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Change management fundamentals presentation

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Change management fundamentals presentation

  1. 1. www.nelacademy.nhs.uk 0191 371 3634 Change Management Fundamentals Dr David Yarrow david.yarrow@time-for-change.co.uk 0191 289 3855
  2. 2. Please find someone you don’t know and talk to them for the next few minutes: 1. Introduce yourselves! 2. Take it in turns (2 minutes each) to talk describe something you’re enthusiastic about, and explain why you’re so enthusiastic about it. This could be anything – a hobby/leisure activity, something you’ve done once and wish you could do again, the best meal you’ve ever had, the best decision you’ve ever made, a great piece of technology, best holiday, your great job….
  3. 3. This ‘handout’ contains a selection of the slides used in this workshop. After the workshop we will send e- mail you a link from which you can download an electronic copy of all of the slides.
  4. 4. Please think about these key questions as we get ready to start: • If I asked you to describe one thing that you’re really enthusiastic about, what would it be? This could be anything – a hobby/leisure activity, something you’ve done once and wish you could do again, the best meal you’ve ever had, the best decision you’ve ever made, a great piece of technology, best holiday, your great job…. (you’ll be asked to talk about this early in the workshop!) • Why is ‘change’ and ‘change management’ important for you/for all of us in the NHS? Change Management Fundamentals
  5. 5. Aim of today …to help you to strengthen understanding of generic change principles and to be confident in applying them in your day to day work…
  6. 6. References & signposting North East Leadership Academy: http://www.nelacademy.nhs.uk Watch out for other NELA workshops on subjects related to ‘change management’, e.g. ‘Leading Complex Change’, ‘Polarity Management’, ‘Tipping Point Workshop’, ‘Innovation and Creativity’, ‘Facilitation Skills’. The NHS Change Model: http://www.changemodel.nhs.uk School for Health & Care Radicals: https://changeday.nhs.uk/healthcareradicals Bridges, W. (2003). Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. 2nd edition. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing Cheung-Judge, M. & Holbeche, L. (2011). Organization Development: A practitioner’s guide for OD and HR. London: Kogan Page Gladwell M. (2001). The Tipping Point: How little things make a big difference. London: Abacus Johnson, B. (1992). Polarity Management: Identifying and Managing Unsolvable Problems. Amherst, MA: HRD Press Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Busines School Press. Lewin, K. (1951) Field theory in social science: selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright (ed.), New York, Harper & Row. Merrill, D.W. & Reid, R.H. (1999). Personal Styles and Effective Performance. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Piderit A.K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence ; a multidimensional view of attitudes towards an organizational change, Academy of Management Review, www.findarticles.com Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. Shapiro, A. (2010). Creating Contagious Commitment: Applying the Tipping Point to Organizational Change (2nd edition). Hillsborough, NC: Strategy Perspective
  7. 7. Learning outcomes • be aware of nature & stages of change and their implications • understand responses to change and how they vary for different people • be familiar with ‘soft vs. hard’and ‘either/or vs. polarity management’ approaches to change management • explore appropriateness of push/pull change strategies • understand established & newer approaches to change management • gain useful insights & practical ideas for effective change management
  8. 8. Your objectives
  9. 9. Why does change matter? Why is ‘change’… and change management’… so important to us?
  10. 10. “Every behaviour is motivated by need. Change – any change – may be perceived as disruptive and potentially dangerous as the status quo becomes unstable.” Mackenzie, Maureen (Associate Professor of Management, Dowling College, NY) (2008). Senior Leadership's Role in the Change Process. www.dowling.edu/faculty/Mackenzie/docs/change.pdf Maureen Mackenzie
  11. 11. Let’s think about ‘change’ • Write a list of words that you associate with the feelings you experience when you are going through CHANGE. • Share these lists within your group, and produce a flip chart that summarises the group’s view of what it feels like to go through CHANGE.
  12. 12. Let’s think a bit more about ‘change’ • Now… thinking about some significant change(s) you have been through, can you describe your experience of change as a PROCESS? As a series of steps or stages? • As a group, try to agree on how you would described the stages of this process, and capture this on a flip chart.
