Counsel 1Ability to Overcome Resistance to do Manual or Menial Work 44
Counsel 2 Willingness to serve 45
Counsel 3 Capacity to Take Orders from seniors 45
Counsel 4 cheerful attitudes towards work and people 46
Counsel 5 Cordial Relations with All-Interaction 46
Counsel 6 Pride in Work 47
Counsel 7 Tact and Initiative 47
Counsel 8 As representative of the organization 47
Counsel 9 Honesty 48
Counsel 10 Courtesy 48
Counsel 11 Negative Attitudes 50
Part II The Restaurant Supervisor
Lesson 1 Alcoholic Beverages 52
Lesson 11 Non-Alcoholic Beverages 54
Lesson 12 Food Preparation 56
Lesson 13 Sauces 58
Lesson 14 Soups 61
Lesson 15 Cheeses 63
Soft or Cream Cheeses
Lesson 16 Tobacco 65
Varieties of Tobacco
Lesson 17 Menu 72
Lesson 18 Sales Orientation 73
Lesson 19 Discipline 75
Lesson 20 Cost Reducing Methods 76
Lesson 21 Briefing 77
Lesson 22 Training Your Team 78
Lesson 23 Tip Distribution 79
Lesson 24 Staff Scheduling 79
5. Food and Beverage cycle
Lesson 25 Performance Appraisal 80
Lesson 26 Assignment of Duties 81
Lesson 27 Attendance 82
Lesson 28 Check Point for Supervisor 83
Lesson 29 After closing 84
Lesson 30 Carving 84
Lesson 31 Banquets 85
Lesson 32 Flaming 91
Lesson 33 Special Food Service 92
Counsel 1 Leadership 94
Counsel 2 Motivation 95
6. Food and Beverage cycle
“Hotel” or “Inn” is defined by British law as “a place where a bonafide traveler can
receive food and shelter, provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition
to be received.” Hence, a hotel must provide food (and beverage) and lodging to travelers,
on payment and has, in turn, the right to refuse if the traveler is drunk, disorderly,
unkempt or is not in a position to pay for the services.
The hotel industry is perhaps one of the oldest commercial endeavors in the world. The
first inns go back to the sixth century B.C. and were the products of the urge to travel,
spurred by the invention of the ‘wheel’. The earliest inns were ventures by husband and
wife teams who provided large halls for travelers to make their own beds and sleep on the
floor. They also provided modest wholesome food, thirst quenchers like wine, port, ale,
etc. and stabling facilities. Entertainment and recreation were provided by the host’s wife
or his wench. The entire cooking, service and recreation was provided by the husband and
wife team and his family.
These conditions prevailed for several hundred years. The advent of the industrial
Revolution in England brought ideas and progress in the business of inn keeping. The
development of railways and steamships made traveling more prominent. The Industrial
Revaluation also changed travel from social or government travel to business travel.
There was a need for quick and clean service.
The lead in hotel keeping was taken by the emerging nations of Europe, especially
Switzerland. It was in Europe that the birth of an organized hotels industry took place in
the shape of chalets and small hotels which provided a variety of service and were mainly
patronized by the aristocracy the day.
The real growth of the modern hotel industry took place in the USA beginning with the
opining of the City Hotel in New York in 1794. This was the first building specifically
erected for hotel purposes. This eventually led to great competition between different
cities and resulted in frenzied hotel building activity. Some of the finest hotels of USA
were built in this era, but the real boom in hotel building came in the twenties. This period
also saw the beginning of chain operations under the guidance of E.M. Statler. It involved
big investments, big profits and trained professionals to manage the business.
The depression in 1930 had a disastrous effect on the hotel industry. It was felt that the
industry would never recover; but the outbreak of World War II brought a tremendous
upsurge. This prosperity continued through the war years into the fifties when two new
concepts emerged: (a) Motels; (b) International chain operation. While the growth of
motels was restricted to the North American continent, international chain operation
spread into all continents. Individual entrepreneurs found themselves crushed in the race
of this mult-dimensional, multinational industry. International chains could provide the
expertise, technology and marketing thrust that individual owners could not provide.
Individual owners thus merged themselves to large international chains such as Sheratons,
7. Food and Beverage cycle
Hiltons, Hyatt, Holiday Inn, Ramada Inn, and etc. These international chains provided the
following services to individual owners:
A. Partnership ـــ sharing equity profits.
(b) Franchise ــــ providing “Name” and “Association”, marketing services in exchange
for franchise and marketing fees.
(c) Management ـــــ expertise in management, professional managers, technicians,
manuals, systems, etc. on the basis of management fees and share of profits as “incentive”
(d) Marketing ـــــ active selling, chain benefits, reservation tie-up, etc. on payment for
marketing fees and “incentive” payment.
Today’s hotel caters to all the needs and wishes of a guest and we hope the future holds a
promise for a further mushrooming of modern hotels.
8. Food and Beverage cycle
Training Methodologies and Aids
Training methodology is the way in which knowledge, skills and attitudes are imparted to
trainees, whereas training aids are the implements used during the methodology. Here are
explanations of methodologies and aids suggested in this manual.
Ideas expressed orally. It is a one-way communication from trainer to
Guided physical movement into work areas. Trainees get a chance to see
Used for skill training where a trainer actually does a skill activity while
A chance for trainees to do, under simulated conditions, what they are
taught in a lecture or demonstration.
The best form of training where the trainees come into groups with actual
A theoretical experience of actual situations. A case is a written explanation
of a true situation, which is solved in a classroom only.
A simulated experience of actual situations. Here trainees approach a
situation in a class by actually enacting the role of the principal characters
in the situation.
Used for attitude training. A personal meeting when a trainee is made to see
the benefits of a correct attitude.
9. Food and Beverage cycle
For classroom lectures. It requires chalk and a blackboard duster.
Charts, which are sequenced according to the progression of lecture. The
charts are hung in this sequence on a stand, which facilitates the charts to be
A modern concept, which combines the benefits of a blackboard with a
projector. The trainer writes on a transparent sheet and the matter is
projected onto a screen.
One in which slides are inserted into a slide tray according to a particular
sequence. This tray is inserted into a projector, which flashes each slide
according to the sequence. The trainer controls the change of slides from
one to another. Movement of slide trays may be linear or round. The round
variety is called a “carousal”.
A projector, which is unique. It can project any written material on an
opaque sheet or flat surface.
Self-explanatory. A few of the actual items, which are being lectured on,
and are brought for trainees to actually feel and see.
Note: The best aid in any lecture is the sample of the actual being described.
10. Food and Beverage cycle
Every hotel, irrespective of size or volume of business, two major revenue producing
areas- rooms and restaurants (and bars). The latter offer food and beverages for sale. In
common hotel terminology the services offered in restaurants and bars are referred to as
“food and beverage service”. This manual deals with the training of the food and
beverage service personnel. The most important person, around whom food and beverage
service pivots, is the waiter.
Who is a Waiter? A waiter is one who serves food and beverage in a restaurant in a
restaurant or bar. He is also popularly known as a Steward or
Commis-de-Rang. A good waiter should possess qualities like
social confidence, good etiquette and manners, effective
communication, a pleasing personality, salesmanship, a willingness
to serve, and above all, a thorough knowledge of his job.
Typical Job Description of a Waiter
1. Attend briefing before a restaurant service
4. 4. Requisition restaurant items for service, e.g. linen, glassware , cutlery, flowers,
5. Clear silverware and glassware
6. Prepare each table for service
7. Receive and seat guests
8. Take beverage orders and serve
9. Take food orders and serve
10. Serve wine and champagne
11. Present a check (or bill) and receive payment
12. Ensure cost control
14. Ensure hygiene and sanitation
This manual attempts to teach a waiter how to do his job well. For this he requires correct
knowledge, skills and attitudes. The subsequent lessons elucidate the knowledge, skill and
attitudes that a waiter should possess to execute his job.
11. Food and Beverage cycle
TRAINING AID Submit the job description of a waiter of your establishment.
Lesson The Restaurant
Arestaurant is a commercial establishment committed to the sale of food and beverage. A
restaurant may be a licensed part of a Hotel operation, whereby the sales of the restaurant
contribute to the sales performance of the hotel as a whole. Restaurants may also be
independent business entities under individual ownership and management. Basically,
restaurants provide tables and chairs for people to sit and eat food prepared by an attached
kitchen. They are equipped with crockery, cutlery and linen, which are determined, by its
décor, independent bar, entertainment facilities and above all, the quality of service.
There are different types of restaurants.
A concept borrowed form the United States, distinguished by its quick service. Food is
pre-plated and the atmosphere informal. Table cover layouts are less elaborate and have
basic essentials only.
The atmosphere is more sophisticated and caters for people who can eat at leisure. The
accent is on good continental food and elaborate service.
12. Food and Beverage cycle
The entire atmosphere and décor are geared to a particular type of food or theme. Thus
restaurants, which offer Chinese, Japanese, Indian and Polynesian cuisine
would be termed “specialty restaurant”. The service is based more or less
on the style of the country from which the particular cuisine originates.
Various meat cuts are grilled or roasted here. Normally, a grillroom has a glass partition
between the restaurant and the kitchen, so that the guest can choose his meat cut and see
the actual preparation.
Found in smaller hotels, motels or inns who find it uneconomical to have more than one
eating-place. The dining room is basically meant for the residents of the hotel but may be
open to non-residents also.
Snack Bar/Café/Milk Bar
Here the restaurant is informal and the service quick. The snack bar may have a counter
for self-service and specializes in snacks, soda fountain specialties, ice cream, etc. the
décor is relatively inexpensive.
A restaurant, which is principally meant for dancing to, recorded music. A live band may
also perform. An essential part of a discotheque is a bar while the food offered consists
mainly of snacks.
It is principally open at night for dinner, dance and cabarets. A dispensing bar is always
provided. Décor is lavish while service is elaborate. A live band is important to the set-up.
Most establishments insist on formal wear so as to enhance the atmosphere.
