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Art1100 LVA 16

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Art 1100 Chapter 16

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Art1100 LVA 16

  1. 1. Art 1100 Joan Jonas “They Come to Us without a Word” U.S. Pavilion,Venice Biennale, 2015
  2. 2. Chapter 16
  3. 3. Toward the Renaissance Monasteries also served as translation centers for Islamic texts. It is from these that Aristotle’s philosophy is reintroduced to Europe after having been lost. Thomas Aquinas, synthesized Aristotelian philosophy with Christian belief in works like SummaTheologica.Aristotle thought that objects in nature, didn’t refer to an ideal form elsewhere as Plato did, but rather had their purpose IN their form that was given by the Prime Mover. “Christianizing” Aristotle, simply meant switching Prime Movers. For Aquinas then the study of actual objects in the world, would reveal more about God as well as nature. “Reason does not destroy faith, but perfects it.”
  4. 4. Toward the Renaissance Renaissance Humanism: A synthesis of Classical Humanism and Christianity. Previously the sinful nature of humanity was emphasized. Human thought and perception of the world thought to be insufficient and in need of God’s revelation in the church. But humanists in this time period, Sir Thomas More among them, viewed humanity as God’s highest creation and the intellect capable of revealing the truth from observation and reason. One can see the echoes of Greek thought in this brand of humanism, but with the moral check of Christianity.
  5. 5. By the early 1400’s we begin to see a break with the Middle Ages art styles in favor of: - Renewed interest in Classicism - Naturalistic spatial techniques - “Realistic” proportion - Depiction of movement Two artists very influential in making this transition, which is considered a precursor to the Renaissance style, are Duccio and Giotto. Toward the Renaissance
  6. 6. The Birth of theVirgin, 1467 Fra Carnevale (Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini) (Italian, Marchigian, active by 1445, died 1484) Tempera and oil on wood Toward the Renaissance
  7. 7. Cappella degli Scrovegni nell'Arena (Padua, Italy) Toward the Renaissance Giotto’s frescoes in the Arena Chapel (Capella degli Scrovegni) at Padua comprise his earliest work and set the tone for many of the Renaissance innovations in naturalism.
  8. 8. Giotto Title Presentation of Mary in the Temple with ornamental band Work Type fresco Date c. 1305
  9. 9. Giotto, Socle: Justice and Temperance Date c. 1305 Location Cappella degli Scrovegni nell'Arena (Padua, Italy)
  10. 10. Giotto, Our Lady of the Annunciation Date c. 1305 Location Cappella degli Scrovegni nell'Arena (Padua, Italy)
  11. 11. Giotto Entry into Jerusalem fresco Date c. 1305 Cappella degli Scrovegni nell'Arena (Padua, Italy)
  12. 12. Giotto Title Last Judgment Work Type fresco Date c. 1305 Location Cappella degli Scrovegni nell'Arena (Padua, Italy)
  13. 13. During the early fifteenth century, Europe continued to transition from feudal estates ruled by wealthy landowners to charter cities that functioned as powerful economic centers. As these cities took on greater political and financial authority, a middle class, made up of artisans, bankers, and merchants, played a more substantial cultural role with their greater wealth and independence. Patronage Cosimo de' Medici (1389–1464) Northern Italian Oil on walnut panel, 20.9 x 16.5 cm l
  14. 14. A merchant or prince would commission a work of art. Patrons • Mostly Secular art objects. • Individual reputation became more important (and lucrative) •Artists seen as individually gifted, or genius. The Renaissance happens in Florence because of one patron family’s obsession with all things Classical, the Medici. The father Cosimo de’Medici, financed public sculpture, payed for artists, created an art academy and held a private collection of ancient texts.
  15. 15. Portrait of Alvise Contarini (recto) and a tethered roebuck (verso); portrait of a woman (recto) and scene in grisaille (verso), ca. 1485–95 JacomettoVeneziano (Italian,Venetian, active 1472–97) Oil on panel Patronage
  16. 16. Giorgio Vasari First Art Historian Famous book: Lives of the Artists Categorized Medieval art as “primitive”Believed Renaissance progress was based on the ideal of “observation of nature”, holding to its standard of “perfection”. Turned artists into notable individual personalities with his extensive accounts of his contemporary artists, DaVinci, Cimabue, Giotto, etc.
