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Post Partition Problems of Pakistan

  2. PARTITION PROBLEMS, 1947 Pakistan emerged on the world globe on 14th august, 1947 with much of the sacrifices and blood shed. .
  3. The creation of Pakistan started a new era of problems for Pakistan… but finally muslims were successful in getting their separate Homeland.
  4. The problems were far numerous for Pakistan than for the dominion of India
  5. • Government of India in delhi was a going concern • The number of bristish and muslim officials who might leave its service was not big enough • Diplomatic and trade missions established abroad were taken over by Union of India • System of banking and currency was already operating in India, remained in Indian hands • Indian railways, ports etc linked various parts of subcontinent; controlled from delhi • All industrial and research institutions there • Army, air force and navy head quarters in Delhi • Ordnance factories and military store depots in Indian dominion.
  6. RADCLIFF AWARD (AUGUST 16,1947) • Representatives of Punjab Boundary Commission • Pakistan • Justice Din Muhammad • Justice Muhammad Munir • India • Justice Maher Chand Muhajan • Justice Tej Singh • Representatives of Bengal Boundary commission • Pakistan • Justice Abu Saleh • Muhammad Ikram • Justice S.A Rehman • India • Justice C.C Biswas • Justice B.K Mukarjee
  7. Sir Cyril Radcliff was appointed as the chairman of both the boundary commissions.
  8. Analysis of the Boundary Award The award was partial, unjust and unfair to Pakistan Muslim majority areas handed over to india Award also paved way for disputes b/w india and Pakistan
  9. • Areas of muslim majority areas handed over to india that were contiguous to the Boundary of Pakistan included Sub-district of Ajnala in Amritsar district Sub-district of Nakadar and Jullundur in Jullundur district Sub-district of Ferozepur and Zira in Ferozepur district Sub-district of Batala and Gurdaspur in Gurdaspur district
  10. • Radcliff award paved the way for the accession of Kashmir with India • Gurdaspur was a district contiguous to Pakistan out of its four sub district gurdaspur, batala and shakergarh were muslim majority whereas phatankot had non muslim majority. • At partition only rail and road communication b/w india and Kashmir through distict gurdaspur • In 1948, india entered its forces in Kashmir through gurdaspur and annexed the state to india
  11. • The decision of the Punjab boundary commission caused the canal water dispute b/w India and Pakistan • City of Calcutta handed over to India though Calcutta was a non muslim majority area but Pakistan had a strong claim on it • Firstly large population of hindus of Calcutta were with Muslim league • Secondly, the East Pakistan was separate from West Pakistan by more than 1000 miles, culcutta was important for communication • Thirdly east Bengal produced raw jute, factories were all located in Calcutta • Without culcutta, east Pakistan would be a rural slum
  12. Boundary Award and Mountbatten’s Influence •On August 8, Mountbatten’s private secretary sent a letter to Evan Jenkins, the Governor of Punjab •Draft showed the ferozepur area and its headworks going to Pakistan •When the final draft was released, ferozepur was assigned to India
  13. •Announcement of the Award was delayed •Award was to be announced on August 12, 1947 but was delayed till August 16, 1947 •India and Pakistan had no boundries for the first two days of their existence
  14. Accession of princely states • At the time of partition, in subcontinent 462 princely states; covered 1/3 of indian territory and ¼ of its population. • Rules were given option to join India, Pakistan or remain independent. • By 15 August, most of these states announced their accession except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh.
  16. • At the time of partition, 77.1% Muslim population and covered 84,471 sq miles • Ruled by hindu ruler Hari singh
  17. • Shared 1/3 of its boundary with Pakistan, situated on the North of Pakistan. • Muslim majority wanted to join Pakistan, Maharaja wanted to maintain independent status of the state. •
  18. Raja suppressed Muslims by starting a brutal compaign
  19. •Maharaja then request indian government for assistance •Maharaja announced accession with India on Oct 26, 1947.
  20. Indian army entered in Kashmir through Gurdaspur. • An undeclared war b/w India and Pakistan on issue of Kashmir started. •India filled a complaint in UNO •Meanwhile Kashmiri freedom fighters with the help of volunteers from tribal areas of pakistan were able to liberete 1/3 of Kashmir from India.
  22. • In January 1949, cease fire line arranged by UNO in Kashmir • In 1957, the United Nation Security Council reconfirmed that kashmir is disputed territory and final solution should be settled under UNO supervised plebiscite.
  24. • Muslim majority state, covering 82000 sq miles of area • Situated in the South of India • Rulers called Nizam • Due to important position of the state, Mountbatten put pressure on Nizam to accede with India; Nizam refused • On sep 13, 1948 Indian forces entered in Hyderabad • Pakistan’s complaint against illegal action of India in UNO is still pending.
