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AFAQ, AIMAN, ASHHAR, BUSHRA, SHAHAB,
O A floor finish is a general term for a permanent covering of a floor. It is expected to
protect and extend the life of the floor while providing an attractive appearance
and slip resistant surface.
O There are five basic categories of floor finish
(1) Polymer emulsions,
(2) Film formers,
O Terrazzo Flooring
O Stone Flooring
O Timber Flooring
O Brick Flooring
O PCC Flooring
O PVC Flooring
WHAT’S IN A FLOOR FINISH
O As many as twenty-five ingredients. Some evaporate while others remain after
O Those that evaporate are "volatile" and those that stay on the floor are "nonvolatile" components.
O Ingredients are used to enhance floor finish characteristics like hardness, gloss,
clarity, scuff resistance, slip resistance, water and detergent resistance, buff
ability, removability, recoat ability, and toughness.
Terrazzo is a flooring material traditionally made by
exposing marble chips on the surface of concrete and
then polishing until smooth.
However terrazzo is now available in tile form.
It’s often used in public buildings because it’s longlasting and can be refinished repeatedly.
Best Use : Flooring, walls,
The typical thickness for
terrazzo is between 2
1/2" and 3"
Installation Cost : minimum
30 to 50 INR per square feet
to a max 200 INR.
CONCRETE + STONE,
AGGREGATES = TERRAZO
4. Sealant failure
WHY USE TERRAZO
• Extremely hard wearing
• Easy to clean and maintain
• Attractive in appearance
• Flexible – can be designed to be in keeping
with other architectural features and colour
• Hygienic – suitable for some areas of food
preparation and in hospitals
• Cost effective – will outlive most other
types of hard flooring
DECORATIVE TERRAZO FLOORING
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
1.Terrazzo is quite slippery
3.Need skills for installation
4.Polishing needed for
maintaining the look.
Comfortable under feet
Stone flooring is a type of flooring in which the floor is covered with stone slabs or stone tiles
Used in public buildings because of it durability and hardness
There are three basic types of rock from which we carve out stone floors:
TYPES OF STONE FLOORING
Various colors depending on origin.
fine and prosperous looking floors.
Mainly used in homes for interior flooring reason
Available in different sizes
Price : 120-600 Rs per sq.ft.
can be used in homes for outdoor flooring reasons.
very hard in nature.
variety of colors.
Available in different sizes and shapes
Price : 15-80 Rs per sq.ft
granite is composed of quartz and feldspar mixed with
particles of mica.
long life and easy to install
granite floors are being used in areas which are used
Available in different sizes
Price : 30-100 Rs per sq.ft
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Very hard in nature
Formation of cracks
Regular washing and cleaning
Variety of colours
Weight of material
Timber flooring is any product
manufactured from timber that is
designed for use as flooring, either
structural or aesthetic.
common choice as a flooring material due
to its environmental profile, durability, and
Used in interiors as well as exteriors.
Divided into two categories:
One of easiest ways to add value to a
Cost effective, durable and classy, solid
wood floors are one of the few long-lasting
Made of planks milled from a single piece
Many genuine timber floors are
immediately distinctive by the width of the
planking, weathered patina and distinctive
Can be self installed without calling the
most common type of wood flooring used
composed of two or more layers of wood in
the form of a plank where
TOP LAYER :Aluminum oxide and is specially
treated to achieve high wear resistance.
SECOND LAYER :Real hardwood veneer.
CORE LAYER : stacked layers of plywood, HDF
(high density fiberboard) or MDF (medium density
fiberboard) lay at 90 degree angles to each other.
This gives the flooring better structural
stability and bonded together under heat and
More suitable in high moisture areas or in
areas of frequent temperature changes.
It does not warp or cup during climatic
Over the finished floor,wooden planks with tongue and groove are placed.
The tongue and groove are jotted into each othersimilarly the whole flooring is laid.
Usually layed in interiors(bedroom, living
area, dining area, kitchen)and bathroom
excluding the wet areas.
Used in skirting.
Nowadays, Timber planks are widely used
Ranges from Rs 60-Rs 600 per
Wood Floor Finishes are very popular as they are
durable, water-resistant, and require minimal
maintenance. These are blends of synthetic resins.