  13. 13. Let’s think about ‘managing change’ • Discuss within your group your experiences of trying to: – lead a change initiative of some kind – support a change that someone else is leading – influence other people to change their views – influence other people to change their behaviours – If you wish to, draw upon some examples from outside working life as well as examples from ‘work’ settings. • As a group, produce a flip chart that summarises the group’s experiences of INFLUENCING OTHERS TO CHANGE.
  14. 14. ‘First of all’, he said, if you can learn a simple trick, Scout, you’ll get along a lot better with all kinds of folks. You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view -’ ‘Sir?’ ‘-until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.’ Harper Lee To kill a mocking bird page 35 Atticus stood up and walked to the end of the porch. When he completed his examination of the wistaria vine he strolled back to me.
  15. 15. Change is… something we all know quite a lot about
  16. 16. What does the literature tell us about barriers to change? • It always takes longer than you think • Exaggerated expectations • Scepticism • Impatience • At least 70 % of change efforts fail to bring about the desired results!
  17. 17. Delivering change feels complex ‘cos it is! • Our people are intelligent • Passionate about their work • Trained to be analytical • Diverse professional backgrounds • Faced with challenge, complexity and pressure • Human • Stretched
  18. 18. What do we have to do to influence change?
  19. 19. Nature of change?
  20. 20. What do we have to do to influence change?
  21. 21. Predictable? Variable Challenging Manageable? Modellable Diverse Constant Change is… Change Management Fundamentals
  22. 22. Main Heading here Change management fundamentals • There’s a lot of “change” about… – In life – At work – In the NHS • …and there probably always will be Constant Diverse
  23. 23. Main Heading here Change management fundamentals • People can be ‘good at change’… but we can also be quite attached to the way things are • Observing the ways in which people respond to change ‘situations’, there are patterns, but… – The same person will probably react differently to two different change ‘situations’, and… – Two people will probably react differently to the same change ‘situation’ Challenging Predictable?
  24. 24. Main Heading here Change management fundamentals • A change ‘situation’ may be viewed as: – Opportunity – Threat – Major issue – Irrelevance – Something I have to make happen – Something that others are imposing (trying to impose) on me – Both something that’s imposed on me and something that I have to make happen Variable
  25. 25. Main Heading here Change management fundamentals • There are lots (and lots!) of models/frameworks/theories about change and change management – None of them are 100% ‘right’ or 100% ‘universal’ – But many of them can be useful • There are thousands of people working on ‘change’ in healthcare, lots of help/advice available, lots of great resources. Modellable Manageable?
  26. 26. Lewin Bridges: transitions Gladwell: Tipping Point Rogers: Diffusion Shapiro: creating contagious commitment Merrill & Reid: personal styles Some ‘change models’ NHS Change Model Johnson: polarity management
  27. 27. We have tools – but no magic bullets!
  28. 28. Things they say about change PlannedEmergent TransactionalTransformational Extrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation PushPull Hard systemsSoft systems
  29. 29. As a group: • What are your thoughts about these five ‘categorisations’ of change? • I’ll ask each group to focus on one categorisation in particular, and lead discussion on it in a few minutes… but also think about the others • Is there a dominant fit in your organisation, in terms of where ‘change’ is positioned within these categories? Are there sub cultures within the organisation? Different types of changes? • What works well/not so well in your experience?
