• Government of India in delhi was a going
• The number of bristish and muslim officials
who might leave its service was not big enough
• Diplomatic and trade missions established
abroad were taken over by Union of India
• System of banking and currency was already
operating in India, remained in Indian hands
• Indian railways, ports etc linked various parts
of subcontinent; controlled from delhi
• All industrial and research institutions there
• Army, air force and navy head quarters in Delhi
• Ordnance factories and military store depots in
RADCLIFF AWARD (AUGUST 16,1947)
• Representatives of Punjab Boundary
• Justice Din Muhammad
• Justice Muhammad Munir
• Justice Maher Chand Muhajan
• Justice Tej Singh
• Representatives of Bengal Boundary
• Justice Abu Saleh
• Muhammad Ikram
• Justice S.A Rehman
• Justice C.C Biswas
• Justice B.K Mukarjee
Analysis of the Boundary Award
The award was partial, unjust and
unfair to Pakistan
Muslim majority areas handed over
Award also paved way for disputes
b/w india and Pakistan
• Areas of muslim majority areas handed
over to india that were contiguous to
the Boundary of Pakistan included
Sub-district of Ajnala in Amritsar district
Sub-district of Nakadar and Jullundur in Jullundur district
Sub-district of Ferozepur and Zira in Ferozepur district
Sub-district of Batala and Gurdaspur in Gurdaspur
• Radcliff award paved the way for the
accession of Kashmir with India
• Gurdaspur was a district contiguous to
Pakistan out of its four sub district
gurdaspur, batala and shakergarh were
muslim majority whereas phatankot
had non muslim majority.
• At partition only rail and road
communication b/w india and
Kashmir through distict gurdaspur
• In 1948, india entered its forces in
Kashmir through gurdaspur and
annexed the state to india
• The decision of the Punjab boundary
commission caused the canal water
dispute b/w India and Pakistan
• City of Calcutta handed over to India
though Calcutta was a non muslim
majority area but Pakistan had a strong
claim on it
• Firstly large population of hindus of
Calcutta were with Muslim league
• Secondly, the East Pakistan was
separate from West Pakistan by more
than 1000 miles, culcutta was important
• Thirdly east Bengal produced raw jute,
factories were all located in Calcutta
• Without culcutta, east Pakistan would
be a rural slum
Boundary Award and
•On August 8, Mountbatten’s private
secretary sent a letter to Evan Jenkins,
the Governor of Punjab
•Draft showed the ferozepur area and its
headworks going to Pakistan
•When the final draft was released,
ferozepur was assigned to India
•Announcement of the Award was
•Award was to be announced on
August 12, 1947 but was delayed
till August 16, 1947
•India and Pakistan had no
boundries for the first two days of
Accession of princely states
• At the time of partition, in subcontinent
462 princely states; covered 1/3 of
indian territory and ¼ of its population.
• Rules were given option to join India,
Pakistan or remain independent.
• By 15 August, most of these states
announced their accession except
Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh.
Indian army entered in
Kashmir through Gurdaspur.
• An undeclared war b/w India
and Pakistan on issue of
•India filled a complaint in UNO
•Meanwhile Kashmiri freedom
fighters with the help of
volunteers from tribal areas of
pakistan were able to liberete
1/3 of Kashmir from India.
• In January 1949, cease fire line
arranged by UNO in Kashmir
• In 1957, the United Nation Security
Council reconfirmed that kashmir is
disputed territory and final solution
should be settled under UNO
• Muslim majority state,
covering 82000 sq miles of area
• Situated in the South of India
• Rulers called Nizam
• Due to important position of the state,
Mountbatten put pressure on Nizam to
accede with India; Nizam refused
• On sep 13, 1948 Indian forces entered in
• Pakistan’s complaint against illegal action
of India in UNO is still pending.
• Small Hindu majority state,
covering 3337 sq miles of area
• Muslim rulers ruled the
•Request for the accession
with Pakistan by its rulers
accpeted by Quaid-e-Azam
• Economic blockage of
Junagadh by Indian
•Rulers forced to leave state
by the end of October 1947.
•On 9 November 1947,
Indian army occupied state
In 1946, massacre of Muslims of Bihar
was the first organized attempt of
extermination of Muslims.