  17. 17. The Early Renaissance in Italy • Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi ) 1386 -1466 • Sculptor • Used detailed study of Human Body as the framework for sculpture once again. Donetello, St. Mark, 1411-1414.
  18. 18. “But [a method of learning by copying] would be good if it was founded upon works that were excellent in composition and by diligent masters; and since such masters are so rare that few are to be found, it is safer to go direct to the works of nature than to those which have been imitated from her originals with great deterioration and thereby to acquire a bad method, for he who has access to the fountain does not go to the water-pot.” -Leonard daVinci The Early Renaissance in Italy
  19. 19. Renaissance artists and doctors both sought to study anatomy, they openly used cadavers to explore the human musculature and organs. De humani corporis fabrica, 1555 AndreasVesalius (1514–1564) Basel Rare printed book The Early Renaissance in Italy
  20. 20. Two Flayed Men and Skeletons, ca. 1540–1545 Domenico del Barbiere (ca. 1506–ca. 1570), after Rosso Fiorentino (Italian, Florentine, 1494–1540), Engraving e’corche’: or flayed men. The Early Renaissance in Italy
  21. 21. Andrea Mantegna. Dead Christ, c. 1500.Tempera on canvas, Foreshortening
  22. 22. Donatello St. George c. 1416-17 Marble Height 209 cm Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence St. George was commissioned by the Armorer's guild and depicts its patron saint.The original work probably displayed bronze military equipment, such as a helmet and weapons (a lance or sword in the cavity of the right hand which has a clenched grip--now holding nothing).
  23. 23. We’re going to compare 3 sculptures of David.
  24. 24. c. 1430-1440. Bronze, 5' 2 1/2" high. Donatello’s David David #1
  25. 25. David in the Bargello, Florence David #1
  26. 26. Rebellious Slave Michelangelo 1513-16 Marble Musée du Louvre, Paris Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) 1475- 1564 • Sculptor • Painter • Architect Also used detailed study of human body. But also distorted the figure’s proportions to idealize their anatomy. The High Renaissance in Rome
  27. 27. Michelangelo. Pietà, 1498/9-1500. Marble, 5' 8 1/2" high. Saint Peter's, Vatican, Rome. The High Renaissance in Rome
  28. 28. The first known Italian sculpture of the Pietà is that by Michelangelo in St Peter’s, Rome. Michelangelo’s highly polished marble sculpture unites the two figures into a balanced, pyramidal composition.To minimize the awkwardness of having one adult body atop another, he made Mary larger than Christ, and arranged her pose and drapery to form a large base that gracefully accommodates his figure. The High Renaissance in Rome
  29. 29. Bacchus by Michelangelo, early work (1496–97)
  30. 30. Michelangelo Buonarroti, David 1501- 1504 CE, Accademia Gallery, Florence, Italy. 16 feet 11.15 inches tall. Carrara marble. David #2 Michelangelo’s David
  31. 31. Michelangelo Buonarroti, David 1501- 1504 CE, Accademia Gallery, Florence, Italy. 16 feet 11.15 inches tall. Carrara marble.
  32. 32. Sandro Botticelli, Mars andVenus, c. 1475.Tempera on panel, Botticelli: Combined Classical themes with Christian overtones. A vibrant and playful style that emphasized the physical body. The Early Renaissance in Italy
  33. 33. The Early Renaissance in Italy Sandro BotticelliThe birth ofVenus1483 - 1485, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.Tempera on panel. 2785 x 1725 mm
  34. 34. Sandro Botticelli shows the Renaissance tendency to mix Greek gods and goddesses with Christian themes. He used a more linear style with shallow modeling, unlike many High Renaissance artists, as seen in the flattened stylized water. Zephyr and his wife blowVenus toward shore while the Hora of “spring” waits to clothe her.Venus’s pose is modeled after a Roman sculpture that Botticelli studied for this composition. In Neo-Platonic thought,Venus was identified with both Eve and theVirgin Mary. Note the inverted triangular composition in order to bring logic to the composition. The Early Renaissance in Italy
  35. 35. Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, c. 330 B.C.E Marble. The Early Renaissance in Italy Sandro BotticelliThe birth ofVenus1483 - 1485, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.Tempera on panel. 2785 x 1725 mm
  36. 36. https://www.google.com/ culturalinstitute/u/0/asset-viewer/the- birth-of-venus/MQEeq50LABEBVg? hl=en Sandro BotticelliThe birth ofVenus1483 - 1485, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.Tempera on panel. 2785 x 1725 mm
  37. 37. Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, c. 1482.Tempera on panel The Early Renaissance in Italy
  38. 38. A Dominican monk, Fra Girolamo Savonarola (active in Florence 1490–1498),had begun to preach impassioned sermons denouncing the worldliness of Florence. He particularly emphasized the inferiority of manmade art compared to the inherent perfection of nature. He railed against idolatrous images in churches and criticized artists for basing holy figures on identifiable living people. Savonarola is associated with the Bruciamenti delle Vanità (bonfires of the vanities), especially with the two that took place in 1497-98, in which dice, playing cards, cosmetics, mirrors, false hair, profane books and even paintings were destroyed. He did, however, support art as a means of moral instruction and proclaimed ‘you who cannot read, go to paintings and contemplate the life of Christ and his saints’.