The above is board information on the types of restaurants. What the waiter needs to
know is the type of restaurant he will work in and facilities and services that it provides.
Thus, explain the following to your waiter:
1. The type of restaurant that he will work in.
2. Floor plan of the restaurant (Fig.1 gives a typical floor plan).
3. Capacity of the restaurant in terms of the number of seats and
4. Facilities offered in the restaurant such as entertainment,
credit, type of menu such as a la carte, table d’hote, buffet,
liquor service, etc.
13. Food and Beverage cycle
5. Type of clientele patronizing the restaurant: business, tourists,
students and socialites.
6. The organizational hierarchy the restaurant (seeFig.2).
Follow up with an induction tour of the restaurant.
1. Flip chart of floor plan of your restaurant
2. Flip chart of organizational hierarchy (Fig.2).
Fig.2 Organization Hierarchy of a Restaurant
Lesson Basic Etiquette for
2 Restaurant Staff
The hotel and restaurant business is an admixture of showmanship, diplomacy and
sociability. All front line personnel are required to have an ability to communicate
effectively coupled with certain manners and the etiquette associated with genteelness.
The etiquette that a waiter exhibits in a restaurant should comprise the following:
1. Attend to guests as soon as they enter the restaurant.
2. Assist guests to remove warm, heavy coats in winter and help put them on when they leave.
3. Wish guests the time of the day and welcome them to the restaurant.
4. Preferably address them by their name, which requires remembering them.
5. Be polite to guests.
6. Help to seat ladies.
Chef De Rang
Commis De Rang
Commis De Barasseur
14. Food and Beverage cycle
7. Provide extra cushions or special chairs for children.
8. When speaking to guest, do not interrupt him if he is speaking to another guest.
9. Do not overhear conversation.
10. Avoid mannerisms such as touching hair or nose picking, etc.
11. Stand erect at all times. A gentle bow at the time of service is permissible.
12. Remember a guest’s special dish and remind him that you know it. Ascertain whether he
would like to order it again.
13. Be attentive to guest calls.
14. Talk softly.
15. Strike a match to enable a guest to light his cigarette.
16. Avoid arguing with service staff and guest in the restaurant.
17. Carry pencils in the pockets and not behind ears or clipped in front of the jacket.
18. Desist from chewing gum or beetle nut.
19. Present the bill/check to the host discreetly in order to avoid embarrassing him.
20. Avoid soliciting for tips.
21. Remove tips after the guest has left.
22. Enter and leave the restaurant through the service door only.
The trainer should observe etiquette during actual service and point
out any lapses at the end of the service.
Rules and regulations booklet of the hotel/restaurant
Lesson Knowledge of other
A restaurant depends largely on certain departments effective functioning. Smooth co-
ordination is important. A waiter must be fully aware of the role of each co-coordinating
department. Though most departments mentioned below are applicable to a hotel,
individual restaurants may also find some useful tips.
15. Food and Beverage cycle
The kitchen is the place where food is prepared. While larger kitchens may have distinctly
different sections to deal with various aspects of food preparation, smaller kitchens may
have different functions done by a single person. The main sections in a large kitchen are:
Butcher Shop: Here raw meats are cut from wholesale cuts and carcasses into smaller
portions of given weight so that they are ready to be cooked.
Grade Manger: The section where cold dishes such as hors d’oeuvres, cold meat platters,
salads, galantines, and pates are made.
Bakery and Confectionery: The section, which prepares breads, bread-rolls, croissants,
brioches, cakes, pastries, muffins, cookies, ice creams.
Hot Range: The main cooking range where all hot dishes are prepared.
Grill: For all grilled items like steaks, fish, chops, etc.
Vegetable Preparation: Here all raw vegetables are cut into smaller presentable portions.
Still Room: Tea and coffee are brewed here. A still is a chamber in which water is
continuously boiling. For tea service a waiter may fill the teapot with tea leaves according
to portions required and fill the pot with boiling water from the still. For a quick turnover
of tea, the still may brew tea continuously, at low temperatures. The same applies to
coffee service where ground coffee is brewed and instant coffee is placed in coffee pots to
which water is added.
Or Wish-up Area
This department primarily controls the storage and issue of cutlery, crockery, hollowware,
chinaware and glassware to the restaurant and kitchens. The waiter would have to get his
supplies of the above items from this department. The department is also responsible for
washing soiled service ware and subsequently furnishing clean items. The sanitation and
hygiene of the kitchen usually comes under the purview of the kitchen stewarding
Bar The bar dispenses wines, liquor, spirits, juices, aerated waters,
cigars and cigarettes.
The housekeeping department is responsible for the cleanliness, maintenance and the
aesthetic standards of a hotel. A waiter should know that the housekeeping department is
the source for staff uniforms, restaurant linen and flowers.
Cashier (from the Accounts department)
The cashier receives all cash and credit payments made for food and beverage sales in a
restaurant or bar.
This department is responsible for the supply of air-conditioning or heating, lighting,
mechanical and electrical functioning of any service equipment in the restaurant.
16. Food and Beverage cycle
This is the central point where all checks or bills of hotel residents are collected and then
recorded in their overall bill. The front office keeps a record of all guests residing in the
hotel. If a resident wishes to sign his bill, the waiter may contact this department for
confirmation of the guest’s name and room number.
The source from which a waiter can get supplies of proprietary sauces, order-pads,
pencils, bottle-openers or any other-supplies. Large hotels would have separate General
stores, Food stores, Beverage stores and Perishable stores.
Explain the role of these departments in your establishment. In addition take the waiter on
an induction tour. It is important that the procedure of requisitioning items Kitchen
Stewarding, Housekeeping and Stores are explained thoroughly. A popular system
adopted in most hotels is that the requisitioning department originates a store requisition,
which records the following information: unit, quantity, and description of item, unit
Usually three copies made:
Copy- stores- controls/accounts
copy- retained by stores for record
copy- retained by originating requisitioning department.
Present flip charts of the organizational hierarchy of each coordinating department.
Typical organization charts are given in Figs.3A, 3B, 3C and 3D.
TRAINING AIDS (1) Flip chart with organization hierarchy of each
(2) Flip chart with process flow of coordinating activity.
Fig.3A Organization chart of Kitchen Stewarding.
Utility Worker Dish Washer Pot Washer
17. Food and Beverage cycle
Fig.3B Organization Chart of Housekeeping
Fig.3C Organization Chart of Front office
Lesson The Menu
18. Food and Beverage cycle
A menu represents the range of food and beverage items offered in a restaurant. When the
menu is represented on a card, it is referred to as the menu Card. Great pains are taken in
compiling the menu card, which should not only be attractive but informative and
gastronomically sound as this reflects the quality of the restaurant. In a restaurant there
are two different types of menus, which they are priced:
A la Carte Menu in which each food item is separately priced in order to give
the guest a choice to suit his taste and budget. The choices offered
in various courses are many.
Table d’hote Menu in which the entire meal is priced and charged, irrespective of
whether the guest has the complete meal or not. Sometimes there
are choices of individual courses within a completely priced meal.
A restaurant may offer two table d’hote menus a guest have a
choice of a meal.
The classical French menu consists of eleven courses. The number
of courses are restricted in modern times to an appetizer, soup,
main dish and sweet dish. Coffee may be served after it. A course
is a food item eaten at a particular time and sequence during a
Hors d’oeuvres Appetizers Oysters, smoked
Potage Soup Crème of tomato soup,
Poisson Fish Fish a l’anglaise,
Sole de Bonne Femme
Entrée First meat dish Noisette
Releve Main meat dish Pepper steak,
Sorbet Flavoured ice Sorbet vanilla
(cigars may be offered at this stage)
Roti Roast of game birds Roast turkey,
19. Food and Beverage cycle
Legumes Vegetables Tomato farcis
Entremets Sweet dish Baba au
rhum, crepe suzette, choux chantilly
Savoureux Savoury Cheese and
Dessert Dessert Fruit and nuts
Distribute copies of the menu card of your restaurant to waiters and
explain the following:
1. The various food and beverage items on your menu card.
2. The price of various items mentioned in the menu.
3. Briefly how each food item is prepared and how it finally looks
when presented to the
4. The garnish and accompaniments of each dish.
TRAINING AIDS Copies of the menu card of your restaurant.
Grooming is one of the most important features of a waiter. Since he is in direct contact
with the guest of the restaurant, he projects the standards of the establishment. A well-
groomed waiter represents qualities such as hygiene, sanitation, professionalism and the
style of management of his establishment. Here are some tips for a waiter:
1. Hair should be cut close.
2. The uniform should be spotless and well ironed. A tight or
oversized uniform gives a sloppy appearance.
3. Nails should be well manicured and hands absolutely clean.
This is important especially since the waiter serves the guest
with his hands and is under constant surveillance.
4. Guard against body odours or the smell of cheap perfumes.
5. Shoes should always be polished, and of a conservative style.
6. A close shave is necessary before entering the restaurant.
Stubbles of beard or moustache could be look uncomely.
7. Bad breath could be nauseating to a guest since the waiter
speaks to the guest at close proximity.
1. The apron and hairband should always be clean.
2. High heels could be hazardous during service. Flat shoes with
sturdy heels are advisable.
3. Stockings should be clean.
20. Food and Beverage cycle
4. Light make-up to project a professional working lady’s image
5. Excessive jewellery should be avoided.
6. A very strong perfume could nauseate a guest. A fresh light
cologne would be preferable.
Solicit the trainee's ideas on the qualities of a good waiter and list on the blackboard or
overhead projector. Their ideas should be checked with the points given above.
Follow up learning on subsequent days by pointing out lapses in grooming.
