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Brainstorm 4 main food types and where they come from Fat and protein meat, fish Sugars fruit, sweet things Crbs from pasta, potatoes etc
H/O anticipation guide digestion and absorption H/O vocab square digestion H/O game structure of digestive system Stretch out person until intestine is straight they are 8m long, HORSE 30M! shine torch Ingestion Digestion Absorbtion Egestion
The human body system
An Interactive Lesson(HUMAN BODY SYSTEM) Gloria Ponciano, Ph.D Professor
THE HUMAN BODY SYSTEMSKELETAL SYSTEM IMMUNE SYSTEMMUSCULAR SYSTEM ENDOCRINE SYSTEMRESPIRATORY SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEMREPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMDIGESTIVE SYSTEM EXCRETORY SYSTEMCIRCULATORY SYSTEM
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMHave you ever seen the frame of ahouse when its being built?
A baby have over 300 bones.By the time you are anadult, you have 206 bones in your body.
The Skeletal System serves many important functions;a. provides the shapeb. Supports our bodyc. Protects the internal organsd. Allows bodily movemente. Produces blood for the bodyf. Store minerals
Divisions of the SkeletonThe human skeleton is divided intotwo distinct parts:1. AXIAL SKELETON- It consists ofbones that form the axis of the bodyand support and protect the organs ofthe head, neck, and trunk. The Skull The Sternum The RibsThe Vertebral Column
2. APPENDICULAR SKELETON – it is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton. The Upper Extremities The Lower Extremities The Shoulder Girdle The Pelvic Girdle - (the sacrum and coccyx are considered part of the vertebral column)
next TYPES OF BONES 1. LONG BONES 2. SHORT BONES 3. FLAT BONES 4. IRREGULAR BONES
back LONG BONES are longer than they are wide and work as levers. EXAMPLES: humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals
back SHORT BONES are short, cube- shaped, and found in the wrists and ankles
back FLAT BONES have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles EXAMPLES ribs, cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdle
back IRREGULAR BONES are all others that do not fall into the previous categories. They have varied shapes, sizes, and surfaces features EXAMPLES Skull, Vertebrae
HOMEBone Composition1. COMPACT or DENSE BONE - dense, hard, and forms the protective exterior portion of all bones .2. SPONGY or CANCELLOUS BONE - It is inside the compact bone and is very porous (full of tiny holes). Spongy bone occurs in most bones.
back The skull is the bony framework of the head. It is composed of eight cranial and fourteen facial bones.
back The sternumis a flat,dagger shapedbone located inthe middle ofthe chest.
back The ribs are thin,flat, curved bonesthat form a protectivecage around theorgans in the upperbody. It is comprisedof 24 bones arrangedin 12 pairs .
back The vertebral column (also called the backbone, spine, or spinal column) consists of a series of 33 irregularly shaped bones, called
back The upperextremityconsists of threeparts: the arm,the forearm, andthe hand.
back The lower extremity is composed of the bones of the thigh, leg, foot, and the patella (commonly known as the kneecap).
back The Shoulder Girdle, alsocalled the Pectoral Girdle, iscomposed of four bones: twoclavicles and two scapulae .
back The Pelvic Girdle, also called thehip girdle, is composed to two coxal(hip) bones.
What do muscles do?• Muscles pull on the joints and bones, allowing us to move.• They help us breathe by working with the lungs.• They help our hearts beat.• They also help the body perform other functions so we can grow and remain strong
NEXT TYPES OF MUSCLE 1. SKELETAL MUSCLE 2. SMOOTH MUSCLE 3. CARDIAC MUSCLE
back Skeletal Muscles - move and support the skeleton - they make up fifty percent of your body weight - links two bones across its connecting - voluntary muscles, these are muscles that we can consciously control
back SMOOTH MUSCLES - the muscle fibers look smooth and not striated - involuntary movements of the inner organs, e.g. the (peristaltic) bowel movement
back CARDIAC MUSCLE - These muscles are attached to the heart. - They are responsible for moving the blood through the hearts chambers and pumping it to all parts of the body. - These muscles are involuntary.
HOME* Voluntary muscles are muscles that you can move whenever you want to.* Involuntary musclescontract and relaxautomatically inside yourbody. We can not control ourinvoluntary muscles.
NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System
back CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) - Its main job is to get the information from the body and send out instructions. BRAIN SPINAL CORD
Brain• It is the control center of the body• The brain also allows us to think, feel, remember and imagine.
back • EEG recording of one persons brain waves; EEG electrode attachment .
back• Spinal Cord - The cord is a thick bundle of nerves, connecting your brain to the rest of your body. - The spinal cord runs down a tunnel of holes in your backbone or spine.
