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Principes of Video Technology

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Principes of Video Technology

  1. 1. Principles of Video Technology By Diya Samtani
  2. 2. Television Standards Example of Interlaced Analog Signals Video: There are three systems of analog television: • Pal – used in Hong Kong • NTSC – used in Canada and USA • SECAM – used in Europe Each system is incompatible with the other Frames – all the lines of definition Fields – how much information is shown on the screen at any given time Interlace – only shows half the information at one time, split into odd and even numbers (the highest number is 1080i) Progressive – everything shown at once (e.g. 1080p). If it is progressive, the field and the frame will be the same
  3. 3. Television Standards Analog Signals Wavelength – The distance from one wave to another. Frequency – The number of waves that pass a point each second. Amplitude – The amount of energy measured in a sound wave. Widescreen Aspect Ratios • Aspect ratios are changeable using ANAMORPHIC which squeezes the image. • The ratio stays the same all the way through. • Pan and scan helps keep the action in the middle of the screen. • Pixel Aspect Ratio - This tool helps calculate the pixel aspect ratio of video formats.
  4. 4. Television Standards Analog Signals The analog signal can be split into a component signal or a composite signal. A component signal is when the signal is broken up into different bits, the sound then travels through the component. A composite signal is when everything is stored in one cable. The strengths of a component signal is that the color quality is much more noticeable then a component signal. The weakness of a component signal is that it does not give satisfactory video signal when being transferred Component Signal Composite Signal
  5. 5. Television Standards Digital Signals A digital signal is a constant waveform signal used in any form of digital communication. There are different cables used to transfer digital signals, each come with a few strengths and weaknesses. DVI Connector – DVI stands for Digital Visual Interface, it is used to maximize the picture quality of digital. Advantages • Analog or digital • Deliver signals discreetly together with synced information Disadvantages • No audio • No Blu-ray support
  6. 6. Television Standards Digital Signals HDMI Connecter – HDMI stands for High Definition Multimedia Interface, it is used for transferring encoded uncompressed numerical information. Advantages • They are popular because it is easy to use and includes a lot of functions • They are high definition and have high quality videos which make people want to use HDMI’s more • HDMI’s carry video and audio in one cable which is much more convenient then having a separate cable for each Disadvantages • HDMI’s can be quite expensive which is not good in a domestic market • In order to have an HDMI cable you need to have an HDMI player to get the video to work
  7. 7. Broadcast Systems Terrestrial TV (also known as broadcast systems) – Usually sent as radio signals from an antennae; needs a tuner with an areal to receive. Advantages • Usually free • More channels • High image quality Disadvantages • Broadcasting is limited • A lot of interference • Limited color range
  8. 8. Broadcast Systems Satellite TV – is when the signal is broadcasted then directed by a satellite dish. Advantages • Analog or digital • Can broadcast over vast distances • High quality • Choice of programs Disadvantages • Requires a satellite receiver • Signal can be affected by bad weather • Installation required
  9. 9. Broadcast Systems Cable TV – is a system providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals. Advantages • Can be transmitted through phone, internet and radio • Better signal = additional hardware • On demand service • Bad weather doesn’t affect Disadvantages • TV signal received through cables • Expensive • Limited subscribers • Less channels
  10. 10. Broadcast Systems Digital TV – Generally, the transmission of digital TV signals rather then analog. There are two basic types: SDTV (Standard Definition Television) – is a digital format that provides high quality images. HDTV (High Definition Television) – provides higher image quality and offers a wide format. They can be received via areal cables, satellite or internet. Advantages • Can be encrypted • Can be interactive Disadvantages • Needs antennae upgrade for a strong digital signal • Needs new equipment, old – style analog TV sets can’t receive digital signals
  11. 11. Broadcast Systems Internet TV – Programs transmitted via internet, usually by traditional broadcasters. Advantages • Only requires internet access • Can watch a program any time • Fewer ads • Disadvantages • Not everything is available everywhere • Students can watch under aged programs • Inaccurate advertising
  12. 12. Digital Recording Camera Type: DSLR Advantages • Excellent image quality • Changeable lens (huge advantage) • Cheap • Big sensor (much better image quality) • Hack able (can play around with it) Disadvantages • Not designed for filming • Doesn’t have certain features • Big sensor (slows it down) • Over heats quickly (after 7 minutes it turns off) • Lines of definition (neutral)
  13. 13. Digital Recording Camera Type: Camcorders Advantages • Easy to operate - straightforward • Designed for filming • Time saving • Easier storage • Cost effective Disadvantages • Quite limited functions • Not designed for photography
  14. 14. Digital Recording Cameras ISO • How fast or sensitive the light is to the film • The darker it is, the higher the number • The more sensitive the film is, the more noise is visible Aperture • The aperture is the size of the hole • The focus lens allows more light or less light Shutter Speed • The length of the time the image is exposed • Dark – long shutter speed • Bright – short shutter speed These are the three things that affect exposure
  15. 15. Digital Editing File, Size and Compression File – A collection of information that can be stored on the computer. There are many different file types that can store different information. Size – The bigger they are, the slower they are and the harder to store. Some files take quite some time to upload as the files are too big e.g. uploading a mov file to YouTube. Compatibility – Not all files are compatible with all hardware/software There are two types of compression: LOSSLESS – Every single bit of data that was in the file remains after the file is uncompressed. LOSSY – On the other hand, when the LOSSY files get uncompressed, only part of the information remains.
  16. 16. Digital Editing Audio Recording MP3 File Advantages • Can be played by many type of devices e.g. CD players and iPods • High reliability • Mp3 files can be downloaded easily • Free or very cheap • Mp3 files are shared easily Disadvantages • Takes up quite a lot of storage space • The downloaded file may skip at unexpected areas
  17. 17. Digital Editing Audio Recording WAV File Advantages • LOSELESS files • Can be easily edited and changed to your taste of music • High reliability Disadvantages • Limited to 4 gigabytes • Usually very large files • Limited space • Takes quite a bit of time to download
  18. 18. Digital Editing Comparing Software Programs • Adobe Photoshop Elements – The advantages are its easy to use and can be imported using many various ways. The disadvantage is that the program doesn’t have live chat. • Photo Studio – The advantages are it has a lot of editing options and is organized. The disadvantage is it doesn’t have many ways to share the edited file. • Pixelmator – The advantages are it is very easy to use and has a lot of output capabilities. The disadvantages are there aren't as much editing options as the other programs. • Acom – The advantages are the program contains a lot of help and support and has a lot of output capabilities. The disadvantage is that there aren't many ways to organize the file.
  19. 19. Thank You for Watching

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