Lesson Service Equipment
Service equipment (which includes furniture, fixtures and linen for all purposes) squarely
reflects the standard and style of the restaurant. Several factors are considered when they
1. Standard of the restaurant
2. Types of service
3. Décor and theme of the restaurant
4. Type of clientele
5. Durability of equipment
6. Ease of maintenance
7. Availability after stocks run out
9. Flexibility of use
10. Price factors
For multipurpose use, most equipment is standardized in terms of size and sometimes
1. Tablecloths: To fit 2’6” square table ــــ 54”x 54”
To fit 3’ square table ـــ 72”x72”
To fit rectangular table ــــ 72”x96”
21. Food and Beverage cycle
To fit rectangular table ــــ 72”x54”
2. Slip cloth: To cover a stained table cloth ـــ 36”x36”
3. Serviettes/Napkins: Square ــــ 18”x18”
4. Buffet cloths: ــــ 6’x12”
Food and beverage service equipment may be divided into chinaware, glassware and
tableware, which are further subdivided into flatware, cutlery and holloware.
It is made of silica, soda ash and china clay, glazed to give a fine finish. It should be
opaque and free from air-bubbles. Chinaware can be found in different colours and
designs, which are always coated with glaze. Patterns on top of the glaze ware and
discolour very quickly. Chinaware is more resistant to heat than glassware.
Examples of Chinaware with Standard Sizes:
Side plate 6.75” diameter
Sweet plate 7”and 8.5” diameter
Fish plate 8” diameter
Soup plate 8.75” diameter
Joint plate 10” diameter
Cereal/Salad palate 5” diameter
Coffee cup 8-10 oz. Volume
Tea cup 6.23 oz. Volume
Coffee Demi-Tasse 3.13 oz. Volume
Tea pot 12 pint, 1 pint, 1.12 pint, 2 pint
22. Food and Beverage cycle
Some Tips on Chinaware
1. Vitrified chinaware is stronger.
2. It has a high breakage rate and therefore needs careful handling.
3. Should be stored on shelves.
4. Should be stacked carefully so that it does not topple over.
5. Should be stored at a convenient height to avoid accidents.
6. Should be kept covered to avoid dust and germs.
The raw materials used are silica and soda ash. Lead is added to make the glass crystal
clear. When purchasing glassware it should be ensured that it is completely transparent,
free of air bubbles and not chipped. Glasses are measured in terms of capacity, i.e. ounces
or centiliters. Restaurant glassware is usually plain except in specialty restaurants, where
they may be coloured.
Some Tips on Glassware
1. Glasses should be stored inverted in single rows, with a paper on the shelf to avoid
2. Racks with individual compartments for each glass is a better method for storage (as they
can be stacked) and transported. These racks are plastic or rubber lined.
3. In a restaurant, glasses must be transported on trays with a tray cloth to avoid slippage.
4. Glasses with a stem must be inverted and held by the stem.
5. Service glasses must be cleaned and held against a light before use for traces of smudges,
Keep ready samples of furniture, linen, chinaware, glassware and
tableware. Show these samples when taking about them.
1. Standard restaurant chair
2. Standard restaurant tables of different shapes and sizes.
3. One samples each, of all types of chinaware, glassware and
4. Stem glasses to demonstrate how they are carried.
5. Flip charts with items not available in the establishment.
23. Food and Beverage cycle
Tableware Table service consists of the following items, and when to use
(a) Soup spoon : Soup served in plates
(b) Fish knives and forks : Fish/ Hors d’oeuvers
(c) Large knives and forks : Entrée/ Main course
(d) Dessert spoons& forks : All sweet served in plates/Oeuf Sur le plat
(e) Dessert spoons : Soup served in cups/ cereals
(f) Small fruit knives & forks: Fresh fruits
(g) Coffee spoons : Coffee
(h) Teaspoons : Tea/ fruit cocktails/ice-cream served
o as" Coupes”/grapefruit, oeufon
(I) Service spoons &forks : For service
(j) Steak knife : Steaks
(k) Grapefruit knife : Grapefruit
(l) Egg spoon : Eggs
(m) Cheese knife : Cheese
a. Soup tureens
b. Individual soup bowls
d. Oval flat with lids
e. Oval or round vegetable dishes with lids
f. Oval or round under dish for vegetables
g. Soufflé cases
h. Oval or round entrée dishes
i. Oval or round dishes for entrée
j. Round flats with covers
k. Asparagus dish
l. Water jug
m. Muffin dish
n. Cocktail juice container
Sliver for serving Drinks:
A. Salver for serving
B. Salver for clearing
24. Food and Beverage cycle
C. Ice tongs
D. Ice buckets
E. Champagne bucket with stand
Still room Silver:
a. Coffee pots
b. Hot milk jug (creamer)
c. Tea pots
d. Hot water jugs
e. Cream jugs (creamer)
f. Toast racks
A. Sugar tongs
B. Asparagus tongs
C. Oyster forks
D. Finger bowls
E. Set of cruets
F. Ice-cream spoons
G. Sauce ladles
H. Soup ladles
I. Butter dishes
J. Snail tong
K. Snail fork
L. Fondue fork
M. Caviar knife
N. Sundae spoon
O. Ice-cream spoon
P. Pastry fork cum knife
Q. Corn on cop holder
R. Lobster pick
S. Butter knife
T. Grapefruit spoon
U. Cheese knife
V. Nut cracker
W. Gateaux slice
X. Steak knife
Soup plate-8 ¾”
25. Food and Beverage cycle
Entrée plate-9 ¾ ”
Hors d’oeuvre/fish/entrée courses/soups under plate
Meat or fish plate-10” main course
Sweet plate-often the 8 ½” plate is used. Sweets/Puddings.
Dessert or fruit plate-7 ¼ ”
Side plate-6 ¾ ”
Soup plate-7 ½ oz
Tea cups-6 ½ ”
Coffee cups-8-10 oz
Demi tasse cup-3 ½ oz
French onion soup bowl
Special Food Service Equipment
Oil, vinegar bottle
Oval au gratin
Burner for dishes
Irish coffee burners
26. Food and Beverage cycle
Stirring spoon and bowl
Punch bowl and ladle
Get one sample of each so that trainees can see and feel for
themselves. For items not available, bowl-up diagram on a flip
chart and show.
Sample each of all items mentioned above.
Briefing is a meeting of the restaurant staff prior to the opening of the restaurant, while
de-briefing is done when the restaurant closes. In theses sessions the senior-most member
of the restaurant gives his instructions, checks on certain aspects of service and receives
suggestion or problems of the staff. There are certain points that each waiter should keep
in mind before presenting himself for briefing.
The waiter should:
1. Acquaint himself with the non-available food and beverage items listed on the menu by
asking the Chef or referring to the ‘non-available items’ board.
2. Know the dujour soup and main dish in order to push it to the customers.
3. Be equipped with clean handkerchief, clean waiter clothes, bottle-openers, match box and
4. Be fully conversant with the menu card and the beverage list of the day.
The Restaurant In-charge would normally check whether the waiter has satisfied the
above points but in addition would explain new house rules or policies to his staff and
encourage an upward communication from the staff in terms of suggestions and problems.
The waiter should be prepared to clarify doubts or give suggestions and ask questions.
This is an opportunity to give the staff some training inputs.
27. Food and Beverage cycle
The trainer must reinforce the above points when the waiters actually go into service.
Lesson Preparation for Service
Mise-en-scene refers to preparing the environment of the area in order to make it
pleasant, comfortable, safe and hygienic. For the waiter, the restaurant is the service area.
Before each service session, the restaurant should be made presentable enough to accept
guests. The Supervisor or team of waiters should ensure the following mise-en-scene:
1. Carpets are well brushed or hovered
2. All tables and chairs are serviceable
3. Table lights or wall lights have functioning bulbs
4. Menu cards are presentable and attractive
5. Tent cards or other sales material are presentable
6. Doors and windows are thrown open for sometime to air the restaurant. This should
be followed by closing the windows and doors and setting the air-conditioning or
heating to a comfortable temperature.
7. Exchange dirty linen for fresh linen
8. Table cloths and mats are laid on the tables
9. Wilted flowers are discarded and fresh flowers requisitioned
Mise-en-place means “putting in place” and is the term attributed to the preparation of a
work place for ultimate smooth service. To ensure that the restaurant is ready for service
the waiter makes sure that his station has been efficiently prepared for service. A station
comprises of a given number of tables, which are attended by a given team of waiter.
Thus a restaurant may have several stations, each with a team of waiters. In large
restaurants each station may be headed by a Captain or Chef-de-rang.
A sideboard (or dummy waiter) is a piece of furniture with shelves and cupboards,
spacious enough to hold all linen, cutlery, crockery, and etc.for service to a particular
number of coves. The smooth functioning of service in the given covers will depend on
how thoroughly the sideboard has been prepared.
28. Food and Beverage cycle
Before a restaurant opens the sideboard must be equipped with the
1. Cold water in jugs with under plates and napkins to cover
2. All-important proprietory sauces, such as Worcestershire
sauces, Tabasco sauces, tomato ketchup, Maggi sauce, JP/HP
sauces (The waiter should ensure that the necks of the bottles
3. Toothpicks in toothpick holders
4. Sugar bowls- for both brown and white sugar with teaspoons
5. Sugar dredger.
6. Hot plates and order taking pads.
7. Straw holders.
8. Pickles and chutneys.
9. Bread-boats or baskets with assortment of rolls and sticks.
10. Ashtrays-cleaned and polished.
11. Service spoons and forks.
12. Adequate numbers of cutlery used on the table (normally two
and a half times the number required for one sitting in the
14. Under plates.
15. Half plates, quarter plates and large plates and saucers.
16. A crumbing plate.
17. Trays covered with a napkin for service.
18. Spare restaurant linen of all types (napkins, tablecloths,
waiter clothes, etc.)
19. Paper napkins and doyley papers.
20. Butter dishes.
21. Finger bowls.
22. Water goblets (bar glasses in case bar service is extended by
23. Pots for preserves are filled and kept ready.
24. Cloth napkins are folded and kept ready for service.
25. All usable silverware to be used in service to be polished.
26. Cruet sets cleaned and filled with salt and pepper. Fresh
mustard filled in appropriate pots.
Hors d’oeuvres Trolley before the restaurant opens the waiter should:
1. Clean the trolley thoroughly first with a wet cloth (if
not made of wood) and then with a dray cloth.