Most popular modern finishes for wood flooring are
oil-modified Urethane and water-based
WATER BASED:Appear clear and will resist turning
yellow over time.
They have a mild odor when applied, and will dry in
two to three hours.
Water-based finishes are very durable.
appear amber in color.
They have a moderate odor when applied, and will
dry in about eight hours.
Produces sheen appearance of the floor.
O Major distributers of wooden flooring includes
O The cheapest of them all is from china naming SPAN
dealing in oak and Merbau.
If taken care of,it lasts for many years,despite of much traffic and use.
Easier to clean & get harder as they age, which makes them even easier to clean.
Does’nt dust mites
Solid hardwood is among the longest lasting of all flooring types. With today’s flooring
finishes, these floors are also water resistant.
These are also easy to match to nearly any home style and design. There are a lot of
styles, colours and species of timber flooring available than ever before.
Hardwood timber floors will always look good both in contemporary and traditional
A hardwood floor's finish is susceptible to scratching from
traffic or pet nails.
FULL BATH INSTALLATION NOT RECOMMENDED
it is sensitive to humidity and the potential for pooling
Water from tubs and showers can cause hardwood floors to
buckle or warp.
LIMITED BELOW GRADE INSTALLATION
not recommended for below grade installation due to
sensitive to humidity. These floors perform better in
humidity controlled environments.
CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING
•The mixture of cement, sand and
aggregate is called plain cement concrete
•Plain cement concrete composition 1:2:4 (cement : sand : stone )
Types of cement concrete floors:
Non-Monolithic or bonded floor finish floor
Monolithic floor finish floor
WHY USE PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE
They are economical as they require
negligible maintenance cost
They can be finished with a pleasing
Provide a smooth & non absorbent surface
Preparation of sub base:•filling of earth is done
•10-15 cm thick coarse sand
Laying of base concrete:•Usually of cement concrete or
Laying the topping:•Thickness is 7.5-10 cm
•Area is divided into rectangular or square
•Finally a layer of cement concrete is
applied on the top
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION
•Concrete is very strong in compression but
relatively weak in tension.
• It can and often does crack.
Chemical attack can occur because concrete
is alkaline and chemically reactive.
This is a network of very small surface cracks
usually spreading out over large areas or the
thin flakes of concrete come loose and flake
or peel off the surface
They are hard & Durable
Defect once developed cannot be
Provide a smooth & non absorbent
Does not provide heat and sound
They are more fire resistant
It cannot be satisfactorily repaired by
They provide more sanitary surface as
they can be cleaned & washed easily.
They are economical as they require
negligible maintenance cost
Floor that has brick /brick tile as its covering.
The flooring is done with laying bricks down in a
bed of mortar and arranged in a pattern.
Commonly used in alluvial places, where stone is
scarce and well burnt bricks of good quality are
Places where heavy articles are stored
PATTERNS IN BRICK FLOORING
O The brick flooring may be done with bricks laid flat, or on
edge arranged in hearing-bone pattern, or set at right
angles to the walls.
O Brick-on edge is preferred to bricks laid flat, because the
former being less liable to crack under pressure than the
latter and also having the higher depth gives a greater
thickness in the former case to resist the moisture
The low maintenance requirements of brick flooring make it
very popular in kitchens.
Durability: Brick is one of the hardest and most durable
flooring materials available. It requires little to no
maintenance, and an installation can last for years
The tile is set in such a way that when it is installed it is very
difficult to detect a repeating pattern in the surface.
This picture makes it clear that brick flooring is not confined to
squares and rectangles.
Promenade Brick Flooring Pattern on a Porch
Brick Kitchen Flooring With Inlaid Pine Beams
Thin brick veneer as flooring
• Bricks are available in a range of
thicknesses,40mm to 100mm.
• For domestic use ,the 50mm -60mm
units are suitable.
• Road construction -80 mm thick units.
• Airports, ports and freight yard-100mm
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
The earth fillling is properly consolidated.
10cm thick layer of dry clean sand is evenly laid.
10cm thick layer of LIME CONCRETE (1:4:8) or LEAN CEMENT
CONCRETE (1:8:16) is laid, compacted and cured to form a base
Well soaked bricks are laid in CEMENT MORTAR (1:4) in any
desired bond pattern e.g. Herring Bond, Diagonal Bond or any
other suitable bond.