The Peripheral NervousSystem- carries messages to and from the central nervous system.- It comprises two parts: the somatic and the autonomic nervous syste
back• The Somatic Nervous System The somatic nervous system is composed of the sensory (afferent) neurons that carry messages to the central nervous system and the motor (efferent) neurons that carry messages from the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles of the body.
back Autonomic Nervous System The autonomic nervous system carries messages between the central nervous system and the internal organs.
TWO PARTS1. sympathetic2. parasympathetic The first acts primarily to arouse the body; the second, to relax and restore the body to normal levels of arousal.
NEURON or NERVE CELL- The functioning unit of the nervous system.- It carry messages from all parts of the body to the brain.
PARTS OF THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM1. NOSTRILS2. TRACHEA3. BRONCHI, BRONCHIOLES4. ALVEOLI
back• The upper air passages refer to the respiratory organs in the head of the human being. They include the nose and throat (pharynx).• During breathing in, the air enters initially through the nose, where it is pre- cleaned by a hair filter.
The windpipe (trachea ) joins theupper respiratorytract to the lungs.
back • The bottom of the trachea splits into two branches called bronchi . One enters the right lung and one goes to the left lung. • These divide into twigs called bronchioles.
Digestion The chemical breakdown of complex biological molecules into their component parts. Lipids to fatty acids Proteins to individual amino acids Carbohydrates into simple sugars
The Digestive SystemDigestion The chemical breakdown of complex biological molecules into their component parts. Lipids to fatty acids Proteins to individual amino acids Carbohydrates into simple sugars
Food Type Use• Carbohydrate • Long term energy• Fat • Protecting organs and long term energy store• Protein • Making muscle, enzymes, skin, hair• Sugars • Fast energy
• Mechanical digestion • Chemical digestion – Changes the physical form of food Changes the chemical • Chew composition of food with • Tear the aid of digestive • Grind enzymes • Mash • Carbohydrate • Mix • Protein • Lipid
The Digestive System (Breaking food down into smaller Let’s find out what happened to your breakfast pieces) today!• Mouth• Oesophagus• Stomach• Small Intestine• Liver• Large Intestine• Gall Bladder• Pancreas• Rectum• Anus
• Major parts • AccessoryPartsOrgan – Mouth s that are not in the – Pharynx digestive tract but – Esophagus helps in the digestion – Stomach – Teeth – Small Intestine – Tongue – Large Intestine – Salivary glands – Liver – Gall bladder – Pancreas
• Phases of DigestionIngestion• Movement• Digestion• Absorption• Further digestion
Mouth and Teeth The mouth and teeth are the firststep in breaking food down. Duringthe process of chewing, food isshredded and ground. Powerfulmuscles move the mandible , orlower jaw, while the food is chewed.The front teeth cut the food and theback teeth grind the food.
Only eats meat E.g. Spider, lion Its survival is dependent on finding and catching preyTop predator – Nothingeats him!
• There are three main parts to the tooth: the root, the neck and the crown.
• The root is the part inside the jaw.• The neck is a narrow connection between the root and the crown.• The crown of the tooth is above the gum.
FOUR TYPES OF TEETH1. Incisors2. Canines3. Premolars4. Molars
back incisors - are the sharp- edged teeth in the front of the mouth that bite and cut food. We have 8 of these.
back canines - are the pointed teeth next to the incisors that grip and tear food. We have 4 of these.
back premolars - are the teeth just behind the canines. They help the canines with chopping and assist the molars with grinding. There are 8 of these in our mouths.
back molars - are the teeth in the back of the mouth that pound, grind and crush food into mush so that it can be swallowed. We have 12 molars.
• When food is being chewed, saliva is squirted into the mouth.• Saliva helps to soften the food.• It contains an enzyme that helps break down the starch in the food.• The tongue helps push the food to the back of the mouth
ESOPHAGUS- it is about ten incheslong.– the muscles in theesophagus move thefood down the tube.
STOMACH- a sac shapedmuscular organ- it is about eightinches long- it functions as areservoir holds thefood we eat
SMALL INTESTINE - it is the major site for the digestion (breakdown of nutrients from food and liquid) and absorption (passage into the bloodstream) of nutrients. - it is about 10 feet long 3 parts1. Duodenum2. Jejunum3. Ileum
Duodenum – upper part; about 10 in;connected to the stomach.– where the digestive juices from thepancreas and the liver combine withchyme making it thin and watery.Jejunum – about 8 ftIleum – about 12 ft
Large Intestine/ COLON-Its function is to absorbwater and to solidify thestool into a formedbolus which can beeasily passed.