2. See that the wheels of the trolley move freely and are
29. Food and Beverage cycle
3. Set the containers in such a way that they look
colourful and attractive.
4. Keep adequate numbers of service spoons, forks,
napkins and underliners.
5. Keep a sufficient number of dessert plates to serve
the items to the guests.
Cheese Trolley Display different types of cheese on a wooden board with an
attractive knife to cut the cheese. Accompaniments such as brown
bread, crackers, celery and watercress should be present.
Salad Trolley The waiter must ensure that the salad bowls are set in an attractive
way on the trolley. Wooden bowls with wooden spoons and fork, to
mix the salad, are kept ready. Various types of dressings should be
arranged in sauce boats on underliners with individual spoons.
Hearts of lettuce leaves are kept in a glass jar containing water for
preparing green tossed salad.
Gueridon Trolley This trolley is used to cook food or to complete semi-processed
food in the restaurant itself. Flambé items are also prepared on this
trolley. It should be equipped with the following items:
1. Proprietory sauces
2. White wine
5. Pepper mill
8. Service spoons and fork
9. Matches and ashtrays
10. Flambé copper pans
11. French and English mustard
12. Wooden board
13. Carving knife and fork
15. Salt and pepper
16. Sugar- (grain and cubs)
17. Gas cylinder (filled)
18. Any other items, which might be, required very frequently,
e.g. liqueurs for crepe suzettes, etc.
30. Food and Beverage cycle
Wine Trolley The wine trolley must be equipped with the following items:
1.Wine opener (corkscrew)
3.Half plates to present the cork of the wine bottle
4.Battery and switch for light
6.Different types of wine, e.g. Red, White, Pink and Sparkling
7.The red and rose wines should be placed on one side
8.The white and sparking wines should be together to identify
Liqueur Trolley The trolley must be equipped with the following items:
1. Cordial glass
2. Brandy inhaler
3. Cocktail glass (frappe)
4. Crushed ice
6. Peg measures
8. Different liqueurs-(eight to ten would be a good choice for a
highly rated restaurant)
Pastry Trolley The pastry trolley must be equipped with:
1. Dessert plates
2. Paper napkins or folded serviettes
3. Pastry forks
4. Pastry tong
5. Round tray for keeping pastries
6. Assorted pastries
7. Assorted cake slices
8. Gateaux slice.
Actually show the sideboards and various trolleys and demonstrate
how they are set-up; then make trainees set-up the same with the
trainer reinforcing with suggestions from time to time.
1. Hors d’oevres trolley ــــ with hors d’oevres
2. Salad trolley ــــ with salads
3. Cheese trolley ـــــ with cheese
4. Gueridon trolley ـــــ with burners/ cylinders
31. Food and Beverage cycle
5. Wine trolley ـــــ with wines
6. Liqueur trolley ـــــ with liqueurs
7. Pastry trolley ــــــ with pastries
All the above equipment must have all items that go into them for
Waiter may not realize that he is exposed to a number of hazards that
jeopardize not only him but his job as well. Accidents in the restaurant
could tarnish the good image of the establishment. The guest will only
view it as clumsy and unprofessional. He will not be sympathetic to a
The waiter should:
1. Carry equipment on trays only as much as the body can take.
2. Report faulty equipment to the proper authority, otherwise it
could malfunction at a crucial time.
3. Discard chipped glassware and chinaware.
4. Look out for uneven carpet layout as a winter could trip.
5. Ensure that shoelaces are well tied otherwise loose laces could
result in tripping.
6. Normally the service entrance is a swing door. A waiter should
always be cautious of the possibility of another waiter on the
other side. in case the door has a window , care must be taken
to look through it before using the door.
7. Do not run in the restaurant as it could bustle another waiter.
8. Be careful while lighting a match as it can lead to a fire.
9. Push trolleys, never pull them.
Solicit ideas from trainees as to where hazards exist in a restaurant.
List their ideas on a blackboard and checklist the points given
above against their ideas.
Enforce learning by reinforcing the above points when they are in
32. Food and Beverage cycle
TRAINING AID Blackboard, chalk and duster or overhead projector.
LESSON Sanitation and Hygiene
anitation and hygiene are predominant criteria for a guest's choice of
a restaurant. A guest is a particular about hygienic food and the
cleanliness of the environment. In order to ensure a good image the
waiter must keep the following points in mind:
1. Remove soiled dishes and leftover food from the table
immediately. Food items and crumbs that fall on the table must
be crumbed or wiped out with a napkin on a side plate.
2. Keep sideboards, tables and other surroundings clean and
meticulous as a guest is very observant.
3. Keep all sauce bottles are wiped closed. When in use ensure that
the mouth of the bottles are wiped clean before presenting them
to a guest.
4. Clean cutlery in fresh water and dry them before use.
5. Wipe glasses with a clean waiter cloth and hold up the glasses
against a light to detect any stains and thumb impressions.
6. Bar mirrors as well as plate glasses should be free of stains.
LESSON Food Service
here are some basic principles in food and beverage service that a
waiter must know:
When food is served by the waiter at the table from a platter onto a
guest plate, the service is done from the left.
33. Food and Beverage cycle
When food is pre-plated the service to the guest is usually done from
the right, though modern convention permits service from the left
All beverages are served from the right.
Soups are served from the right unless it is poured by a waiter from a
large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is done from the left of
Ladies are always served first and the remaining guests clockwise.
Soiled plates should always be cleared from the table from the right.
Empty crockery and fresh cutlery are always served from the right.
Never reach across a customer. Hence, when a guest is present at the
table, all items and equipment on the right of the guest must be
placed from the right and that on the left from the left.
TYPES OF SERVICE
English Service Often referred to as the "Host Service" because the host plays an
active role in the service. Food is brought on platters by the waiter
and is shown to the host for approval. The waiter then places the
platters on the table. The host either portions the food into the guest
plates directly or portions the food and allows the waiter to serve
.for replenishment of guest food the waiter may then take the
dishes around for guests to help themselves or be served by the
French Service It is very personalized service. Food is brought from the kitchen in
dishes and salvers, which are placed directly on the table. The
plates are kept near the dish and the guests help themselves
Silver Service The table is set for hors d'oeuvres, soup, main courses and sweet
dish in sterling silverware. The food is portioned into silver platters
at the kitchen itself, which are placed at the sideboard with burners
or hot plates to keep the food warm in the restaurant. Plates are
placed before the guest. The waiter then picks the platter from the
hot plate and presents the dish to the host for approval. He serves
each guest using a services spoon and fork. All food is presented in
silver dishes with elaborate dressing.
American Service The American service is pre-plated service which means that the
food is served into the guest's plate in the kitchen itself and brought
to the guest .the portion is predetermined by the kitchen and the
34. Food and Beverage cycle
accompaniments served with the dish balance the entire
presentation in terms of nutrition and color. This type of service is
commonly used in a coffee shop where services are required to be
Cafeteria Service This service exists normally in industrial canteens, colleges, and
hospital or hotel cafeterias. To facilitate quick service, the menu is
fixed and displayed on large boards. The guest may have to buy
coupons in advance, present them to the counter waiter who then
serves the desired items. Sometimes food is displayed behind the
counter and the guest may indicate their choice to the counter
attendant. The food is served pre-plated and the cutlery is handed
directly to the guest. Guest may then sit at tables and chairs
provided by the establishment. Sometimes high tables are provided
where guests can stand and eat.
Counter Service Tall stools are placed along a counter so that the guest may eat the
food at the counter it self. In better establishments, the covers are
layed out on the counter itself. Food is either displayed behind the
counter for the guests to choose from, or is listed on a menu card or
common black board.
Grill Room Service In this form of service various meats are grilled in front of the
guest. The guest places his order with the room service order taker.
The waiter receives the order and transmits the same to the kitchen.
In the meanwhile he prepares his tray or trolley. He then goes to
the cashier to have a cheque prepared to take a long with the food
order for the guest's signature or payment. Usually clearance of
soiled dishes from the room is done after half an hour or an hour.
However, the guest can telephone Room Service for the clearance
as and when he has finished with the meal.
There are two types of Room Service:
Centralized : Here all the food orders are processed from the
main kitchen and sent to the rooms by a common team of waiters.
Decentralized : Each floor or a set of floor may have separate
pantries to service them. Orders are taken at a central point by
order-takers who in turn convey it to the mobile pantry. The pantry
has to just switch on the floor and give instant service.
For the sake of information, in countries, which have a shortage of
manpower, large hotels install mechanized dispensing units in
rooms, the guest interests the necessary value of coins into the
35. Food and Beverage cycle
machine, which will eject pre-prepared food and beverages for
Buffet Service A self- service where food is displayed on tables. The guest takes
his plate from a stack at the end of each table or requests the waiter
behind the buffet table to serve him.
For sit-down buffet service, tables are laid with crockery and
cutlery as in a restaurant. The guest may serve himself at the buffet
table and return to eat at the guest table laid out. A few courses like
the appetizer and soup may be served at the table by the waiter.
Russian Service An elaborate silver service much on the lines of French service
expects that the food portioned and carved by the waiter at the
gueridon trolley in the restaurant in full view of the guests. Display
and presentation are a major part of this service. The principle
involved is to have all joints, poultry, game and fish elaborately
dressed and garnished, presented to guests and carved and
portioned by the waiter.
Gueridon Service this is a service where a dish comes partially prepared from the
kitchen to be completed in the restaurant by the waiter or, when a
complete meal is cooked at the table – side in the restaurant. The
cooking is done on a gueridon trolley which is a mobile trolley
with a gas cylinder and burners. The waiter plays a prominent part
as he is required to fillet, carve, flambé and prepare the food with
showmanship. The waiter has to have considerable dexterity and
here are basically two types of breakfast offered in hotels and
restaurants. The Continental Breakfast and English breakfast. The
Continental Breakfast originated in Europe. It is a light meal as the
Europeans normally have a heavy mid-day meal. The English
breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. A traditional
English Breakfast is heavy and is a major meal of the day. A
traditional English Breakfast runs into six or seven courses.