• At the time of partition, problem of
refugees became a serious issue for
In the Punjab
Joined with Hindus and sikhs bands in the
systematic extermination of Muslim population
• The states of Kapurthala and
Patiala provided secret basis to
raiding sikhs and hindus to operate.
• Arms and ammunition were also
provided by the state Government to
sikhs and hindus for killing the
Millions left for their promised new
homeland with smiles on their faces as
trains left both India and Pakistan. This
is a train to Pakistan being given a
• Pakistan Government in great
difficulty to provide food and shelter to
• The first and immediate problem which invited attention
of the Government was the rehabilitation of the refugees
• The most conservative estimates of the causalities
were 250,000 dead and 12 to 24 million refugees
•According to an estimation nearly 6.5 million people
came into pakistan with over 5.2 million from east punjab
and other 360000 from Delhi and remainder from the
other parts of india.
• Quaid-e-azam met this challenge
with courage and determination
• he moved his headquarter to Lahore
•Quaid-e-Azam relief fund was created
• Quaid made stirring speeches to revive faith and
confidence in the distressed refugees
•Said “ Donot be overwhelmed by the enormity of the
task, there are many examples in the history of young
nations builduing themselves up by sheer
determination and force of character. You have to
develop the spirit of mujahids , you are a nation
whose history is full with tales of heroism and
bravery. Live up to your traditions and add to another
chapter of glory”.
• For the security and the
safeguard of its territory, Pakistan
needed armed forces and military
• Pakistan demanded immediate division, but
british chief Marshal, Auchinlek was against
the division of army assets.
•The congress leaders favorably inclined
•British officers were attached to the
• Lord Ismay called the partition of the
“ the biggest crime and biggest
• In his memoirs Ismay relates how he did utmost to
persuade Mr. Jinnah to reconsider his decision
“ I asked him to remember that an army was not merely a
collection of men with rifles and bayonets and guns and
tanks; it was a living entity with one brain, one heart and
one set of organs…but Jinnah was adamant. He said
that he would refuse to take power on 15 august unless
he had an army of appropriate strength”
• It was announced on July 1st, 1947 that
indian army would also be divided in the
ratio of 64% to 36% between India and
• The armed forces reconstitution committee
under the chairman ship of commander-in-chief,
field marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck,
• Other members of this committee were
three british officers----- the commanders-in-
chief of the air force and the navy, and
the chief of the general staff of the army;
and two civilians--- G.S. Bhalja, and
Chaudhry Mohammad Ali.
• The field marshal decided to wind up his
task four months ahead of the time
• Sending a report to the British Government on September
28, 1947 Auchinleck wrote
“ I have no hesitation whatever in affirming that the
present india cabinet determine to do all in their
power to prevent the establishment of the dominion
of pakistan on a firm basis. I and my officers have
been continuously and virulently accused of being
pro-pakistan and partial, whereas the truth is that we
have merely tried to do our duty in partially and
without fear, favor or affection. The attitude of
pakistan has been reasonable and cooperative
throughout. This is natural in the circumstances as
pakistan has practically nothing of her own and must
obtain most of what she wants from the reserves of
the stores etc now lying in India”
• Whatever Pakistan received was nothing
• Their were 16 Ordinance factories and all
were located in India.
• Pakistan were given 60 million rupees
towards its share in the ordinance
• Pakistan received 6 Armour divisions to
• 8 Artillery divisions to India’s 40.
• 8 Infantry divisions to India’s 21.
• Received Staff college in Quetta & Service
Corps college at Kakul.
• It was decided that the army soldiers and
men, who opted either for Pakistan or
India, should report their countries of
choice by the 15th of August, 1947.
• No problems was faced with regard to the
division of army men and soldiers.
• Karachi was the obvious choice for
1. Sindh, the only province with Muslim
2. The Sindh Government came forward
with the proposal to make Karachi as the
3. Birthplace of Quaid-e-Azam.
4. Due to climate and the airport.
• Sindh Government had exhausted by giving
the Governor house, the Assembly hall and a
small part of the central secretariat.
• It was not a big town with a population of
• The officers and the staff of the central
Government would also suffer hardships.
• Chaudhry Muhammad Ali, the incharge of the
administrative work thought to shift the
• But Quaid said firmly that he would hold the
Sindh ministers to their promise.
