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English parts of speech

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Indirect objectpronouns
Indirect objectpronouns
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English parts of speech

  1. 1. Sentence Simple compound complex Compliment Direct object/ DO Indirect object /IO
  2. 2. Simple Sentence one clause only • The garden is looking beautiful. • The dentist examined my teeth. • We gather twice a week in this room. • The class begins at 8 o’clock. • We will spend vacation in Dubai.
  3. 3. Compound Sentence two main clauses joined by coordinators • The sun is shining and there is no wind. • We found a stray child, so we took him to the police station. • Jim opened the door and went outside. • Here is one shoe but where is the other? • I have left my keys in the car, or perhaps dropped them in the market. • And, so, but, or, nor, while, therefore, though. (coordinate clauses)
  4. 4. More than on coordinate clauses • It was dark, and I didn’t want to walk home alone along the canal, so I turned into the main street, and caught a bus to reach my home.
  5. 5. Complex Sentence main clause+ adverbial/noun/relative • I shall remain where I am. • When I was younger, I thought so. • I forgive you since you repent. • I do it because I choose it. • The dog that barks does not bite. • Here is the book you want. • It is a long lane that has no turning. • He laughs best who laughs last. • Whatever happens keep calm. • Whichever road we take we shall be too lalte.
  6. 6. Compliments The complete predicate is made up of the bare predicate (verb) as well as several other important parts of the sentence. Within the complete predicate you may find some of the following parts. 1. direct object 2. indirect object 3. predicate nominative 4. predicate adjective 5. simple adverbs 6. prepositional phrases 7. clauses
  7. 7. 1. DIRECT OBJECTS Two words can make a complete sentence. One of those words must be a subject, (noun or pronoun), and the other must be a predicate (verb). Furthermore, the two words must express a complete thought. Rain fell. Jack drove. She screamed. Not every two word phrase that contains a noun/pronoun and a verb expresses a complete thought. The following are incomplete sentences. Cindy caught He mailed You are left asking questions. Cindy caught WHAT or WHOM? He mailed WHAT? Any noun or pronoun that makes these thoughts complete by answering the question WHAT? or WHOM? is called a direct object. Direct objects are always nouns and pronouns and are found only after action verbs. Cindy caught the ball. He mailed a letter. Think of it this way. The action verb in this sentence is caught. The subject of the sentence is Cindy. Who or what received the action? (Cindy caught who? or what?)...the ball. Ball is the direct object. Try finding the direct object in this sentence using the method described above. Len mailed his cheque
  8. 8. 2. INDIRECT OBJECTS The second kind of complement is called an indirect object. Indirect objects always come between action verbs and direct objects. In the examples below, the underlined word is the direct object, and the word in bold type is the indirect object. Auntie Bessie gave the girls a present for their birthday. What did Aunt Bessie give? She gave a present. The noun present is the direct object. To whom did Aunt Bessie give a present? - the girls. The noun girls is theindirect object. The sentence below uses a pronoun as the indirect object. She gave them a present for their birthday. Think of it this way. Auntie Bessie had to give the present before the girls (them) could receive it. In other words, the present receives the action of giving directly. The girls (them) receive the action of giving indirectly.
  9. 9. Indirect objects are always found between the verb and the direct object. Our office sent the client a special delivery letter. Our office sent a special delivery letter (to the client). Have you charged them the right amount? Have you charged the right amount (to them)? His determination earned him a million dollars. His determination earned a million dollars (for him). Shirley asked us a question. Shirley asked a question (of us).
  10. 10. Here is another method for finding indirect objects. Marg brought her friends some flowers. The action verb in the sentence is brought Who? or What? brought her friends some flowers. Marg brought - subject Ask Marg brought whom? or what? flowers - direct object Ask Marg brought some flowers to whom? friends - indirect object
  11. 11. PRONOUN SELECTION Personal pronouns change their form to show 1. gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) 2. number (singular, plural) 3. person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) 4. case
  12. 12. Case refers to the different forms a personal pronoun can take in different parts of the sentence. Personal pronouns have three cases: 1. subjective case5 (for subjects and predicate nominatives) 2. objective case (for direct/indirect objects and objects of the preposition 3. possessive case (to show ownership) CASE USES FORMS Subjective case subject I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they predicate nominative Objective case direct object me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them indirect object object of the preposition Possessive case ownership my/mine, your/yours, his, hers, its our/ours, your/yours, their/theirs
  13. 13. It was I who reported the accident. It was definitely she in the front seat of that car. The objective case, as its name suggests, is used for objects. They overheard him and me on the phone. (direct object) The group awarded them and us the same prize. (indirect object) Divide the money between him and her. (object of the preposition) The possessive case has two forms. When a personal pronoun is placed in front of a noun, the forms my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their are correct.
  14. 14. The interrogative pronoun who also has case. SUBJECTIVE CASE, OBJECTIVE CASE and POSSESSIVE CASE who/ whom /whose Examples: Who cooked this steak? (interrogative pronoun - subjective case) Whom did you see there? (interrogative pronoun - objective case) To whom have you spoken? (interrogative pronoun - objective case) Whose shorts are these? (interrogative pronoun - possessive case) Whose are these? (interrogative pronoun - possessive case)
  15. 15. 3. PREDICATE NOMINATIVES Sentences constructed with linking verbs contain a special kind of complement. These complements occur only after linking verbs. If a noun/pronoun completes the meaning of the linking verb, it is called a predicate nominative. My sister became a teacher. The complete predicate in this sentence is became a teacher. The bare predicate is the linking verb became. The complement which completes the meaning of this linking verb is the noun, teacher. The word, teacher, is called a predicate nominative. In formal writing, a personal pronoun which follows a linking verb must be in the subjective (nominative case) It was I who made that policy decision. In conversation and informal writing, it is more common to say, Who’s there? It’s me. or It’s them.
  16. 16. 4. PREDICATE ADJECTIVES When an adjective completes the meaning of a linking verb, it is called a predicate adjective. My sister felt happy about her new job. The clouds grew dark because of the storm. Those cinnamon rolls smell delicious. The learners never became discouraged The complete predicate in this sentence is felt happy about her new job. The bare predicate is the linking verb felt. The word which completes the meaning of this verb (the complement) is the adjective, happy. Thus happy is a predicate adjective.

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