  30. 30. • major, strategic changes • driven by need to align shape & functioning of organisation with its strategic intent • and/or by demands of the external environment • profound, transformative change requires a formal change model – orchestrated approach addressing both mechanics of the change and human/cultural aspects. “Some changes are more severe and challenging than others in their effects on the organisation and on employees. Managing change requires you to recognise the type of change you face, then it is easier to decide how to tackle it.” Mee-Yan Cheung-Judge & Linda Holbeche Sources: Cheung-Judge,M & Holbeche,L (2011). Organization Development: A practitioner’s guide for OD and HR. London: Kogan Page. Pellettiere, V. (2006). “Organization Self Assessment to Determine the Readiness and Risk for a Planned Change”. Organization Development Journal, 24(4), pp. 38-43). • smaller-scale changes • fundamental nature of the organisation remains unchanged • relatively simple changes with reasonably predictable outcomes • e.g. changes to processes, structure, systems • tends to be aimed at achieving establishd goald in new, better ways TransactionalTransformational
  31. 31. TransactionalTransformational “The challenge many strategic leaders face [when attempting transformational change] is that it is NOT enough to change strategies, structures and systems, unless the thinking that produced those strategies, structures and systems also changes.” Mee-Yan Cheung-Judge & Linda Holbeche
  32. 32. The ‘planned’ approach • change is a step by step process • typically initiated top down • objectives set in advance • emphasis on thorough planning and project control PlannedEmergent The ‘emergent’ approach • outcomes cannot be predetermined • there is no end point • change comes typically 'bottom up‘ • change can be seen as‘managed learning’
  33. 33. Either/or…. or both/and ? Are both the planned and emergent approaches necessary? • plans needed to set direction…. but need to be flexible • top down support is needed for bottom up change • objectives need to be set and the team should be congratulated when each objective is achieved….. but improvement never ends • correct use of improvement tools and techniques should be planned and monitored….. but gaining the commitment of people is vital
  34. 34. Extrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation • focus on achieving outcomes • motivation comes from outside the individual • e.g. targets, performance management, rewards, threat of punishment • competition is in an extrinsic motivator • motivation that is driven by interest or enjoyment in the task itself • exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or desire for reward • people engage willingly, enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity
  35. 35. • Need for people to realise the costs & risks of maintaining status quo v risk & uncertainty of making the change • Push people by creating discomfort in the system e.g. educate people about consequences of not changing, remove buffers and expose people to the consequences of not changing. • Assumption that intrinsic motivation is not sufficient to bring about change “Pull” change strategies connect a change to things people care about and desire – “change attractors” e.g. • benefits for patients & carers • positive outcomes for the individual • - advantages for their immediate (e.g. team/department) and wider (e.g. organisation/profession) environment PullPush
  36. 36. Change attractors
  37. 37. Formal organisation Informal organisation Goals, strategy, structure, systems & procedures etc. Values, attitudes & beliefs, behaviours, informal groupings, power, politics & conflict handing styles. Beware – only the tip of the iceberg!
  38. 38. • All models are imperfect • All forecasts are wrong • But some models can be useful • They can help us to get a better grasp of complex realities • Provide some useful insights • Help to unfog the fog…. a little or a lot What do we know about ‘models’? Models of change
  39. 39. Models of change • We all use ‘models’ all the time….. often implicitly • ‘Mental models’…. that are running in our heads
  40. 40. Kurt Lewin’s ideas about change Unfreeze Move Refreeze Kurt Lewin (1940s)
  41. 41. Force Field Analysis DrivingForces ResistingForcesCurrent situation Desired situation Kurt Lewin’s ideas about change
  42. 42. As a group: • Try-out a “Force-field analysis” of a specific change • You could use a generic example like “deciding whether to move house” or deciding whether to change jobs”… • …or, agree on another specific change that you can all relate to • Step 1: generate ideas for DRIVING FORCES and RESISTING FORCES • Step 2: Draw the Force-field analysis on flipchart paper • Step 3: Assign values (e.g. from 1 to 10) to each force • Step 4: Conclude… is this change going to happen? If you want it to happen, how might you go about increasing it’s chances of success? • If time allows, reflect on Lewin’s ideas – do they ‘work’ for you? Are they helpful as you try to better understand and manage change?