• States of Pakistan were mostly
underdeveloped with very little industry.
• Much of the Pakistan territory was on the
borders of subcontinents.
• Around 90% people lived in the
• 8 towns with a population of more than
• Agriculture did not produce sufficient
surplus to create wealth needed for
• As a problem of partition, Pakistan did not
receive a single jute mill although East
Pakistan Produced More than 90% jute.
• Pakistan produced 14% of the British
India cotton, it only had 14 of 394 textile
• The Percentage of economic
assets in Pakistan after
• Registered factories 10%
• Industrial workers 6.5%
• Electrical capacity 5%
• Mineral deposits 10%
• Workable administrative machinery could
not be setup because of the great
difficulties caused by Congress.
• A workable administrative and
Government machinery needed to run the
affairs of the country.
• Acute shortage of experienced personnel
in the central and provincial
• Shortage of furniture and stationary.
· Due to unfair demarcation, electricity
system of west Punjab was disrupted.
· Pakistan had limited sources of water &
· India’s estimated hydral power generation
capacity was 30-40 million KW while
Pakistan was merely a half million KW.
· Quaid said:
“If we are to exist as a nation, we will
have to face the problems with
determination and force.”
• Pakistan was mainly made up of five
1. The Pakhtuns in the north
2. The Balochs in the west
3. The Sindhis in the south
4. The Punjabis in the north-east
5. The Bengalis in the east
• Issue affecting the general well
being of the people was poverty.
• In the course of colonial period,
many peasants became landless.
• Cholera, malaria and a number of
water-borne diseases affected a
large section of the people of the
• In 1948, there were only 211
doctors and 2,825 hospital beds
in East Bengal.
• When new nation emerged,
there was only a few district
level secondary schools.In
higher education, there was
only one university and a few
colleges and madarsas.
• Pakistan got such railway
engines and bogies as needed
constant repair because they had
been used awfully during the
Second World War.
• The length of metalled and non-metalled
roads in the whole of
Pakistan was only fourteen
• There were no ample roads in
the N.W.F.P. the Baluchistan,
the Sindh and in the East
Pakistan got only 2 sea ports.
• Shortage of telephone exchanges and
that of post offices.
• At the time of emergence of Pakistan
there were only 3 radio stations.
• The communication channels
indispensable for the growth of an
economy & for promotion of national
integration & reconstruction. At that
time Pakistan had no TV-Channel.
• India had officials, members of the
Indian National Congress, with
political experience to take over the
• In Pakistan the assembly members
were mostly wealthy landowners
with little political experience.
• The majority of Government and
army leaders came from West
• The geographical separateness
of East & West Pakistan made it
hard to govern as one country.
• It give rise the feeling of
separateness and provincialism in
• The Quaid- i-Azam warned the people about this
grave tendency to provincialism.
• He addressed the nation and said,
"In unity lies strength. So long as we are united, we
emerge victorious and strong. If we are not united
we shall become weak and disgraced. We are all
Pakistanis. None of us is a Punjabi, Sindhi, Baluchi,
Pathan or Bengali. Every one of us should think, feel
and act as a Pakistani and we should feel proud
of being Pakistani alone".
• Also known as language movement.
• Advocating the recognition of the Bengali
language as an official language of
• East & West Bengal were split along
cultural, geographical and linguistic lines.
• In 1948, the Government of Pakistan
ordained Urdu as sole national language.
• In 1948, Quaid-e-Azam addressed in
“Urdu and Urdu alone would be
the national language of
• Advice of Quaid-e-Azam temporarily took the heart
out of language movement but the issue was not
settled. It exploded latter after the death of Quaid-e-
• The students of the University of Dhaka organized a
protest on 21st feb, 1952.
• 8 students were killed in the protest.
• Official status of Bengali Language
was given in 1956.
• In 2000, UNESCO declared 21st february
as “International Mother Language
Day” for the whole world to celebrate.
• In Bangladesh, 21st February is observed as Language
• Shaheed Minar Mounment was constructed near Dhaka
Medical College in memory of the movement and its victims.
1. Pakistan studies by Dr. Abdul Qadir
Khan fifth edition.
2. A Comprehensive Book of Pakistan
Studies by M. Ikram Rabbani.
3. Pakistan History and Politics by