36. Food and Beverage cycle
Continental Breakfast Consists of bread rolls or toast with jam, honey, or
marmalade and rounded off with tae or coffee. Better hotels
may serve brioches and croissants. The cover layout
consists of (see fig.9).
(a) A side plate and a side knife
(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate
(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
(d) A sugar pot with tongs.
(e) A bread boat or toast rack
(g) Jam, marmalade and honey pots
Note: There are variations to the Continental Breakfast.
Café complete refers to Continental Breakfast with coffee
(or tea) while Café simple refers to just coffee or tea with
nothing to eat.
English Breakfast Is more elaborate and offers a choice of juices (or fresh or stewed
fruits), cereals, fish course, choice of eggs, meat course, toast with
jam, marmalade or honey, and finally, tea or coffee. The cover
consists of (see Fig. 10).
(a) A side plate and a side knife
(b) A butter dish and a butter knife on a quarter plate
(c) A tea cup and saucer with a teaspoon
(d) A sugar pot (a tongs, if there are sugar cubes)
(e) A cruet set
(f) A fish knife and a fish fork
(g) Dinner Knife and fork
(h) Jam, marmalade and honey
(i) Dessert spoon and fork
Typical English Chilled fruit juices : Orange, Pineapple, Tomato and Grapefruit.
Breakfast Menu Stewed fruit juices : Prunes, Pears, Apples and Figs.
Cereals : Porridge, Cornflakes.
Fish : Grilled herring, fried sole.
Eggs : Poached, Boiled, scrambled, fried, omelets
Meat : Sausages, bacon, salami, kidney, breakfast
Breads : Toast, rolls, brioche, croissant, bread sticks.
Preserves : Jam, marmalade, honey.
Beverage : Tea, coffee, hot chocolate.
37. Food and Beverage cycle
Eggs can be served with : grilled tomatoes, sautéed mushrooms,
baked beans, fried potatoes
Layout covers of Continental and English Breakfast (as per Figs.
9 and 10) and let trainees see and remember. Then let them
individual make out the covers as practice.
Tables, chairs, linen, chinaware, glassware and tableware.
LESSON The Cover
Cover is the space allotted on the table for cutlery, crockery,
glassware and linen for one person. Each cover requires 24"×18" of
Requirements of a cover:
1. Each cover should be well balanced.
2. All cutlery and other table appointments should be placed at
least "away from the edge of the table.
3. Knives and spoons should be placed towards the right of the
plate and all forks on the left, except for the butter knife.
4. The cutting edge of the knives should always face the plate
with the exception of the butter knife, the cutting edge of
which is always away from the plate, the water tumbler
should be at the tip of the large knife.
5. The butter dish should be on the top of the forks along with a
butter knife and on an under- plate.
6. The napkin should either be placed on top of the cover.
7. Cruet sets should be placed on top of the cover.
STANDARD TYPES OF Refer Fig.11 and 12 (Plate 3)
38. Food and Beverage cycle
A' La Carte Covers (a) Side plate with a side knife
(b) Water goblet
(d)Fish knife and fork
(f)Sauce and oil pots
Table D' Hotel Cover (a)Side plate with a side knife
(c)Fish fork and knife
(e)Dinner Knife and fork
(f)Dessert spoon and fork
(h)Sauce and oil pots
Lay out the actual covers as given in fig.11 and 12 and let trainees
see. Then let them practice laying out thee covers by themselves
1. Tables, chairs, glassware, chinaware and tableware.
2. Copies of a la Carte and table d'hote menus.
LESSON Beverage Service
everages can be classified as follows :
Non-Alcoholic (a) Water
(b)Refreshing drinks- colas, lemonades
(d)Nourishing drinks–malted beverages (Oval tine, Horlicks,
Bourn vita) milkshakes, fruit juices.
Alcoholic Wines, Liqueurs, Spirits, Beers, Cocktails.
Here are some standard practices for the services of
39. Food and Beverage cycle
Note: All beverages are served from the right.
Water (a) Water goblets should be kept on the right at the tip of the
(b)Water is served from the right after the guest has taken his
(c)Water is served from a jug with a folded waiter-cloth under it
to prevent it from spilling on the table.
(d)Water should be filled 3/4'' below the rim of the glass.
(e)Water should always be chilled, unless the guest asks for water
at normal temperature.
(f)The water jug should be covered with a folded waiter- cloth
when kept on the sideboard.
Refreshing Drinks (a) Aerated drinks like coca cola, lemonade, etc. are served in
(b)Tall drinks, such as floats, shakes and house cocktails are
served in Tom Collins.
(c)Certain tall drinks require long spoons, which must be
presented on quarter plates with a doyley paper on it.
These beverages are served in a cup and saucer with a teaspoon. If
only a beverage is to be served the cup and saucer are placed in
front of the guest; otherwise, to the right of the cover.
The beverage is poured into the cup and also the milk or cream (as
per the guest's requirements) and both the pot and the creamer are
left on the table to the right of the cover.
A tea napkin or a paper napkin is wrapped around the hot handle of
the pot so that the guests do not burn their fingers while serving
Alcoholics Straight drinks are served in a glass with the pegs required and
placed on the table on a coaster and any accompaniment like soda
water or tonic is poured into the glass in front if the guest. In the
case of beer, the bottle is left on the table, if there is any beer left in
the bottle after pouring the first mug –full of beer.
Wines Wine is the juice of freshly gathered grapes, grown in the open and
fermented according to local custom and traditions without the
addition of any foreign substance or ingredient. This juice is
fermented, matured and aged over years to give it mellowness. It
has an alcoholic content of 16%. There are four types of wines:
40. Food and Beverage cycle
1. Table : Red, White and Rose. These are further
categorized into Still, Natural, Sweet and Dry.
2. Fortified : Brandy, Port and Sherry.
3. Sparkling : Champagne
4. Aromated : Vermouth, Quinine Wines.
Traditionally red wines are served with red meats such as beef,
lamb, etc. white wines with white meats such as chicken, game
bird, and fish. Champagne is drunk at the end of meal. However,
nowadays, a guest may have any type of wine at any point of the
Once the wine is ordered, it has to be requisitioned from the
Without cleaning the bottle the wine bottle is presented to the host
for approval from his right, with the label facing him.
White wine glasses are placed just below the water goblet to the
right. Red wines glasses are placed below the white wine glass to
the right. If the guest does not order white wine then the red wine
glass may take the place of the white wine glass. Remove the seal
of the bottle at the sideboard and with a corkscrew uncork the
bottle. (Refer to skills: Opening a wine bottle) Place the corkscrew
with the cork in a side plate of the guest for the host to approve.
The cork should be wet and firm. Wipe the bottle mouth and inner
neck with a clean cloth.
Wrap the bottle with clean napkin and pour a little into the host's
glass for him to taste and approve. After the host has approved,
change his glass with afresh one, then proceed to serve the guests
clockwise (ladies first and host last). While pouring the wine
observe the following rules:
1. Pour the wine gently without making contact between
the mouth of the bottle and the rim of the glass.
2. Only three-fourth of the glass should be filled.
3. Only the glass is filled, twist the bottle to one side with
a jerk to avoid a spillage.
For white wine or champagne, place the bottle in an ice bucket to
the right of the host and cover the mouth of the bottle with a clean
napkin. In the case of red wine, place it straight on the table with a
napkin folded around or in a red wine basket. Refill the glasses as a
napkin folded around or in a red wine basket. Refill the glasses as
and when they become empty.
Serving Table Wine
41. Food and Beverage cycle
Get empty bottles, (preferably filled) under various categories
of alcoholic beverages and show the trainees.
Demonstrate service of wine and let them practice one by one
with other trainees as "guests". It is expensive to practice with
real wine thus a squash can be used. The bottle must, however,
have a cork.
Various bottles, appropriate glassware and napkins.
LESSON Taking an Order
rder taking is a skilful art that reflects the efficiency of both the
waiter and the establishment . An order taken down clearly and
precisely would ensure that each guest gets exactly what he has
ordered and in the right sequence. This is also the time when a
waiter can prove his salesmanship by pushing through suggestions
on menu items that yield a high profit margin.
After a guest is seated the first thing to offer him is the beverage
menu card, more popularly known as the “wine list”. It is quite in
order to suggest an appropriate cocktail or plain drink by saying
“May I recommend our barman’s special Bloody Mary or Planters
Punch?” In the case the waiter has given a definite choice and has
limited it to two items to make it easy for the guest to choose from.
While taking down the order the waiter should have already
decided on a code to associate the order with a guest. He may
number the guest in a clockwise direction starting from the host or
he may decide on his own starting point –perhaps the person sitting
closest to the service entrance, etc. It is in order to have any other
logical identification system as long as the guest is ensured of his
In smaller establishments an order may be taken on an order pad
and later transcribed on to a check or bill. In larger restaurants the
order is taken on a Kitchen Order Ticket (KOT), which have
copies, the number depending upon the establishments control
system. Usually the original copy of the KOT goes to the kitchen or
bar while the second copy goes to the cashier for the preparation of
the check or bill, while the third copy is retained by the waiter to
aid him to give a proper service.
When taking down the food order it is prudent to allow the guest
some time to decide. A guest does not appreciate being bustled into
giving his decision. Polite suggestions may be given to help the
42. Food and Beverage cycle
guest decide but he should not be forced to decide in favor of the
waiter’s recommendation. The waiter should be at hand to explain
dishes, which demand explanations. He is therefore required to be
conversant with the preparations and final presentation of dishes
listed on the Menu Card. In addition, his salesmanship would
enable him to explain the dishes in an attractive way. For example,
“ A shrimp cocktail comprises of fresh succulent shrimps garnished
in tangy cocktail sauce, served on a bed of crisp green lettuce”.