  39. 39. Sandro Botticelli, Mystic Nativity, 1501; National Gallery, London Many Florentines felt convicted by Savonarola’s words and processions of weeping people wound through the streets. Botticelli, too, fell into a state of religious fervor. In a dramatic gesture of repentance, he burned many of his earlier paintings and began to produce highly emotional pictures pervaded by an intense religiosity.
  40. 40. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503-1505. Leonardo Da Vinci (1452–1519) The ‘Renaissance Man’ who mastered many arts. • Poetry • Drawing • Painting • Anatomy • Mechanics • Architecture,etc. Most works only survive as drawings in his notebooks. The Early Renaissance in Italy
  41. 41. Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Child with Saint Anne, C. 1503-06. sfumato: smoke-like way of depicting soft lighting in a painting. The Early Renaissance in Italy
  42. 42. Leonardo DAVINCI Drapery for a Seated Figure 1470
  43. 43. Camera Obscura: Early Pinhole Optics The term 'camera obscura' means 'dark chamber', because the instrument typically took the form of a closed room, the windows shuttered, with a small hole in a blind or door. Light entering the room through the hole then cast an image onto a screen or onto the wall opposite the door.
  44. 44. A contemporary camera obscura in action. The Early Renaissance in Italy
  45. 45. Linear Perspective:A system of the representation of space that mimics the way in which we see. 1.The apparent size of objects gets smaller with distance. 2.Parallel lines converge to points on the ‘horizon’.
  46. 46. Leonardo daVinci. Perspective study for the Adoration of the Magi, c. 1481.
  47. 47. - Renewed interest in Classicism - Naturalistic spatial techniques - “Realistic” proportion - Depiction of movement The Renaissance
  48. 48. Leonardo daVinci, Last Supper, ca. 1485-1498. Fresco, oil, tempera and varnish on plaster,
  49. 49. http://milan.arounder.com/en/churches/santa-maria-delle- grazie-church/leonardo-s-last-supper.html The Early Renaissance in Italy Leonardo’s Last Supper. A. Uses linear perspective “vanishing point” to center the composition on Jesus. B. Located in the dining hall of the monastery the composition continues the line of sight of the room “into” the painting. 
 This reinforces the feeling that the painting is part of the room, and Jesus is close to the monks. C. Compared to the other painting on the other side of the room, Leonardo’s painting is easy to understand and logically laid out.
  50. 50. The Early Renaissance in Italy
  51. 51. The Crucifixion Giovanni Donato Montorfano, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan 1495 The Early Renaissance in Italy
  52. 52. The Early Renaissance in Italy Leonardo daVinci, 1498 Tempera on plaster Dimensions: 267 m²[1] Location:Sforza Castle, Milan
  53. 53. Detail of Leonardo daVinci, 1498 Sforza Castle, Milan
  54. 54. “Similarly, in the members of a temple there ought to be the greatest harmony in the symmetrical relations of the different parts to the general magnitude of the whole. Then again, in the human body the central point is naturally the navel. For if a man can be placed flat on his back, with his hands and feet extended, and a pair of compasses centered at his navel, the fingers and toes of his two hands and feet will touch the circumference of a circle described therefrom. And just as the human body yields a circular outline, so too a square figure may be found from it. For if we measure the distance from the soles of the feet to the top of the head, and then apply that measure to the outstretched arms, the breadth will be found to be the same as the height, as in the case of plane surfaces which are completely square.” (MarcusVitruvius, De Architectura, Book III, Chapter 1, p 3) Vitruvius Roman architect and engineer. 80- 15 BCE
  55. 55. Vitruvian Man TheVitruvian Man, ca. 1492 Leonardo daVinci (Italian, 1452–1519) Pen and ink; Renaissance Humanism returns to “man as the measure of all things.”
