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We are now in Knowledge Era“We believe that the future belongs tocompanies that can take the best of theEast and the West and start building auniversal model to create new knowledgewithin their organizations.” (I. Nonaka and H. Takeuchi)www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Knowledge era concern about KNOWLEDGE LOST I bring my knowledge died or move to other companywww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Without Knowledge Strategyv We will lose our investments in people, research, development, experiences I bring myv We will lose our opportunities in knowledge markets and businesses died or move tov We will lose our vision and other mission companywww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Knowledge Agendav Making knowledge and knowledge processes more explicit.v The development of strategic frameworks to guide the exploitation of knowledge – in products, services and processes.v The introduction of more systematic methods to the management of knowledge.www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Top-Down KM Approach § Technology-centered KM approach TOP § Started building IT infrastructure § Gradually added more applications MIDDLE § Built around technology by defining more knowledge manager roles BOTTOM Thomas H. Davenport and Laurence Prusak, “How Organizations Manage What They Know;” Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts; 1998www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Bottom-Up KM Approach § Decentralized KM approach § Knowledge-sharing initiatives at TOP grassroots level § Led to development of Communities of Practice (CoPs) MIDDLE § Success from initiatives got mgmt’s attention and eventual support BOTTOM Melissie Clemmons Rumizen, Ph.D, “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Knowledge Management”, John A. Woods, CWL Publishing Enterprises; 2002www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Middle-Out KM Approach § A centralized KM group was created to TOP facilitate the KM program MIDDLE BOTTOM Murray E. Jennex, “Case Studies in Knowledge Management”, Idea Group Publishing; 2005 KM brochure 2006 at ADB websitewww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Characteristics of Knowledge 1. Created by anyone 2. Distributed cheaply 3. Increases when shared 4. Transmitted in networks 5. Guided by vision 6. Unique for individuals 7. Infinite resourcewww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Knowledge Map and Processwww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Knowledge Mapping Overview1. What is Knowledge Mapping?2. Why Knowledge Mapping?3. How to Map?www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
What Is Knowledge Mapping?vIs a process of surveying, assessing and linking the information, knowledge, competencies and proficiencies held by individuals and groups within an organization (Dr Ann Hylton, KeKma- Training2002)www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
What Is Knowledge Mapping?v An ongoing quest within an organization (including its supply and customer chain) to: Ø Help discover the location, ownership, value and use of knowledge artifacts, Ø Learn the roles and expertise of people, Ø Identify constraints to the flow of knowledge, and Ø Highlight opportunities to leverage existing knowledge.v It illustrates or "maps" how knowledge flows throughout an organization. (D. Grey, 2002 Smith Weaver Smith Inc)www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
What Is Knowledge Mapping?v Knowledge mapping is a process by which organizations can identify and categorize knowledge assets within their organization – people, processes, content, and technology.v It allows an organization to fully leverage the existing expertise resident in the company, as well as identify barriers and constraints to fulfilling strategic goals and objectives.v It is constructing a roadmap to locate the information needed to make the best use of resources, independent of source or form. (W. Vestal, APQC, 2002)www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
What Is Knowledge Mapping?v A Knowledge Map describes what knowledge is used in a process, and how it flows around the process. It is the basis for determining knowledge commonality, or areas where similar knowledge is used across multiple processes.v Fundamentally, a process knowledge map contains information about the organization’s knowledge. It describes who has what knowledge (tacit), where the knowledge resides (infrastructure), and how the knowledge is transferred or disseminated (social). (IBM Global Services -Technique Paper, 2000)www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Why Map?Ø Organizations use knowledge maps for a number of different reasons. Some organizations compile company locators to find internal and external resources.Ø Others use them to identify knowledge sharing opportunities or knowledge barriers within cross-functional work groups.Ø Many companies use knowledge mapping before developing formal communities of practice or After-Action Reviews.www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Uses of Knowledge Maps1. Compile company locators –internal and external resources -KM Yellow Pages2. Identify opportunities to reuse information3. Locate naturally-occurring know ledge stewards4. Identify know ledge dependencies within cross- functional w ork groups5. Categorize value-added information resident w ithin your organization6. Identify know ledge sharing opportunities7. Precursor to developing formal communities of practice (CoP)8. Create a know ledge tool that helps users find w hat they need (e.g. Agricultural Trade Programming Tool).
What A Knowledge Map Reveals ... 1. Identifies the core and contextual knowledge inside of an organization 2. How information and knowledge flows 3. What individual knowledge or expertise is critical to a process or focus areawww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
When To MapOrganizations shouldnot design a KMapproach withoutfirst mapping theirknowledge.Within the context ofAPQC’s Road Map toKnowledgeManagement,mapping knowledgeis recommended instage 2 (develop astrategy) or stage 3(design and launch aknowledgemanagementinitiative).
Knowledge Mapping: Where to Focus? 1. Enterprise Knowledge Map - level: Ø Strategic business, technical, market know ledgeSTRATEGIC Ø Determine the organization’s “bench strength” Ø Identify areas to focus KM efforts 2. Cross-functional Knowledge Map - between divisions/business groups level Ø Operational assessment of w orking know ledge 1. Working group/process Knowledge Map:TACTIC Ø Tactical and operational know ledge applied to process excellence, innovation, customer relationship
Process Knowledge MappingØ A method of analysis to define the know ledge needed and the know ledge available to support a business process.Ø Know ledge Mapping identifies the: § Explicit know ledge(knowledge artifacts) § Tacit know ledge(undocumented information, expertise in people’s heads) § Infrastructure (w here does it the reside) § Organization ( w ho and w here are the people)Ø In context of a specific business process
Process-Knowledge Mapping Analysis Matrix Is It What What Who Who Is It Where Routine Issue(s)PROCESS Knowledge Has Needs Tacit Or Is It? Or Non- Does It Is Needed? It? It? Explicit? routine? Address?SystemAnalysisDatabase Design Layout Design CodeProgram www.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Knowledge Map Development and Toolswww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Knowledge Map Development and Tools 1. Diagram Flow: Microsoft Visio, Microsoft Powerpoint, SmartDraw 2. E-R Diagram: Sybase Powerdesigner, ER-Win, DbWrench 3. Mind Mapping: XMind, MindManager 4. Hierarchy Notes: Microsoft Notes 5. Content Management: Dotnetnuke, Wordpress, Joomla, Drupalwww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Customer Relationship Management Product Competitor Supplier Problem Report Customer/ Intermediary Contact Person Employeewww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id
Improvement and Problem Handling Organizational Unit Employee Problem Practice Report Proof Product & Process Service Stakeholder Source Customer Supplier Contactwww.mobileskycode.com www.multif orma.co.id