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It is impossible to imagine ourtelevision, newspapers, radio, Internet andeven streets without advertisements.Nowadays advertising plays an importantrole in modern life and in the life of everyperson. We can’t imagine our life withoutadvertising because every day we hear orsee advertising, we try to find informationwe need in hundreds of advertisements.Even when we go for a walk or justshopping we see a lot of differentadvertisements in the streets. I think that“Advertising” is a very interestingtopic, because in the XXI century everyminute of our life is connected withadvertising. It is hard to believe but theorigins of advertising antedate theChristian era by many centuries. One ofthe first known methods of advertising wasoutdoor display, usually an eye-catchingsign painted on the wall of a building.From this unsophisticated beginnings inancient times advertising has turned into aworldwide industry.
The word “advertising” comes from the French word "reclame". Advertising if tospeak a simple language, serves to notify in various ways (sometimes allavailable) the new goods or services and their consumer properties, and isdirected to the potential consumer, paid by the sponsor and serves for promotionof its production and ideas. Advertising is a part of communication activity of afirm, alongside with publicity and stimulation of selling. Advertising unessentiallyimposes the goods on the buyer. Sometimes it simply forces to recollect the lastconcrete mark or the name of the goods or service when the customer makes thechoice. At the beginning the consumer decides to choose from what, and alreadythen what mark to prefer, on the basis of the representation about it, a stereotypeor a developed image of concrete mark of the goods or service. There are a lot ofdefinitions of the word “advertising”. For example, advertising is collective term forpublic announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities orservices. Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use ofdirect, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. It isto be distinguished from other activities intended to persuade the public, such aspropaganda, publicity, and public relations. Advertising techniques range incomplexity from the publishing of simple, straightforward notices in the classified –advertising columns of newspapers to the concerted use ofnewspapers, magazines, television, radio, internet and other communicationmedia in the course of a single advertising campaign. In the US alone in the late1980s approximately $120 billion was spent in a single year on advertising toinfluence the purchase of commodities and services.
Advertising has achieved thegreatest blossoming in the UnitedStates of America. Americanadvertising leads the world not only involume of business but in thecomplexity of its organization and of itsprocedures. Modern advertising is anintegral segment of urban industrialcivilization, reflecting contemporary lifein its best and worst aspects. Havingproved its force in the movement ofeconomic goods andservices, advertising since the early1960s has been directed in increasingquantity toward matters of socialconcern. The continuing cancer andantidrug abuse campaigns are only twoexamples of the use of the advertisingindustry as a means to promote publicwelfare.
The basic underlying advertising idea is theidea of human needs. Need is the feeling ofshortage of something experienced by theperson. If the need is not satisfied, the personfeels like destitute and unfortunate.Unsatisfied person will do one of the followingthings: either will be engaged in search of theobject, capable to satisfy his or her need, orwill try to muffle it.The second initial idea of advertising is theidea of human requirements. Requirement isthe need which has accepted the specific formaccording to a cultural level and the personalfeatures of the individual. Requirements ofpeople are practically boundless, butresources for their satisfaction are limited. Sothe person will choose those goods which willgive him or her the greatest satisfaction withinthe framework of his or her financialopportunities.
The inquiry is the requirementsupported by purchasing capacity.So, for example, in Europeautomobile " Volkswagen "personifies an elementaryautomobile, a low purchase price, and"Cadillac" - high comfort, luxury andprestige. Russian people choose"Zhiguli" as they have no opportunityto buy such expensive cars and"Zhiguli" gives them the greatestsatisfaction for money available forthem.And, at last, human needs andrequirements and inquiries suggestabout the existence of the goods fortheir satisfaction. The goods areeverything, that can satisfyrequirements or needs and they areoffered to the market with the purposeof gaining the attention of theconsumers, purchasing, using orconsuming.
The structure of advertising contains the following five basic moments:The first one, it possesses the ability to draw attention. It is very importantto draw attention of readers by headings and televiewers by a video series. Itis necessary to find out whether advertising influences those categories ofpotential consumers for which it is designed.The second one, the force of influence of advertising on the emotions ofconsumers. It is necessary to know what feelings are born in them under theinfluence of advertising, whether the advertising argument is successful andwhether it is made correctly.The third one, how strong is the force of influence. We should admitwhether the consumer will run to buy these goods after viewing advertising orwill continue sitting in an armchair in spite of the fact that he or she likesadvertising it and there is a necessity to purchase the advertising goods.The fourth one is its informative value. We must be sure that theadvertising is stated clearly, the utility of promoted thing is shown correctly andprofoundly.And the last, the fifth one, we should know for sure whether the person willwant to read the message or to see an advertising roller up to the end. Wemust know how effectively advertising gains attention of the people.
Nevertheless, we should admit thatadvertising actually enriches our lives.Commercial television is able to provide us withfree programmes thanks to its advertisingrevenues, local newspapers and magazinesderive also much revenue fromadvertising, which allows them to exist. Atleast, advertising makes people mind go far intheir creativity, generating over and over newinteresting ideas.At first when trade began to develop wideand fast advertising was oral. Traders, dealersand vagrant handicraftsmen offered their highlypraised goods and various services in eagerrivalry filling with shouts the streets of their citiesand towns. The early advertising was carried outby the city heralds or town/city criers. "GoldenAge" of ancient Greece saw many heralds whowent along the streets of Athenes, proclaimingabout sales of slaves, cattle and other goods.
One more early version of advertising was abrand which handicraftsmen put on theirgoods, such, as pottery. As rumours broughtinformation of a skilful handicraftsman, buyersstarted to search for the goods with his brand.Today for the same purpose trade marks andbranded names are used. In the process ofcentralization of manufacture value of a brandconstantly grew.We can see advertisements in the earlydocuments of written history. Duringexcavations on the territory of the countriesbelonging to the Mediterranean regionarcheologists found the signboards informing onvarious events and offers. The Romans paintedwalls with announcements of gladiatorialfights, and the Phoenicians painted rocks onroutes of different trade processions, in everypossible way praising to the skies their goods.One of the inscriptions on the walls of the housein Pompeii highly praised one outstandingpolitician and called people to give their voicesfor him voting that time. All these things arepredecessors of modern outdoor advertising.