A course in the menu must have the logical sequence of a classical
menu. Of course, the sequence is according to what range the
establishment offers. The normal sequence would be:
Appetizer , Soup, Main Dish, Sweet Dish, Coffee
Normally the dessert and coffee order is taken after the main meal
is completed. Some establishments have separate Dessert Menu
Cards, which offer a range of hot and cold dessert, flambé desserts,
ice creams and coffee (straight and alcoholic).
Role-play the situation where some trainees are “ guests “ while
others take orders.
Get sample copies of an order pad or kitchen order ticket and
distribute the same for trainees to see. Get them to take orders
while role –playing on the actual order pad.
TRAINING AIDS (1) Copies of order pads.
LESSON Preparing a Check and
16 Receiving Payment
43. Food and Beverage cycle
he very nomenclature, a “check “ shows that it is a control or
check on the food that is sold in a restaurant. A check is also called
a bill and provides an accurate account of the type and number of
items sold, the price of each item and the total value of food and
beverage served at a table. (Fig.13). It is an important sales
document. It is the basis for charging tax for food and beverage
consumption. The tax is usually a percentage may vary from state
Normally, an establishment has a separate restaurant cashier who
has a control on all checks. These checks are cash documents and
misplacement of any of them will result in an in accurate account
of sales for the day and can encourage misuse of the checks.
A check is made when the items are transcribed from an order pad
or a KOT. During service the check is not totaled in case additional
food items are ordered and have to be entered into the check. When
a guest is ready to leave and asks for the check, the waiter informs
the cashier who then totals the check and gives it to the waiter who
signs for the check. (Remember a record has to be kept of all
movement of the check as it represents cash). The waiter presents it
to the guest on a salver or half –plate. In better establishment a
check folder is made to present the check discreetly. It is
worthwhile to remember that the time of payment by the guest
(especially when he is in company) is an embarrassing moment.
Thus the more discreet the activity of paying the check is done the
better the service would be. A check has basically two copies: one
for the guest and the other for the cashier’s record. Additional
copies may be made according to the system of the establishment.
Payment is done in three ways:
Cash Payment When the guest pays in cash the same is taken along with the check
to the cashier who enters it into a register or NCR machine. The
cashier who enters it into a register or NCR machine. The cashier
then gives the change if any and stamps the check “ paid .the
change along with the original copy is placed in the check folder
and presented again to the guest .It is very important that the waiter
should not linger around for tips.
Credit Card Payment The waiter takes the credit card to the cashier who verifies the
1. Whether the credit card is accepted by the
2. Whether the credit card has been black listed, by
consulting a recent list of blacklisted cards.
3. Whether the date on the card has expired.
44. Food and Beverage cycle
4. Whether the signature on the check and credit card tally.
Once the cashier is satisfied with the above verifications he fills
up appropriate vouchers, which are given to the guest for his
A copy of the voucher is given to the guest along with the card.
Signing When a guest wishes to sign on the check, his signature is taken and
he is requested to clearly mention his name and room number. The
waiter confirms with the front office whether the guest is in fact a
resident of the hotel.
Get samples of check, credit card, credit card vouchers, etc. and
let trainees see. Perhaps a process flow chart will help them
conceptualise this activity.
(1) Samples of restaurant check.
(2) Samples of credit cards
(3) Flip chart with process flow of checks and order pad copies.
Ability to Overcome
to do Manual or Menial
45. Food and Beverage cycle
1. For all the hotel staff “menial” jobs are part of their normal work. This
follows from the fact that in this industry, service is of the outmost
importance and hence everyone must involve himself in achieving that
objective. This would mean that right from the general manager to the
utility worker, everyone is actually serving the guest in one way or the
2. To ensure a proper attitude to menial tasks, the trainer at times may
himself have to do the work that the waiter does, to drive home the fact
that at all levels manual work is done.
3. The waiter should be told of the important of his job and made to
realize that the hotel cannot run without the essential services that he
Willingness to serve
1. The waiter should be briefed about the tip system and
shown how a good service can fetch greater tips. At this
stage emphasize the point that a guest gives lavish tips
only when he is pleased with the service and the service
can only be good when the waiter is willing to please.
2. A waiter’s job is appraised on his keenness and
willingness to serve. This determines his job
advancement, promotions, increment and other benefits.
3. A waiter is a representative of the hotel and his
restaurant. He projects its image and is responsible for
maintaining its high standards. On his attitude and
actions will depend the image of the hotel.
Capacity to take Orders
1. The waiter should be made to feel that his supervisors
have more authority and maturity to guide him. He
should also be told that without a proper line of
46. Food and Beverage cycle
authority, there would be utter chaos. The example of
some of his seniors should guide him at the job. He
should be made to understand that he has a lot to learn
from their knowledge, attitude and skill in tackling in
their jobs. Moreover, it is his seniors who will assess
him and mould him and it is they who to a great extent
determine his future by recommending him for
advancements in his job, promotions, transfer and
raises in salary.
Work and People
1. A cheerful attitude is an asset. It is infectious as one
cheerful person spreads cheer and goodwill
wherever he goes. As a result the work atmosphere
is pleasant and free of tension and overwork.
2. A cheerful attitude towards colleagues is an
advantage because a waiter would be able to obtain
the maximum cooperation and help for them.
3. Job satisfaction comes from within oneself and
depends on one’s attitude towards one’s work. If
one has a cheerful outlook any kind of work can
seem worthwhile and interesting.
Cordial Relation with all-
1. One of the bet ways to develop cordial relation and a team
spirit is through group effort. Let the group set the goals.
Show how much easier it becomes to resolve problems
when every one puts their heads together. The phrase”
United we stand, divided we fall”, should be the motto.
47. Food and Beverage cycle
2. Through team spirit and teamwork efficiency is increased.
Increase in efficiency implies higher sales turnover, which
implies more earning of everyone.
3. By maintaining cordial relation, one not only benefits
financially but also personally. A good friendship is also an
asset and is of great help during times of trouble.
4. Cordial relations with guests is good relations. A guest who
is pleased with the friendly atmosphere of a restaurant is
bound to visit it again and again. However, friendliness
does not mean over – familiarity.
Pride in Work
A waiter should realize that the work he is doing is not an
ordinary kind of work. It is an art, which not everyone can
do. It is an art, which has developed from times
immemorial and is still being developed.
Tact and Initiative
1. Role-playing sessions on basis of log book
corselets help in developing a waiter’s tact and
2. Also formal case studies can be undertaken to
inculcate tact and initiative.
3. Interesting and amusing anecdotes from personal
experience or from the experience of others are
As a Representative of the
48. Food and Beverage cycle
1. A waiter is like a salesman for his department and he projects
the image of his restaurant. Thus, as a representative of the
organization he must endeavor to maintain high standards,
2. Any negligence on his part would at once reflect on the status
of the organization and its high standards.
3. He must act and behave in a manner befitting the type of set-
up he is working in.
4. Good actions and behavior are always noted and go a long
way in improving a waiter’s prospects and status.
1. Honesty is always the best policy. The rewards for
being honest can vary from cash and publicity in hotel
magazines to appreciation letters from the public. It
can also get the waiters appreciation and
commendation, which could help a waiter prospects in
2. Examples of actual incidents where honesty has paid
dividends should be quoted.
3. The waiter must be told exactly what is regarded as
dishonesty e.g., stealing cutlery, eating guest food,
overcharging a guest are all forms of dishonesty.
1. it is the hallmark of a good waiter to be courteous on all
occasions not only towards guests but also towards his
colleagues and other people working in the same unit .
2. Courtesy should be inherent in his nature and a sign of his
desire to please those with whom he comes into contact. His
manner should not be just a part of the “technique” of the
49. Food and Beverage cycle
3. The advantages and necessity of being courteous should be
emphasized as it not only smoothens operations but also
ensures better ties.
4. Examples of courtesy are given below:
a) After a waiter has served breakfast and a guest is leaving,
he should say “ Thank you, have a pleasant day” It should
be said with utmost sincerity.
b) When approaching a guest use the word ‘assist’, e.g. “May I
assist you “ or “ May I be of assistance”.
c) When guests are leaving after lunch or dinner or even if
they have just stopped in for a cup of coffee or a drink, say
“Thank you. I hope every thing was all right. Do come
again, or “ It's been a pleasure serving you. Please come
again soon “.
d) Always present the check without delay. Keep it at the side
station when the guest are nearing the end of their meal.
e) While taking an order the waiter should approach the guest
from the left and place the menu in front of him and inquire,
“ May I have your order, Sir/Madam ?” Wait patiently
facing the guest until after any necessary advice asked has
been given, and the order is complete. Give the guest
enough time to decide what he wants and do not rush him.
f) Guests should never get the feeling that they are being
hustled. It is really proper to let them finish their drink
before asking for their food order. In the evening this holds
true. At noon a lot of people are on a tight schedule so the
lunch- time menu should be presented as soon as the guest
is seated. Before taking the food order the waiter should ask
whether they would like a drink, “ May we bring you a
drink before lunch?” If the answer is “No” he should take
the food order and serve it as soon as it is ready. If the
answer is “yes”, the drink is placed on the table the waiter
should ask, “Would you like to order now or shall I come
back later?” If the answer is “later” the waiter the guest is
finishing his drink. If the guest orders right away, the food
should be brought as soon as it is ready to serve, even if the
guest has not finished his drink.
g) If a guest says his food or drink isn’t right, the waiter
should not tell him so, even if he is sure that the guest is
wrong. The waiter should tell him “I am sorry. Please let
me bring you another or may I bring you another or may I
bring you something else?” The waiter should take the
50. Food and Beverage cycle
order back to the kitchen and tell the chief to replace it. If
he has any trouble, he should tell the manager.
h) In case there are restaurants having bar counters or bars in
the immediate neighborhood of the restaurant, guests who
cannot be seated in the restaurant should be asked if they
wish to wait in the bar until a table is available. If possible
the supervisor should accompany the guest to the other
facility to make sure that they will be taken care of
i) In case a waiter is busy and cannot attend to a guest at once,
he should inform him that he will attend to him
immediately or in a moment.
j) If the waiter knows the guest’s name it is advisable to
address him by his name as this shown that the guest is
getting personalized service.
k) A guest may become impatient if he cannot catch the
waiter’s eye. The waiter should never ignore guests or just
pass them by, because they are not on his station. He should
stop and acknowledge the call, by saying politely, “I will
send your station waiter, sir “.
l) When two tables are occupied approximately at the same
time, the waiter must take the order of the first party, first.
m) Each guest entering the restaurant must be received at the
door by the hostess or the supervisor in a cordial and
pleasant manner and be conducted to a seat. Chair should be
held for the convenience of all lady guests, and gentlemen if
n) Guests must be asked prior to seating whether the table,
which they have been allotted, is agreeable to them.