A meal may take up to three days to pass through your digestive system. It spends about three hours in your stomach.
APPENDIX-It is an organ with noknown function. Itprojects from the roundedend of the large intestine.
LIVER - It is the main warehouse for nutrients absorbed from the small intestine.- The liver is a very large organ located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen protected by the rib cage.- It also produces bile which is stored in the gallbladder.
GALL BLADDER- It is a sac which serves as a storage reservoir for bile .
HOMEPANCREAS - Its main function is to secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine in order to help digest carbohydrates, protein and fat.
• Pulmonary circuit Pulmonary circulation transports oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs where blood picks up a new blood supply. Then it returns the oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium.
SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT• It carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide and waste products.• Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, through the arteries, to the capillaries in the tissues of the body.• From the tissue capillaries, the deoxygenated blood returns through a system of veins to the right atrium of the heart.
Heart– is a muscularorgan that pumpsblood throughoutthe body.
What is Blood?• Red blood cells - carry oxygen (O2) from your lungs to your body cells and carbon dioxide (CO2) from your body cells back to your lungs to be exhaled• Platelets - help clot blood
• White blood cells - fight germs that infect the body• Plasma - a yellowish liquid that consists mostly of water
A, B, AB and O bloodtypes are determined bythe presence orabsence of antigens(specific chemicals) onthe red blood cells
BLOOD VESSELS• Arteries are tubes that carry blood away from the heart• Veins are tubes that return blood to the heart• Capillaries connect arteries and veins. They are tiny tubes that exchange food, oxygen and wastes between blood and body cells.
HOMERole of the capillaries - capillaries have a vital role in the exchange of gases, nutrients, and metabolic waste products between the blood and the tissue cells.
PANCREAS- controls the level of sugar in the blood by secreting insulin and glucagon.
PITUITARY GLAND1. POSTERIOR PITUITARY - It produces two hormones: vasopressin, which causes blood pressure to rise and regulates the amount of water in the bodys cells, and oxytocin, which causes the uterus to contract during childbirth and lactation to begin.
2 . ANTERIOR PITUITARY - often called the "master gland," responds to chemical messages from the bloodstream to produce numerous hormones that trigger the action of other endocrine glands .
GONADS- These are reproductiveglands—the testes inmales and the ovariesin females.
HOMEADRENAL GLANDS-Consists of two parts theadrenal cortex, and an innercore, the adrenal medulla.- Both influence the bodysresponses to stress.
EXCRETORY SYSTEM• It removes wastes in the body.• It includes the skin, large intestine, lungs, and kidneys.
SKIN• to form a protective layer over the body to help prevent injury and disease• to keep moisture in the body (water retention)• to make vitamin D• to regulate body temperature• to excrete waste
Layers of the Skin1. Epidermis2. Dermis3. Subcutaneous layer
back EPIDERMIS - The thin outer layer of the skin which forms its epithelium.
back DERMIS - The thick layer of connective tissue which contains hair follicles, hair, nerves (the bodys sense of touch), sweat and oil glands and blood vessels.
back SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER - The layer of fatty tissue.
LUNGS- It removes carbon dioxide and water from the blood.
LARGE INTESTINE- It removes several salts from the body.
HOMELIVER- It removes ureaproduced by thecells of the liver.
IMMUNE SYSTEM- it is designed to defendyou against millions ofbacteria, microbes,viruses, toxins, andparasites. stay there.
• This is a photo of a killer T-cell killing a cancer cell.Photo taken from the following website:http://www.cancer- info.com/circle.ht m
HOME The immune system is one ofthe most important systems in thehuman body. The immune system isalso a very easy system to explainhow it works. The immune systemto your body is like batteries to awalkman. Without batteries, yourwalkman will shutdown. Theimmune system will do the samething to your body.
OVARIES- Small flattened, elongated organs on both sides of uterus.
FALLOPIAN TUBE/ OVIDUCT- A pair of duct leading from the ovaries to the uterus.
Sperm meets an ovum in a fallopian tube.Fallopian tubes, also called uterine tubes,connect the ovaries to the uterus
UTERUS - Pear-shaped muscular organ.- It receives and holds the fertilized ovum.
CERVIX- Neck of the uterus that opens to the vagina.
VAGINA(Birth Canal)- Passageway of menstrual flow and baby to the outside.