  43. 43. ‘Unfreezing’ seen as 3 processes 1. Disconfirmation – dissatisfaction or frustration generated by data that ‘disconfirm’ our expectations or hopes …but on its own, this isn’t enough…we tend to deny or ignore the information. Need to accept the info and connect it to something we care about. The disconfirmation must arouse ‘survival anxiety’… if I don’t change, I’ll fail to meet my needs or fail to achieve some goals… Kurt Lewin’s ideas about change
  44. 44. 2. Induction of ‘survival anxiety’ or guilt – but this tends to be resisted by our defensive reactions, manifesting as ‘learning anxiety’ If I allow myself to enter a learning or change process…admit to self & others that something is wrong… I’ll lose my effectiveness, self-esteem, even my identity. Learning anxiety is the fundamental restraining force which can go up in direct proportion to the amount of disconfirmation… hence the need to create some form of ‘psychological safety’…. ‘Unfreezing’ seen as 3 processes Kurt Lewin’s ideas about change
  45. 45. 3. Creating psychological safety – which helps to reduce learning anxiety, allowing me to feel the survival anxiety and thus be genuinely motivated to learn and change Examples of change agents helping to‘create psychological safety’: • Working in groups • Creating parallel systems that allow relief from day-to-day work pressures • Providing practice fields where errors can be embraced rather than feared • Providing positive visions • Breaking learning into manageable steps • Providing coaching ‘Unfreezing’ seen as 3 processes Kurt Lewin’s ideas about change
  46. 46. Main Heading here “It isn’t the changes that do you in, it’s the transitions. They aren’t the same thing. Change is situational: the move to a new site, the retirement of the [boss], the revisions to the pension plan… ..Transition, on the other hand, is psychological; it is a three-phase process that people go through as they internalise and come to terms with the details of the new situation that the change brings about…” William Bridges “The three phases of transition”
  47. 47. • Bridges talks about three stages: –The ending –The neutral zone –The beginning William Bridges (1995). Managing transitions: making the most of change (2nd edition)
  48. 48. The 3 stages of Transition • The Ending: we acknowledge that there are things we need to let go of, and we recognise that we have lost something • The Neutral Zone: the old way has finished but the new way isn't here yet, everything is in flux and it feels like no one knows what they should be doing, things are confusing and disorderly • The Beginning: the new way feels comfortable, right and the only way William Bridges’ model of change
  49. 49. William Bridges “The three phases of transition” Time ? The phases are not separate stages with clear boundaries….
  50. 50. • The difference between individuals is the speed at which we go through that transition, affected by a variety of factors: – past experience – personal preferred style – degree of involvement in recognising the problem and developing possible solutions – the extent to which someone was pushed towards a change rather than moving towards it voluntarily. • Change leaders help people recognise the process and the stages of a transition as something that is natural. For every change, we go through a transition… William Bridges’ model of change
  51. 51. John Kotter – the eight-stage process of creating major change
  52. 52. 1. Establishing a sense of urgency Examining the environment & ‘business’ realities Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises, or major opportunities 2. Creating the guiding coalition Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change Getting the group to work together like a team 3. Developing a vision and strategy Creating a vision to help direct the change effort Developing strategies for achieving that vision 4. Communicating the change vision Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision & strategies Having the guiding coalition role model the behaviour expected of employees 5. Empowering broad-based action Getting rid of obstacles Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision Encouraging risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities & actions 6. Generating short-term wins Planning for visible improvements in performance, or “wins” Creating those wins Visibly recognising and rewarding people who made the wins possible 7. Consolidating gains & producing more change Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures and policies that don’t fit together and don’t fit the transformation vision Recruiting, promoting & developing people who can implement the change vision Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes and change agents 8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture Creating better performance through customer- and results-oriented behaviour, more and better leadership, and more effective management Articulating the connections between new behaviours & organisational success Developing means to ensure leadership development & succession John Kotter – the eight-stage process of creating major change
  53. 53. John Kotter – Leading Change • Allowing too much complacency • Failing to create a sufficiently powerful guiding coalition • Underestimating the power of vision • Undercommunicating the vision by a factor of 10 (or 100 or even 1,000) • Permitting obstacles to block the new vision • Failing to create short term wins • Declaring victory too soon • Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture Eight common errors in organisational change efforts:
  54. 54. John Kotter – Leading Change • Permitting obstacles to block the new vision • Failing to create short term wins • Declaring victory too soon • Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture • Allowing too much complacency • Failing to create a sufficiently powerful guiding coalition • Underestimating the power of vision • Undercommunicating the vision by a factor of 10 (or 100 or even 1,000) Common errors • New strategies aren’t implemented well • Changes don’t deliver expected improvements • Implementation takes too long and costs too much Consequences
  55. 55. As a group: • Reflect on the models of William Bridges and/or John Kotter • Do they make sense to you? • Will they be useful as you seek to cope with change and to manage changes?