In case the pointing is not to be done , the thickness of joints
should not exceed 2mm and the mortar in joints is struck off flush
with a trowel.
In case the pointing is to be done, the minimum thickness of
joints is kept 6mm and the pointing may be done as specified.
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
O Primarily used for architectural
purposes. But, now used in commercial
complexes, parking area and
community centres. These pavers are
offered in various designs and sizes.
Cracks can occur as defect in brickwork, that can occur in due to:
MERITS AND DEMERITS
O Cheaper than Cement
concrete, wooden, mosaic
O Provides a non slippery and
fire resistant surface.
O Easily repairable.
O Tough ,durable and
O Easy in maintenance.
O Easy to construct.
• Slightly Uneven when
• The resulting surface
is not smooth and is
• Water absorbent.
• Installation requires
use of toxic materials.
SOME BASIC VINYL FLOORING
THIS IS A TYPE OF VINYL TILE.
THIS CAN BE FIXED ON ANY AREA OF YOUR HOME.
THIS COSTS AROUND RS. 60/SQ. FT.
2. BASIC VINYL SHEET
THIS IS A PLAIN VINYL SHEET, MOSTLY USED IN HOSPITALS
•ONE CAN SELECT THE BASIC COLOUR OF SHEET AND
CHOOSE SOME PRINTING IMAGES OF ONE’S OWN
THIS COSTS AROUND RS. 30/SQ. FT.
EMBOSSED VINYL FLOORING CAN BE USED IN THE
• UNLIKE OTHER EMBOSSED DESIGNS, THIS IS EASY
TO CLEAN AND MAINTAIN.
THIS COSTS AROUND RS. 52 – RS. 120 / SQ. FT.
PRINTED VINYL FLOORING WILL BE AWESOME TO
LOOK. THE DESIGNS YOU GET IN VINYL WILL NOT
EVEN BE AVAILABLE IN TILES, MARBLES AND
THIS WILL COST YOU AROUND RS. 20 – RS. 40/SQ.
3. PVC VINYL FLOORING
CHOOSE PVC VINYL FLOORING FOR A CLASSIC LOOK.
THIS WILL COST YOU AROUND RS. 80 – RS. 100/SQ. FT.
4. ANTI – SKIP
THIS FLOORING IS USED IN BATHROOMS
THOUGH IT IS CHEAP AND GOOD TO LOOK
IT IS VINYL IT TENDS TO PEEL WHEN IT IS PRONE TO WET.
5. TRANSPORT FLOORING
ONE CAN USE TRANSPORT VINYL FLOORING IN YOUR PARKING
AREA AS IT IS MANUFACTURED SPECIALLY FOR BARING THE
WEIGHT OF THE VEHICLE.
VINYL SHEETS ARE AVAILABLE IN ROLLS ,HAVING WIDTH 6’ TO 12’ WIDTH.
TYPICAL VINYL TILES ARE AVAILABLE IN SIZES OF 1 SQ FT.
VINYL PLANKS ARE AVAILABLE IN SIZES RANGING FROM 0.25’ BY 3’ OR LONGER
THEY GENERALLY HAVE THICKNESS OF 1MM, 1.3MM, 2MM AND 3MM.
PRICE RANGE VARIES FROM RS20 TO RS120 /SQ FT.
GENERALLY USED IN HOSPITALS WHERE MUCH OF CLEANLINESS IS REQUIRED.
IT IS INSTALLED IN CHILDREN ROOMS TO AVOID ACCIDENTS.
IT IS INSTALLED IN BLOOD BANKS.
IT IS ALSO INSTALLED IN HOTELS OF HOMES ,WHERE EVER DESIRED.
•FREEDOM OF AESTHETIC EFFECTS –
AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF COLOURS
•EASE OF INSTALLATION, EASY TO CLEAN
•PROVIDES US WITH RANGE OF CHOICE.
•VINYLL FLOORING WITH NON WAX COATING HAS
AN EASY TENDENCY OF WEARING OUT .