  26. • Small Hindu majority state, covering 3337 sq miles of area • Muslim rulers ruled the state •Request for the accession with Pakistan by its rulers accpeted by Quaid-e-Azam • Economic blockage of Junagadh by Indian government. •Rulers forced to leave state by the end of October 1947. •On 9 November 1947, Indian army occupied state
  27. The Massacre of Refugees and their Influx in Pakistan
  28. In 1946, massacre of Muslims of Bihar was the first organized attempt of extermination of Muslims.
  29. • At the time of partition, problem of refugees became a serious issue for the government
  30. In the Punjab • Patiala •Kapurthala •Alwar •Bharatpur Joined with Hindus and sikhs bands in the systematic extermination of Muslim population
  31. • The states of Kapurthala and Patiala provided secret basis to raiding sikhs and hindus to operate. • Arms and ammunition were also provided by the state Government to sikhs and hindus for killing the muslims
  32. Millions left for their promised new homeland with smiles on their faces as trains left both India and Pakistan. This is a train to Pakistan being given a warm send-off.
  33. • Pakistan Government in great difficulty to provide food and shelter to refugees • The first and immediate problem which invited attention of the Government was the rehabilitation of the refugees • The most conservative estimates of the causalities were 250,000 dead and 12 to 24 million refugees •According to an estimation nearly 6.5 million people came into pakistan with over 5.2 million from east punjab and other 360000 from Delhi and remainder from the other parts of india.
  34. • Quaid-e-azam met this challenge with courage and determination • he moved his headquarter to Lahore •Quaid-e-Azam relief fund was created • Quaid made stirring speeches to revive faith and confidence in the distressed refugees •Said “ Donot be overwhelmed by the enormity of the task, there are many examples in the history of young nations builduing themselves up by sheer determination and force of character. You have to develop the spirit of mujahids , you are a nation whose history is full with tales of heroism and bravery. Live up to your traditions and add to another chapter of glory”.
  35. Temporary refugees camps established.
  36. Division of Military Assets
  37. • For the security and the safeguard of its territory, Pakistan needed armed forces and military equipment. • Pakistan demanded immediate division, but british chief Marshal, Auchinlek was against the division of army assets. •The congress leaders favorably inclined towards him.
  38. •British officers were attached to the Indian Army. • Lord Ismay called the partition of the armed forces “ the biggest crime and biggest headache”
  39. • In his memoirs Ismay relates how he did utmost to persuade Mr. Jinnah to reconsider his decision “ I asked him to remember that an army was not merely a collection of men with rifles and bayonets and guns and tanks; it was a living entity with one brain, one heart and one set of organs…but Jinnah was adamant. He said that he would refuse to take power on 15 august unless he had an army of appropriate strength”
  40. • It was announced on July 1st, 1947 that indian army would also be divided in the ratio of 64% to 36% between India and Pakistan respectively. • The armed forces reconstitution committee under the chairman ship of commander-in-chief, field marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, was setup.
  41. • Other members of this committee were three british officers----- the commanders-in- chief of the air force and the navy, and the chief of the general staff of the army; and two civilians--- G.S. Bhalja, and Chaudhry Mohammad Ali. • The field marshal decided to wind up his task four months ahead of the time
  42. • Sending a report to the British Government on September 28, 1947 Auchinleck wrote “ I have no hesitation whatever in affirming that the present india cabinet determine to do all in their power to prevent the establishment of the dominion of pakistan on a firm basis. I and my officers have been continuously and virulently accused of being pro-pakistan and partial, whereas the truth is that we have merely tried to do our duty in partially and without fear, favor or affection. The attitude of pakistan has been reasonable and cooperative throughout. This is natural in the circumstances as pakistan has practically nothing of her own and must obtain most of what she wants from the reserves of the stores etc now lying in India”
  43. • Whatever Pakistan received was nothing but scrap. • Their were 16 Ordinance factories and all were located in India. • Pakistan were given 60 million rupees towards its share in the ordinance factories. • Pakistan received 6 Armour divisions to India’s 14. • 8 Artillery divisions to India’s 40. • 8 Infantry divisions to India’s 21. • Received Staff college in Quetta & Service Corps college at Kakul.
  44. • It was decided that the army soldiers and men, who opted either for Pakistan or India, should report their countries of choice by the 15th of August, 1947. • No problems was faced with regard to the division of army men and soldiers.
  45. Issue of Capital
  46. • Karachi was the obvious choice for many reasons: 1. Sindh, the only province with Muslim League majority. 2. The Sindh Government came forward with the proposal to make Karachi as the capital. 3. Birthplace of Quaid-e-Azam. 4. Due to climate and the airport.
  47. • Sindh Government had exhausted by giving the Governor house, the Assembly hall and a small part of the central secretariat. • It was not a big town with a population of 350,000. • The officers and the staff of the central Government would also suffer hardships. • Chaudhry Muhammad Ali, the incharge of the administrative work thought to shift the capital. • But Quaid said firmly that he would hold the Sindh ministers to their promise.