  56. 56. Lewin Bridges: transitions Gladwell: Tipping Point Rogers: Diffusion Shapiro: creating contagious commitment Merrill & Reid: personal styles Some ‘change models’ NHS Change Model Johnson: polarity management
  57. 57. Communication is key Change sponsor Opinion leader
  58. 58. Please find someone you don’t know and talk to them for the next few minutes: 1. Introduce yourselves! 2. Take it in turns (2 minutes each) to talk describe something you’re enthusiastic about, and explain why you’re so enthusiastic about it. This could be anything – a hobby/leisure activity, something you’ve done once and wish you could do again, the best meal you’ve ever had, the best decision you’ve ever made, a great piece of technology, best holiday, your great job….
  59. 59. How do ideas and practices spread?
  60. 60. How are ideas and practices spread?
  61. 61. Change as a social process “I don’t know how it started either. All I know is that it’s part of our corporate culture”
  62. 62. Group work: spreading good ideas • Sometimes good ideas (and good practices) seem to ‘spread’ quickly and effectively, other times they don’t… • List the factors that you believe are important in determining how quickly and successfully ‘spread’ of a good idea will occur
  63. 63. Some examples of ‘spread’
  64. 64. Sources: UK GSM networks - subscriber data http://www.prattfamily.demon.co.uk/mikep/subscrib2.htm Mobile Operators Association http://www.mobilemastinfo.com/stats-and-facts/
  65. 65. In 2013, the percentage of UK adults using a mobile phone was 94%. “There are now 82.7 million mobile subscriptions in the UK.”
  66. 66. Smartphone – “a mobile telephone with computer features that may enable it to interact with computerised systems, send e-mails, and access the web.”
  67. 67. Sources: Dedlu, H (2013). When will the US reach smartphone saturation? www.asymco.com OFCOM (2010). The Communications Market 2010: UK. Online at http://www.ofcom.org.uk OFCOM (2013). The Communications Market 2013: UK. Online at http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk
  68. 68. How readily do good ideas spread?
  69. 69. www.keytime.com http://gigliwood.com/abcd/abcd.html Dvorak keyboard
  70. 70. In Windows XP Control Panel/Classic view/Regional & languages/Details Add/Keyboard layout/IME choose “Dvorak” Apply/OK
  71. 71. Dvorak keyboard
  72. 72. In about 1930, Dr. August Dvorak, undertook a study of efficiency in the office. He almost immediately discovered the awful history of the QWERTY keyboard. Christopher Sholes, the inventor of the typewriter (ca. 1870), invented the QWERTY layout by trial and error. In his early typewriter, the type slugs hit the bottom of the platen and then fell back down. Because Sholes didn't think of putting return springs on the type slugs, he had trouble getting any speed out of the machine because the type slugs would jam. So he moved the characters around in a way that made the most common combinations hard to type, in order to SLOW THE TYPIST DOWN so that jams would not occur. In practical terms, then, Sholes anti-engineered the keyboard. Dvorak found that the QWERTY arrangement is actually considerably worse than a random arrangement!
  73. 73. Rogers’ hybrid corn study: the diffusion of innovation
  74. 74. 2.5% 13.5% 34% 34% 16% % adopting the idea time to adopt (Rogers 2003) How ideas and practices spread ‘Innovators’ ‘Early adopters’ ‘Early majority’ ‘Late majority’ ‘Laggards’
  75. 75. Time %adoption TimeTime %adoption%adoption …spread is a social process – it is about communication, observation, persuasion, evaluation, adoption or rejection… 1. Awareness 2. Interest 3. Evaluation 4. Trial 5. Adoption Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Communicability
  76. 76. Rogers’ theory: The Diffusion of Innovations 1. Awareness 2. Interest 3. Evaluation 4. Trial 5. Adoption Everett Rogers (1962, 2003). The Diffusion of Innovations (Also known as: “how ideas & practices spread”)
  77. 77. Rogers & Shoemaker (1971) Determinants of successful planned change can be seen as people’s subjective evaluation of: • Relative advantage – delivers an advantage relative to the status quo • Compatibility – compatible with existing values, past experiences & needs; and able to be adapted to local circumstances • Complexity – relatively easy to understand and use • Divisibility (trialability) – able to be tried without great cost or effort • Communicability (observability) – the outcomes can be clearly seen by others
  78. 78. Case study: mobile phones/smart phones • Review the spread of mobile phones or smart phones in terms of: – relative advantage – compatibility – complexity – trialability – observability •Is there an aspect of change that you’ll be trying to encourage, in your organisation? Can you think about it in terms of these factors?