•VINYL FLOORING CANNOT WITHSTAND MUCH OF
WATER OF CHEMICAL CLEANSERS
•VINYL FLOORING TEND TO DIS COLOUR OR FADE
AWAY WHEN EXPOSED TO TOO MUCH OF SUNLIGHT.
•TYPICAL VINYL FLOORING CANNOT WITHSTAND
MUCH PULLING OR PUSHING OF OBJECTS OR SHARP
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FOR VINYL FLOORS.
THE COLOR AND PATTERN ARE PRINTED ON THE SURFACE LEVEL OF THE VINYL ONLY.
THIS IS A LOWER COST AND MORE POPULAR METHOD OF PRODUCTION THAT LEAVES THE COLOR
AND PATTERN SUSCEPTIBLE TO WEARING AWAY OVER TIME.
THE COLOR AND PATTERN GO ALL THE WAY THROUGH THE VINYL.
THIS MAKES THE COLOR AND PATTERN VERY WEAR–RESISTANT.
VINYL FLOORING CONSTRUCTION
VINYL FLOORING IS CREATED IN ONE OF THE FOLLOWING WAYS:
HOMOGENOUS OR SOLID:
HOMOGENOUS (SOLID) VINYL IS UNIFORM IN STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION THROUGHOUT, WITH NO
• INLAID VINYL IS MADE BY ADDING GRANULES OF VINYL TO A VINYL BACKING. HEATING THEM WITH THE
WEAR (SURFACE) LAYER.
• THIS CREATES COLORS PATTERNS THAT WILL LAST EVEN IF THE SURFACE LAYER BEGINS TO WEAR DOWN
• LAYERED COMPOSITE VINYL IS THE MOST
COMMON TYPE OF VINYL FLOORING.
• IT CONSISTS OF FOUR DISTINCT LAYERS.
•THE BACKING (BOTTOM) LAYER IS VINYL,
FIBERGLASS OR FELT.
•THIS LAYER IS COVERED WITH A CORE LAYER
OF LIQUID POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) AND
• WHICH IS TOPPED WITH A DECORATIVE
•A WEAR LAYER OF PROTECTIVE, CLEAR VINYL
VINYL FLOORING WEAR LAYERS
THE LEAST DURABLE OF THE THREE, YOUR FLOOR WILL NONETHELESS RESIST
SCRAPES, SCUFFS, AND SOME STAINS.
REQUIRED MAINTENANCE INCLUDES REGULAR WASHING
A GOOD POLISHING FROM TIME TO TIME TO RESTORE SHINE.
URETHANE SURFACES WILL KEEP THEIR "LIKE NEW" APPEARANCE LONGER THAN
MOST VINYL NO–WAX SURFACES, AS WELL AS RESIST STAINS, SCRAPES, SCUFFS,
AND HEEL MARKS.
IT HAS A MORE TEXTURED SURFACE, WHICH SOMETIMES SIMULATES TILE OR
THIS MOST DURABLE OF WEAR LAYERS RESISTS STAINING FROM MANY
COMMON HOUSEHOLD ELEMENTS.
SINCE GRIME AND DIRT WILL NOT STICK TO THIS TYPE OF SURFACE.
THE ONLY MAINTENANCE NEEDED IS AN OCCASIONAL SWEEP OR MOPPING.
INSTALLATION OF VINLY
APPLICATION ON THE FLOOR
•THE VINYL FLOORS SHOULD FIRST BE DUSTED AND THEN
• MICROFIBER CLOTHS AND MOPS ARE ABLE TO SOAK 7 TO 10
TIMES THEIR WEIGHT IN LIQUID AND ARE EXCELLENT AT
TRAPPING DEBRIS AND DUST
•ONE SHOULD NOT "DRENCH" THE VINYL. WATER CAN WORK
ITS WAY INTO CRACKS AND SEAMS WHEN A MOP IS TOO WET,
DESTROYING THE GLUE.
• THIS CAUSES THE VINYL TO COME LOOSE AND/OR CORNERS
TO CURL UP.
•OVER-USE OF CLEANING CHEMICALS ON NO-WAX VINYL WILL
CAUSE A FILM OVER THE SURFACE.
"IT GETS STICKY AND ACTUALLY ATTRACTS THE DIRT,"