HOMEA human ovum at themoment of fertilization
GLOSSARY• Acrosome (AK-ro-sohm): Tip of the head of a sperm cell that contains enzymes to digest the membrane of an ovum.• Amnion (AM-nee-on): Fluid-filled sac that surrounds a developing embryo/fetus.
• Areola (ah-REE-oh-lah): - Circular, darkened area surrounding the nipple of each breast.• Alveolar glands (al-VEE-o-lar GLANDZ): - Glands within the lobes of mammary glands that produce milk.• Bulbourethral glands (bull-bo-yoo- REE-thruhl GLANDZ): - Glands located underneath on either side of the prostate gland in males that secrete fluid that becomes part of semen.
• Cervix (SIR-viks): - Lower necklike portion of the uterus leading into the vagina.• Chromosomes (kro-meh—somes): - Threadlike structures found in the nucleus of cells that carry the genetic material or genes that determine heredity.
• Circumcision (sirnkum-SIZH-un): - Surgical removal of the prepuce or foreskin of the penis.• Digestion - Process of breaking down food particles inside the body
• Ductus deferens (DUK-tus DEF-e- renz): - Passageway that carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct.• Ejaculation (ee-jack-you-LAY- shun): - Sudden ejection of semen from the penis.
• Ejaculatory duct (ee-JACK-yoo-la- tor-ee DUKT): - Duct formed by the union of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle.• Epididymis (ep-i-DID-i-mis): - Portion of the male reproductive duct system in which sperm mature or fully develop.
• Estrogens (ES-tro-jenz): - Female steroid hormones secreted by the ovaries that bring about the secondary sex characteristics and regulate the female reproductive cycle.• Excretion - Process of removing waste in the body• Fallopian tube (fah-LOH-pee-an TOOB): - Tube connecting an ovary to the uterus and through which an ovum is transported.
• Gamete (GAM-eat): - Female or male reproductive or sex cell (egg or sperm).• Genitalia (jen-i-TAY-lee-ah): - External organs of the reproductive system.• Gonad (GO-nad): - Sex organ in which reproductive cells develop.
• Hormones - Chemical substances released by glands that are responsible for changes in the body.• Mammary glands (MAM-uh-ree GLANDZ): - Milk-producing glands in female breasts.• Menarche (meh-NAR-key): - Beginning of menstruation or the first menstrual period.
• Menopause (MEN-ah-paws): - Period in a womans life when menstrual activity ceases.• Menstruation (men-stroo-A-shun): - Also known as menses, periodic (monthly) discharge of blood, secretions, tissue, and mucus from the female uterus in the absence of pregnancy.
• Oocyte (OH-oh-site): - Immature or developing egg cell.• Ova (O-va): - Female gametes or eggs (singular: ovum).• Ovarian follicles (o-VAR-ee-an FOL-i- kulz): - Structures within an ovary consisting of a developing egg surrounded by follicle cells.
• Ovaries (O-var-eez): - Female gonads in which ova (eggs) are produced and that secrete estrogens and progesterone.• Ovulation (ov-yoo-LAY-shun): - Release of a mature ovum from an ovary.• Oxytocin (ahk-si-TOE-sin): - Hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary that stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and secretion of milk during nursing.
• Penis (PEE-nis): - Male organ of reproduction and urination.• Placenta (plah-SEN-tah): - Temporary organ that provides nutrients and oxygen to a developing fetus, carries away wastes, and produces hormones such as estrogens and progesterone
• Prepuce (PREE-pyus): - Also called foreskin, the fold of skin over the glans or tip of the penis.• Progesterone (pro-JESS-te-rone): - Female steroid hormone secreted by the ovaries that makes the uterus more ready to receive a fertilized ovum or egg.
• Prolactin (pro-LAK-tin): - Gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk.• Prostate gland (PRAHS-tate GLAND): - Muscular gland in males that surrounds the first inch of the urethra and secretes a fluid that becomes part of semen.• Scrotum (SKROW-tum): - External sac enclosing the testes
• Semen (SEE-men): - Thick, whitish, somewhat sticky fluid composed of sperm and glandular secretions that is propelled out of a males reproductive tract during ejaculation.• Seminal vesicles (SEM-i-nuhl VESS-i-kulls): - Glands in males located at the base of the bladder that secrete fluid that becomes part of semen.• Seminiferous tubules (sem-i-NIFF-er-us TOO-byoolz): - Tightly coiled tubes within the testes that produce sperm.
• Sperm: - Mature male sex or reproductive cell.• Testes (TESS-teez): - Male gonads that produce sperm cells and secrete testosterone.• Testosterone (tess-TAHS-ter-ohn): - Hormone secreted by the testes that spurs the growth of the male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics.