  79. 79. • Review the spread of mobile phones in terms of: – relative advantage (time management, freedom to move, emergencies, status symbol, small size, low cost) – compatibility (familiarity with phones) – complexity (operates like a traditional phone) – trialability (borrow or pay as you talk) – observability (highly visible) Case study: mobile phones
  80. 80. Why might people not want to change? THE RESISTANCE !
  81. 81. As a group • Consider the idea of ‘resistance’ to change, and your experiences of it • Do you ever ‘resist’ changes yourself? If so, why? Would you regard yourself as a ‘resistor’? • What strategies do you currently deploy to deal with resistance?
  82. 82. “Health and care radicals” talking about “resistance to change” • “Resistance isn’t negativity, but a chance to change our perception, engage and trouble-shoot” • “Sometimes having to listen and explain for those who need more convincing really pays off!” • “Apathy kills changes, not resistance. Anyone interested enough to enagge is a potential advocate” • “I firmly believe weall want to see a better care system – great core purpose, no-one is resistant to this”
  83. 83. ‘The Tipping Point’ Malcolm Gladwell (2000). The Tipping Point Change is a social process… how does it happen? Who can help to make it happen?
  84. 84. “The Tipping Point is the biography of an idea… that the best way to understand the emergence of fashion trends, the ebb & flow of crime waves, the transformation of unknown books into bestsellers, or the rise of teenage smoking, or the phenomena of word of mouth, or any number of the other mysterious changes that mark everyday life is to think of them as epidemics…. …Ideas and products and messages and behaviours spread just like viruses do” Ideas spread like viruses
  85. 85. Contagiousness 3 characteristics of epidemics Little causes can have big effects Change happens not gradually, but at one dramatic moment Time %adoption TimeTime %adoption%adoption
  86. 86. People who can be influential CONNECTORS MAVENS SALESMEN
  87. 87. “Creating Contagious Commitment: Applying the Tipping Point to Organisational Change”
  88. 88. Results plotted in solid lines %Advocates (Green) %Apathetics (Red) The Tipping Point Workshop
  89. 89. The NHS Change Model
  90. 90. “A problem to solve or a polarity to manage?”
  91. 91. “Where all think alike, no- one thinks very much”
  92. 92. 7 levers of change in organisations
  93. 93. References & signposting North East Leadership Academy: http://www.nelacademy.nhs.uk Watch out for other NELA workshops on subjects related to ‘change management’, e.g. ‘Leading Complex Change’, ‘Polarity Management’, ‘Tipping Point Workshop’, ‘Innovation and Creativity’, ‘Facilitation Skills’. The NHS Change Model: http://www.changemodel.nhs.uk School for Health & Care Radicals: https://changeday.nhs.uk/healthcareradicals Bridges, W. (2003). Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change. 2nd edition. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing Cheung-Judge, M. & Holbeche, L. (2011). Organization Development: A practitioner’s guide for OD and HR. London: Kogan Page Gladwell M. (2001). The Tipping Point: How little things make a big difference. London: Abacus Johnson, B. (1992). Polarity Management: Identifying and Managing Unsolvable Problems. Amherst, MA: HRD Press Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Busines School Press. Lewin, K. (1951) Field theory in social science: selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright (ed.), New York, Harper & Row. Merrill, D.W. & Reid, R.H. (1999). Personal Styles and Effective Performance. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Piderit A.K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence ; a multidimensional view of attitudes towards an organizational change, Academy of Management Review, www.findarticles.com Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. Shapiro, A. (2010). Creating Contagious Commitment: Applying the Tipping Point to Organizational Change (2nd edition). Hillsborough, NC: Strategy Perspective
  94. 94. Have some of your existing views about ‘managing change’ and/or ‘coping with change’ been reinforced? Reflect upon what you have heard and discussed today Have any of your existing views been challenged or refined? Are there some lessons you can take away and use? Is there anything you might do differently in future?
  95. 95. Using change models & tools in practice • Right tool, right job ? • Right style, right situation? • Right approach, right time? • Realistic expectations? • Push/pull… intrinsic/extrinsic? The best change tools match the requirements of the group and its context with the change strategy
  96. 96. Final thoughts/questions and evaluations

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