Given below are certain attitude, which a waiter must be warned
1. Forgetting to say “Thank you “ or failing to
acknowledge a tip.
2. Cadging for tips, Counting tips or jingling coins in
3. Bad temper or indifference.
51. Food and Beverage cycle
4. Talking too much to guest while they are conversing
with each other.
5. Ignoring guests by talking amongst themselves.
6. Hurrying guests to get their stations cleared so that they
can leave early.
7. Using a bad form of speech.
8. Using bad form in service, e.g., spilling food.
9. Adding up bills wrongly.
10. Eating during the service.
11. Putting the service cloths in trousers pockets.
12. Soiling menus by keeping them in their ears or in their
13. Carrying pens or pencils behind their ears or in their
14. Having bad breath, body odor, toe jam, dirty or untidy
hair, dirty hands and nails.
15. Chewing gum.
16. Wearing greasy or spotted or otherwise dirty clothes.
17. Sneezing or coughing carelessly.
18. Wearing high-heeled shoes or unpolished shoes.
19. Quarrelling or being noisy and shrinking responsibility.
20. Indulging in preferential treatment.
The Restaurant Supervisor
Who is a restaurant supervisor?
A Restaurant supervisor, who may be termed Maitre
d’hotel or Senior Captain, is responsible for the entire
restaurant team and their activity in the restaurant. He
reports to the Restaurant Manager and in some restaurants
is the over all In- charge.
His responsibilities include:
1. Supervising the mis-en-place and mis-en-scene
before the restaurant opens.
52. Food and Beverage cycle
3. Scheduling the staff.
7. Handling guest complaints
9. Supervising actual service.
10. Preparing specialized food in the restaurant.
12. Hygiene and sanitation
Apart from the above, the restaurant supervisor is
expected to possess all the knowledge, skills and
attitude reflected in part I of this manual. In addition, he
is required to have the specialized knowledge elucidated
in this part of the manual.
The Restaurant SupervisorKnowledge
LESSON Alcoholic Beverage
Definition of Alcohol Alcohol is an odorless liquid obtained through the
fermentation of a sugar containing liquid. There are many
members of the alcohol family, but ethyl is the one, which
concerns us the most, as it is the principle alcohol to be
found in all alcoholic beverages.
What is an Alcoholic Any potable liquid containing from 1% to 75% of ethyl
alcohol by volume is
Beverage known as an alcoholic beverage. However, social and
economic factors so also taxation laws determine why,
governments have to set certain definite certain definite
standards as to what constitutes an alcoholic by volume are
taxable, certain bitters and medicinal compounds, which
often contain 40% alcohol and above are not taxable
because they are not considered alcoholic beverage.
HOW IS POTABLE
53. Food and Beverage cycle
Fermentation Sugar in fruit or grain (developed by germination and malting) is
converted into alcohol by the action of bacteria. The degree of
fermentation can be controlled. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-
product and can be retained as in the case of beers and
Distillation The fermented mash of fruit or grain is heated. Alcohol, which
evaporates at a lower temperature than water and the flavoring
agents, can be trapped and condensed to a liquid, by cooling.
Pure alcohol has no color, taste or smell and is used in
compounding other beverage such as liqueurs (sweetened after
Alternatively, the alcohol, water and congeners can be drawn off
and blended again to obtain the required flavor of the original
All distilled drinks are colorless and may be colored by the
addition of synthetic colours or by keeping them in contact with
wood when maturing.
What is a spirit? A spirit is a potable alcohol-containing liquid. In distillation all
the alcohol can be separated from the liquid.
LESSON Non-alcoholic Beverage
Consuming non-alcoholic beverage has become a way of life .we start
with the morning bed tea; career through the morning and afternoon with
cupfuls of coffee; refresh ourselves with carbonated drinks at the end of
tiring day or at a party and finally go to bed with a warm nourishing
drink. This aspect of a person’s life is fully understood and propagates by
hotels and restaurants. It is essential to know a little about these
beverages because they certainly add a sizeable contribution to the
Non-alcoholic beverage may be classified into three categories
stimulating, refreshing and nourishing.
54. Food and Beverage cycle
Tea It is believed that the origins of tea are from China where the tea plants
were introduced from an unknown source. The East India Company
introduced it into India around the seventeenth century and tea became a
popular drink in India and Europe through London.
Tea is drunk hot by boiling water, adding tea leaves to it and stirring till
the water imbibes the co lour and flavour. Milk is added with sugar to
Iced tea has a similar process except that one can add or not add milk
and refrigerate the mixture.
Coffee The origins of coffee are mysterious but many tropical countries have
thriving coffee trade. Ground coffee captures the best essence of coffee
beans and is made by boiling it with water in a closed apparatus. Cona
coffee is the best under closed systems. Turkish coffee is made by the
common method of boiling water, adding a teaspoon of powered coffee
and drinking it with or without milk, with sugar to taste. Espresso coffee
is made by the infusion of steam through a special espresso machine that
gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served. Cappuccino is the same
espresso machine that gives a frothy texture to the coffee when served.
Cappuccino is the same espresso coffee with a sprinkling of cinnamon
powder on top. Cold coffee is very popular and is made as Turkish coffee
is made with milk and sugar and then chilled.
Refreshing These are mostly aerated water which comprises combination of water,
gas, sugar and artificial essence. Common essence used belongs to the
citrus family. Thus we have lemonade and orangeade. Basically bottles
with water and essence are infused with carbon dioxide and the bottle
sealed immediately. Soda is just purified carbonated water. Mineral water
is original medicinal water from mineral springs. Imitations of mineral
water are called Tonic water or bitter lemon in which a dosage of quinine
Under the category of refreshing drinks, it would not be complete not to
mention the commercial colas that have flooded every market Coca cola
is the most popular with a consumption of approximately 150 million
bottles a day. Other aspirants to the top place are Pepsi cola, 7’ up, etc.
Most manufacturers have their own formula for the basic flavor or
essence. Colas have a generous infusion of carbon dioxide to give the
drinks the fizz.
Syrups and squashes are concentrates of fruit essences sweetened
with concentrated sugar syrup. These are not carbonated. Common
syrups and squashes available are strawberry, raspberry, orange and
NOURISHING We usually associate nourishing drinks with fresh juices or milk.
Amongst drinks with the fruit juices are fresh and tinned orange, mango,
grape fruit, pine-apple and lime; while tomato juice is loner from the
55. Food and Beverage cycle
vegetable family. As regards milk based nourishing drinks we have
popular coca based drinks like drinking Chocolate, Ovaltine and
Bournvita. These are sweetened powder mixes that dissolve readily in
milk to give a rich coca flavor.
56. Food and Beverage cycle
LESSON Food Preparation
There are certain aspects of food preparation that all restaurant personnel
should be familiar with. They are.
1. Methods of cooking
2. Basic Soups
3. Basic Sauces
4. Preparation of menu items.
Methods of Cooking
(a) Steaming Water media
(b) Boiling Water media
(c) Roasting Fat media
(d) Poaching Water media
(e) Grilling Fat media
(f) Frying Fat media
(g) Baking Radiant heat media
(h) Broiling Dry heat media
(i) Smoking Smoke media
(j) Stewing Water media
(k) Braising liquid media
Steaming Cooking is done by moist heat (vapors). There are two types
steaming – indirect steaming where food is sealed with cloth or
aluminum foil and placed in a closed container which is immersed
in another container which generates steam from boiling water or
from a steamer , eg. Steam pudding. In direct steaming food items
are in direct contact with the vapors.
Boiling Food items are cooked in boiling water (100 c). Green vegetables
are put in boiling water and root vegetables are put in cold water
and then boiled, e.g. Boiled potatoes, boiled green peas, etc.
Roasting Food is cooked in direct contact with heat. Fat is basted to moisten
and soften the meat. There are four traditional methods of roasting:
Pot Roasting- quality meats like game birds are trussed to retain
their shape and placed in a pot, which has crossed rods within to
prevent the meat from sticking to the bottom. The meat is basted
with fat. This is sealed and heated from below on a slow fire. Root
vegetables may be added later for flavor. After the meat is cooked,
stock may be added to the liquid inside to make a sauce. Otherwise,
the natural liquid formed called "Jus Roti" may act as the gravy.
57. Food and Beverage cycle
Oven roasting – the meat is basted and roasted in a tray in the oven
at temperatures of 300F. The meat is constantly basted and turned
round for even cooking and color.
Spit roasting – the meat is skewered into a rod and roasted above
direct flames. The meet needs constant basting with fat and is
rotated over the flame to ensure even cooking.
Tandoori roasting – an Indian concept where meat is marinated
with spices and curd and skewered on rods, which are placed into
mud ovens which are heated from within.
Poaching Food items are cooked in shallow water. The water never boils but
simmers that is, it is kept below boiling point, e.g. poached eggs,
poached fish, etc.
Grilling The fasted method of cooking expensive meat cuts done on hot grid
iron with heat coming from top or below. This meat is marinated
before grilling and never pricked while cooking as the juices flow
out, e.g. steaks, grilled chicken, etc.
Frying This method of cooking uses fat as a cooking media. There are
three types of frying:
1. Sauté- done on slow (very slow) fire and used for tender
Food is partially cooked or colored.
2. Shallow frying – very little fat used but cooking is done fully.
3. Deep frying – Done in hot oil or fat, the food is submerged in
the oil and cooked.
