Example of Interlaced
Analog Signals Video:
There are three systems of analog television:
• Pal – used in Hong Kong
• NTSC – used in Canada and USA
• SECAM – used in Europe
Each system is incompatible with the other
Frames – all the lines of definition
Fields – how much information is shown on the screen at any given
Interlace – only shows half the information at one time, split into odd
and even numbers (the highest number is 1080i)
Progressive – everything shown at once (e.g. 1080p). If it is
progressive, the field and the frame will be the same
Wavelength – The distance from one wave to another.
Frequency – The number of waves that pass a point each
Amplitude – The amount of energy measured in a sound wave.
Widescreen Aspect Ratios
• Aspect ratios are changeable using ANAMORPHIC which
squeezes the image.
• The ratio stays the same all the way through.
• Pan and scan helps keep the action in the middle of the
• Pixel Aspect Ratio - This tool helps calculate the pixel aspect
ratio of video formats.
The analog signal can be split into a component signal or a composite
A component signal is when the signal is broken up into different bits,
the sound then travels through the component.
A composite signal is when everything is stored in one cable.
The strengths of a component signal is that the color quality is much
more noticeable then a component signal. The weakness of a
component signal is that it does not give satisfactory video signal when
Signal Composite Signal
A digital signal is a constant waveform signal used in any form
of digital communication.
There are different cables used to transfer digital signals, each
come with a few strengths and weaknesses.
DVI Connector – DVI stands for Digital Visual Interface, it is used
to maximize the picture quality of digital.
• Analog or digital
• Deliver signals discreetly together with synced information
• No audio
• No Blu-ray support
HDMI Connecter – HDMI stands for High Definition Multimedia
Interface, it is used for transferring encoded uncompressed numerical
• They are popular because it is easy to use and includes a lot of
• They are high definition and have high quality videos which make
people want to use HDMI’s more
• HDMI’s carry video and audio in one cable which is much more
convenient then having a separate cable for each
• HDMI’s can be quite expensive which is not good in a domestic
• In order to have an HDMI cable you need to have an HDMI player to
get the video to work
Terrestrial TV (also known as broadcast systems) – Usually sent
as radio signals from an antennae; needs a tuner with an areal
• Usually free
• More channels
• High image quality
• Broadcasting is limited
• A lot of interference
• Limited color range
Satellite TV – is when the signal is broadcasted then directed by
a satellite dish.
• Analog or digital
• Can broadcast over vast distances
• High quality
• Choice of programs
• Requires a satellite receiver
• Signal can be affected by bad weather
• Installation required
Cable TV – is a system providing television programs to
consumers via radio frequency signals.
• Can be transmitted through phone, internet and radio
• Better signal = additional hardware
• On demand service
• Bad weather doesn’t affect
• TV signal received through cables
• Limited subscribers
• Less channels
Digital TV – Generally, the transmission of digital TV signals rather then
There are two basic types:
SDTV (Standard Definition Television) – is a digital format that provides
high quality images.
HDTV (High Definition Television) – provides higher image quality and
offers a wide format.
They can be received via areal cables, satellite or internet.
• Can be encrypted
• Can be interactive
• Needs antennae upgrade for a strong digital signal
• Needs new equipment, old – style analog TV sets can’t receive
Internet TV – Programs transmitted via internet, usually by
• Only requires internet access
• Can watch a program any time
• Fewer ads
• Not everything is available everywhere
• Students can watch under aged programs
• Inaccurate advertising
• Excellent image quality
• Changeable lens (huge advantage)
• Big sensor (much better image quality)
• Hack able (can play around with it)
• Not designed for filming
• Doesn’t have certain features
• Big sensor (slows it down)
• Over heats quickly (after 7 minutes it turns off)
• Lines of definition (neutral)
• Easy to operate - straightforward
• Designed for filming
• Time saving
• Easier storage
• Cost effective
• Quite limited functions
• Not designed for photography
• How fast or sensitive the light is to the film
• The darker it is, the higher the number
• The more sensitive the film is, the more noise is visible
• The aperture is the size of the hole
• The focus lens allows more light or less light
• The length of the time the image is exposed
• Dark – long shutter speed
• Bright – short shutter speed
These are the three things that affect exposure
File, Size and Compression
File – A collection of information that can be stored on the computer.
There are many different file types that can store different
Size – The bigger they are, the slower they are and the harder to store.
Some files take quite some time to upload as the files are too big e.g.
uploading a mov file to YouTube.
Compatibility – Not all files are compatible with all hardware/software
There are two types of compression:
LOSSLESS – Every single bit of data that was in the file remains after
the file is uncompressed.
LOSSY – On the other hand, when the LOSSY files get uncompressed,
only part of the information remains.
• Can be played by many type of devices e.g. CD players and
• High reliability
• Mp3 files can be downloaded easily
• Free or very cheap
• Mp3 files are shared easily
• Takes up quite a lot of storage space
• The downloaded file may skip at unexpected areas
• LOSELESS files
• Can be easily edited and changed to your taste of music
• High reliability
• Limited to 4 gigabytes
• Usually very large files
• Limited space
• Takes quite a bit of time to download
Comparing Software Programs
• Adobe Photoshop Elements – The advantages are its easy to
use and can be imported using many various ways. The
disadvantage is that the program doesn’t have live chat.
• Photo Studio – The advantages are it has a lot of editing
options and is organized. The disadvantage is it doesn’t have
many ways to share the edited file.
• Pixelmator – The advantages are it is very easy to use and has
a lot of output capabilities. The disadvantages are there aren't
as much editing options as the other programs.
• Acom – The advantages are the program contains a lot of help
and support and has a lot of output capabilities. The
disadvantage is that there aren't many ways to organize the
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