  48. Economic Problems
  49. • States of Pakistan were mostly underdeveloped with very little industry. • Much of the Pakistan territory was on the borders of subcontinents. • Around 90% people lived in the countryside. • 8 towns with a population of more than 100,000. 1. Karachi 2. Lahore 3. Dhaka 4. Hyderabad 5. Rawalpindi 6. Multan 7. Sialkot 8. Peshawar
  50. • Agriculture did not produce sufficient surplus to create wealth needed for industrialization. • As a problem of partition, Pakistan did not receive a single jute mill although East Pakistan Produced More than 90% jute. • Pakistan produced 14% of the British India cotton, it only had 14 of 394 textile mills.
  51. • The Percentage of economic assets in Pakistan after Partition: • Registered factories 10% • Industrial workers 6.5% • Electrical capacity 5% • Mineral deposits 10%
  52. Administrative Problems
  53. • Workable administrative machinery could not be setup because of the great difficulties caused by Congress. • A workable administrative and Government machinery needed to run the affairs of the country. • Acute shortage of experienced personnel in the central and provincial Governments. • Shortage of furniture and stationary.
  54. Electricity Problems
  55. · Due to unfair demarcation, electricity system of west Punjab was disrupted. · Pakistan had limited sources of water & irrigation. · India’s estimated hydral power generation capacity was 30-40 million KW while Pakistan was merely a half million KW. · Quaid said: “If we are to exist as a nation, we will have to face the problems with determination and force.”
  56. Social Problems
  57. • Pakistan was mainly made up of five different groups: 1. The Pakhtuns in the north 2. The Balochs in the west 3. The Sindhis in the south 4. The Punjabis in the north-east 5. The Bengalis in the east
  58. • Issue affecting the general well being of the people was poverty. • In the course of colonial period, many peasants became landless. • Cholera, malaria and a number of water-borne diseases affected a large section of the people of the region. • In 1948, there were only 211 doctors and 2,825 hospital beds in East Bengal.
  59. • When new nation emerged, there was only a few district level secondary schools.In higher education, there was only one university and a few colleges and madarsas.
  60. Problems of Transportation
  61. • Pakistan got such railway engines and bogies as needed constant repair because they had been used awfully during the Second World War. • The length of metalled and non-metalled roads in the whole of Pakistan was only fourteen thousand miles.
  62. • There were no ample roads in the N.W.F.P. the Baluchistan, the Sindh and in the East Pakistan. Pakistan got only 2 sea ports. Karachi Chittagong
  63. Communication Problems
  64. • Shortage of telephone exchanges and that of post offices. • At the time of emergence of Pakistan there were only 3 radio stations. • The communication channels indispensable for the growth of an economy & for promotion of national integration & reconstruction. At that time Pakistan had no TV-Channel.
  65. Political Problems
  66. • India had officials, members of the Indian National Congress, with political experience to take over the Government. • In Pakistan the assembly members were mostly wealthy landowners with little political experience. • The majority of Government and army leaders came from West Pakistan.
  67. • The geographical separateness of East & West Pakistan made it hard to govern as one country. • It give rise the feeling of separateness and provincialism in East Pakistan.
  68. • The Quaid- i-Azam warned the people about this grave tendency to provincialism. • He addressed the nation and said, "In unity lies strength. So long as we are united, we emerge victorious and strong. If we are not united we shall become weak and disgraced. We are all Pakistanis. None of us is a Punjabi, Sindhi, Baluchi, Pathan or Bengali. Every one of us should think, feel and act as a Pakistani and we should feel proud of being Pakistani alone".
  69. Bengali Language Movement
  70. • Also known as language movement. • Advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of Pakistan. • East & West Bengal were split along cultural, geographical and linguistic lines. • In 1948, the Government of Pakistan ordained Urdu as sole national language. • In 1948, Quaid-e-Azam addressed in Dhaka: “Urdu and Urdu alone would be the national language of Pakistan.”
  71. • Advice of Quaid-e-Azam temporarily took the heart out of language movement but the issue was not settled. It exploded latter after the death of Quaid-e- Azam. • The students of the University of Dhaka organized a protest on 21st feb, 1952. • 8 students were killed in the protest.
  72. • Official status of Bengali Language was given in 1956. • In 2000, UNESCO declared 21st february as “International Mother Language Day” for the whole world to celebrate.
  73. • In Bangladesh, 21st February is observed as Language Movement Day. • Shaheed Minar Mounment was constructed near Dhaka Medical College in memory of the movement and its victims.
  74. References 1. Pakistan studies by Dr. Abdul Qadir Khan fifth edition. 2. A Comprehensive Book of Pakistan Studies by M. Ikram Rabbani. 3. Pakistan History and Politics by M.Rafique Afzal 4. Internet