• Umbilical cord (um-BILL-i-kull KORD): - Structure that connects the embryo/fetus to the placenta.• Uterus (YOU-ter-us): - Also known as the womb, the hollow organ in females that receives, retains, and nourishes a fertilized ovum or egg.
HOME• Vagina (vuh-JIGH-nah): - Muscular tube in women that extends from the cervix of the uterus to the vaginal opening.• Vulva (VUL-vah): - Female external genital organs.• Zygote (ZIE-goat): - Fertilized ovum
PRE – TEST1. What sets up the acidic condition in the stomach that is necessary for digestion? a. bile b. hydrochloric acid c. chyme d. acetic acid
2. What attaches a muscle to a bone? a. ligament c. cartilage b. tendon d. myoglobin3. Which bone protect the lungs and the heart? a. rib cage c. backbone b. skull d. pelvic bone
4. Female sex cell a. egg c. sperm b. testes d. ovary5. It is where gas exchange occurs. a. lungs c. nostrils b. alveoli d. trachea
6. Waste materials formed in the liver. a. sweat c. feces b. urea d. liver7. What makes the blood red? a. platelets c. cholesterol b. blood d. mineral
8. What isthe largest artery in the circulatory system? a. aorta c.heart b. venacava d. pulmonary artery 9. Whichpart of the nervous system is found in allparts of the body? a. spinalcord c. nerves b. cerebrum d. cerebellum
10. Which body structure links the brain with the rest of the body? a. backbone c. meninges b. blood vessels d. motor nerves11. What important work is carried by the nerves? a. to carry blood b. to protect the brain c. to carry messages d. to protect the spinal cord
12. Which hormone affects the growth and development of a female adolescent? a. egg cell c. progesterone b. sperm cell d. estrogen13. What kind of development takes place in adolescents? a. physical c. emotional b. intellectual d. all of the above
14. Which organ is responsible for the exchange of gases? a. ovary c. lungs b. artery d. all of the above15. Which is the main cause of emphysema or collapse of lungs? a. smoking c. liquor b. air pollution d. all of them
16. Which is considered to be the master gland? a. Adrenal gland c. Thyroid gland b. Pituitary gland d. Sex glands17. Which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system? a. chewing c. heartbeat b. walking d. none
18. Which serves as the highways in the body? a. Arteries c. Capillaries b. Veins d. All of these19. What does the thoracic basket protect? a. lungs c. liver b. heart d. all
HOME20. Which is the skeletal muscle? a. arm muscle b. eye muscle c. heart muscle d. all of these
POST – TEST1. What nutrients are needed to make the bone healthy? a. Vitamins C and D b. Phosphorus c. Calcium d. All
2. What is the main function of the muscle? a. protection c. contraction b. attachment d. locomotion3. Muscles that move automatically are __. a. skeletal muscle c. cardiac muscle b. smooth muscle d. b and c
4. Which attaches the muscles to the bones? a. tendon c. cartilage b. joint d. a and c5. What nutrients do we get from vegetables and fruits? a. minerals c. protein b. vitamins d. all
5. Which help make digestion faster? a. enzymes c. hydrochloric acid b. gastric juices d. all6. What process breaks down food into simple form? a. digestion c. absorption b. small intestine d. defecation
8. Which is affected when the heart pumps? a. Blood pressure c. Pulse b. Heartbeat d. All9. Which does not flow in the blood vessels? a. Interstitial fluid c. RBC b. Blood plasma d. WBC
10. The biggest part of the brain__. a. cerebrum c. cerebellum b. brain stem d. none of these11. Which is considered to be the master gland? a. Adrenal gland c. Thyroid gland b. Pituitary gland d. Sex glands
12. Which process is responsible for producing new life? a. respiration c. reproduction b. excretion d. none13. A muscular organ which serves as a cradle where the fetus develops. a. uterus c. cervix b. fallopian tube d. ovaries
14. Where does fertilization of egg occurs? a. Uterus c. cervix b. fallopian tube d. ovaries15. What is contained in the urine? a. excess water c. uric acid b. salt d. all of these
16. Which monitors the quality of blood in the body? a. heart c. lungs b. Kidney d. blood vessels17. Which serves as the highways in the body? a. Arteries c. Capillaries b. Veins d. All of these
18. Which organ is responsible for the exchange of gases? a. ovary c. lungs b. artery d. all of the above19. What nutrients do we get from vegetables and fruits? a. minerals c. protein b. vitamins d. all
HOME20. Which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system? a. chewing c. heartbeat b. walking d. none