Baking The method by which cakes, pudding, pies, biscuits, are cooked in
dry radiant heat, at different temperature in an oven.
Broiling It is a dry method of cooking by direct heat either from above or
below. It can be done on grids or pans where food is cooked
uncovered. It is used as a method of preserving food.
Smoking Food is preserved with the help of smoke from wooden shaving
and sawdust, in a closed room, e.g. smoked salmon, smoked ham,
Stewing Very slow method of cooking in a utensil with a closed lid where
tough meats and joints are cooked in water to soften them. Herbs
and spices are added for flavour and the juice is served as gravy. It
is cooked on low fire or in an oven at a low temperature, e.g.
mutton stew or Irish stew, etc.
58. Food and Beverage cycle
Braising It is a combination of roasting and stewing. Tough meat is used. It
is first browned to seal off pores so as to retain the juices. The meet
is then placed on a bed of vegetables, herbs, bacon and ham in a
casserole. The casserole is sealed with a lid to prevent evaporation
and then placed in an oven to cook.
STOCKS Stocks are flavored and nutritious liquids used as foundations for
sauces, soups, stews, gravies, etc.
There are two basic stocks.
White Stock – The type of stock is determined by the source of
meat and bones e.g. chicken stock, beef stock, mutton stock, veal
stock, fish stock.
Discarded bones and cartilage, which contain albumen and
gelatin, are used. For flavoring, carrots, turnips, onions, leeks,
bay leaf, parsley and thyme are used. Stock is prepared by adding
sufficient cold water to submerge all the bones. The water is
brought to a boil, and then simmered for six hours. Whole
vegetables, and aromats as mentioned above, are added for
flavor. In case of chicken the simmering time is 20 minutes.
Brown Stock Bones are first roasted till they are rich brown and the stock
process is followed as above. Types of brown stock are brown beef
stock, brown mutton stock, brown veal stock and brown game
REFERNCE K.Arora, theory of cookery Frank Bros and Co., Delhi
A sauce is a liquid accompaniment, which goes with a dish. The
role of a sauce is to:
1. Enhance flavor
2. Give color
3. Help in digestion
4. Moisten dry food
5. Enhance nutritional
6. Lend a name to a dish, e.g. Fish Portuguese
7. Give a balanced taste.
59. Food and Beverage cycle
There are six basic sauces from which derivates are made:
1. Béchamel (white sauce)
2. Espagnole (brown sauce)
Bechamel This is prepared by making a white roux out of flour and butter in
equal proportions, till it reaches a sandy texture. Milk is added a
little at a time and stirred to avoid lumps. An onion with one clove
is added for flavour. Seasoning is added for taste. The product is
then passed through a fin strainer.
Espagnole This is prepared by making a brown roux of flour and butter.
Tomato puree is added and stirred to avoid lumps. Brown stock is
added vigorously to blend with the roux, on a gentle fire. Mirepoix,
which consists of onion, carrots, bacon trimmings, bayleaf, thyme
and peppercorns, are introduced for flavor along with sated
vegetables. The product is simmered gently for 4 or 6 hours and
Mayonnaise Salad oil is incorporated into the beaten yolk of an egg. It is a basic
cold sauce used for salad dressings and hors d'oeuvres.
Tomato Sauce Tomatoes are cooked with bacon, carrots, chopped onions and
garlic in stock and passed through a sieve. Light brown roux is
used for thickening.
Volutes These are made by adding stock to light brown (blond) roux. The
type of volute is determined by the type of stock added, e.g. fish
Volute, chicken Volute, etc.
Hollandaise Hollandaise is a warm sauce served over grilled or baked fish,
vegetables and eggs. It is prepared by first reducing peppercorn and
vinegar and adding eggs yolks, which are whisked to a thick
consistency. Melted butter is added until it blends smoothly.
Sauces may be thickened by thickening agents or liaisons:
Roux Cooking of flour and butter in the proportion of 1:1. The degree, to
which it is browned, i.e. white, blond or brown, adds color to the
60. Food and Beverage cycle
Starch Items such as corn flour, arrow root, etc are made into a paste with
a liquid and then added to boiling liquid.
Buerre Maine Flour and butter are Kneaded in the proportion of 1:1 and added a
little at a time to a boiling liquid and stirred to form a smooth
consistency. Basically for fish sauces.
Yolks of Eggs/Cream These liaisons are added as a finishing agent. When added the
liquid is never boiled. It is added to thicken cream and volute
Blood Added to give natural flavors especially in game cooking.
61. Food and Beverage cycle
Soups are wholesome nutritious liquid food made from meat,
seafood, vegetables cereals or poultry. It is the second course in a
French classical menu, though it is the first course in many meals
and acts as an appetizer.
The following table classifies the soup for easy reference.
Consommé It is a richly flavored clear soup. The base is stock of beef; mutton
or chicken to which raw, lean mince meat is added along with
finely diced or chopped carrots, onions, celery seasoning and egg
whites. It is brought to boil and simmered. The protein in the egg
Cream Chowders BisquesPuree
62. Food and Beverage cycle
white and meat, coagulate and bind most of the cloudy material.
The soup is strained through a muslin cloth.
Broth Broth is a cloudy soup which contains a mixture of vegetables,
meat, chicken, etc. these are cut in regular shapes. Bouillon is more
or less the same except that it is clearer and has a strong meaty
A garnish is an important aspect of soup preparation and
presentation. It enhances flavor, color and wholesomeness. It is put
into a prepared soup just before service.
Cereals Boiled rice, e.g. with mulligatawny soup.
Croutons Dices or other even shaped bread or toast, e.g. with cream soups.
Cheese Grated Parmesan cheese grilled on croutons, e.g. with French onion
soup; cottage cheese diced, e.g. with consommés.
Cream Unsweetened whipped cream or sour cream, e.g. cream of
mushroom, Cream of tomato soup.
Meats, Poultry, Seafood Diced into small pieces or juliennes, e.g. Cream of chicken soup,
Pasta Noodles or spaghetti, e.g. with minestrone soup.
Vegetables Cut in various shapes and sizes such as juliennes, rounds, dices,
etc. as in mixed vegetable soup.
Tips for the service of soup
1. Garnishing must be small, light and easily eatable.
2. Light soups should precede heavy dishes.
3. Heavy soups must come in small portions.
4. Hot soups must be served very hot, and cold soups chilled.
5. Clear soups must enable you to see the bottom of the soup
6. Soup accompaniments are toasts, breadsticks, cheese
croutons, etc. These must be hot and crisp.
63. Food and Beverage cycle
Cheese is a product of pure, fresh milk, cream, or milk and cream
mixed together. It is made by first pasteurizing good quality milk,
curdling it with the addition of bacteria and rennet. The solid
portion –crud is separated from the liquid portion – whey. The crud
is put into moulds to mature and becomes cheese. It is also
subjected to pressure, which determines the type of cheese. Cream
cheese is subjected to heavier pressures. The character, texture and
flavor are dependent on the land on which the cattle graze. The
method of manufacture could also be determinant.
Cheeses are divided into: 1. Hard
3. Soft or cream
English Cheddar : Has nutty flavors and is creamy in color.
Cheshire : A mellow open textured cheese. There are
different types of Cheshire – Cheshire red
and Cheshire white, both with the same
flavor and crumbly; the Cheshire blue is
richer and rare.
Lancashire : Possesses a mild flavor when young but
increase in pungency as it matures. Its loose
texture makes it ideal for kitchen use. It is
creamy white in color.
Derby : Has a honey color and close texture, and
develops a strong- flavor as it matures. The
sage- flavored Derby cheese is popular at
Double Gloucester A straw colored cheese with a nutty flavor
similar to Cheddar. It has a close texture.
64. Food and Beverage cycle
Wensleydale : The white Wensleydale has a soft flaky
texture, is pale in color with a honeyed after
European Edam : A cheese from Holland, pale yellow in
color with a waxy texture. It is global shaped
and has a yellow or red rind .It is sold in
grades of 40%, 30% and 20% fat.
Gouda : Another cheese from Holland, paler yellow
than Edam, It comes as a flat cheese with
rounded edges and has a soft texture. It has a
yellow or red rind.
Emmentaler : A pale yellow cheese from Switzerland.
With cavities all over.
Gruyere : Another cheese from Switzerland. It is pale
yellow, firm and dry. It also has cavities and
is a popular Kitchen cheese.
Parmesan : A cheese from Italy. A dry cheese having
an appearance of pinpricks all over it. It is
exclusively used for cooking purposes.
SEMI- HARD CHEESES
English : Made from skimmed full cream milk, it is
creamy white in color with a mild delicate
flavor and smooth texture. It has a very thin
European : This cheese is made in France. It gains full
flavor when ripe. It has a thin rind and
comes in square shapes.
SOFT OR CREAM
English : there are no noteworthy English cheeses in
65. Food and Beverage cycle
European : A French cheese which comes in two sizes-
Petit Brie and Grond Brie. It is made from
Camembert : A French cheese made from cow's milk
which softens on ripening. It is a small flat
round cheese yellow in color with a very thin
Camember : A French cheese made from pasteurized
cow's milk and packed in square boxes. It
has a mild flavor and softens on ripening.
Demi- Sel : A French cheese made from sour milk. It is
flat and square in shape and comes wrapped
in foil, normally pre-portioned.
English Dorset Blue : Made from skimmed milk it has a very close
texture being a hard pressed cheese. It is
straw colored with with deep blue veins
Wensleydale : The blue veined Wensleydale cheese
Stilton : The surface is wrinkled and brownish – grey
in color. It is a close texture cheese.
European Danish Blue : It hails from Denmark as the name suggests.
It is made from cow's milk. It is sold
wrapped in foils.
Gorgonzola : Made in Italy, it has a white crud
intersected by blue veins. It has a soft
semi-solid textures and rinds which
Roquefort A French cheese made from cow's milk. It
is creamy but crumbly in texture .It has
unique characteristic as it is matured in the
caves of Roquefort.