  56. 56. Santa Maria del Fiore, also known as the Duomo, Florence Italy, 1420–36 Renaissance Architecture
  57. 57. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446) Considered the first Renaissance architect. Renaissance Architecture Known for the dome of Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria della Fiore, also known as “the Duomo”). His buildings use an underlying system of proportion. With a unit of measurement whose repetition throughout the building created a sense of harmony.
  58. 58. Filippo Brunelleschi: dome of Florence Cathedral, 1418–36; diagram showing construction
  59. 59. One example is the Ospedale degli Innocenti (Florence, 1419). This building is based on a modular cube, which determines the height of and distance between the columns, and the depth of each bay. Renaissance Architecture
  60. 60. Relief from the Doors of Paradise, 1425–52 Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italian, ca. 1378–1455) Renaissance Architecture
  61. 61. http://florence.arounder.com/en/churches/florence-s- baptistry/baptistry-interior.html Baptistry Interior Renaissance Architecture Outside of the Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence stands a Romanesque Bapistry.This octagonal building is what Ghilberti's bronze doors mentioned on page 396 hung upon.
  62. 62. http://florence.arounder.com/en/churches/florence-s- cathedral/altar.html Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence Renaissance Architecture
  63. 63. The High Renaissance in Rome
  64. 64. Michelangelo, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, C. 1546-64, Dome completed 1590. The High Renaissance in Rome St. Peter’s cathedral in Rome, stands on a site that has been continually reinvented from antiquity. Built on the site of the Constantinian original, Renaissance architects added their style to the older styles. Later Baroque architects would do the same.
  65. 65. In 1546, Michelangelo, now seventy-one years old, was named architect of Saint Peter's. St.Peter has the first great dome to be raised on a colonnade. Designed by Michelangelo but not completed until after his death, it crowns the church and floods the space with light from its “fenestrated” drum and oculus. The High Renaissance in Rome
  66. 66. The High Renaissance in Rome Michelangelo, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican, C 1546-64, Dome completed 1590.
  67. 67. In 64 CE the Apostle Peter was buried on the north-west side of the Circus of Caligula and Nero, where there was already a cemetery. Owing to the circumstances of his death by crucifixion, St Peter’s first burial-place would have been an earth tomb. The High Renaissance in Rome
  68. 68. The High Renaissance in Rome St. Peter’s tomb New obelisk position New St. Peter’s floorplan (in red)
  69. 69. The High Renaissance in Rome The ancient Egyptian obelisk, brought to Rome by the Roman emperor Caligula in 37 CE, now place in the plaza of St. Peter’s.
  70. 70. Michelangelo: Creation of Adam (1511–12), fresco, Sistine Chapel,Vatican, Rome; The High Renaissance in Rome
  71. 71. Michelangelo was hesitant to take the commission, due to his distaste for painting. Here is an excerpt from his quote about the four years in which he undertook this huge task: “I’ve grown a goiter by dwelling in this den…Which drives the belly close beneath the chin; my beard turns up to heaven; my nape falls in, Fixed on my spine; my breast-bone visibly Grows like a harp: a rich embroidery Bedews my face from brushdrops thick and thin…” Michelangelo painted the vault with scenes from the Book of Genesis: •The Creation of the world and of Adam and Eve •The Fall and Expulsion from the Garden of Eden • God's destruction of the world by the flood. On the lunettes and spandrels Michelangelo painted Christ's ancestors, while the spaces between the spandrels show the prophets and sibyls who foretold Christ’s birth. The High Renaissance in Rome
  72. 72. Michelangelo: Creation of Eve, (1508–10), fresco, Rome, Sistine Chapel,Vatican; The High Renaissance in Rome
  73. 73. Michelangelo employed the use of architectural framework elements to organize the images (logic). Fresco is a tedious task, as we studied earlier, and there is no room for mistakes. Small areas at a time must be worked at the right dampness as the plaster is drying.The images cover 700 sq. yds. and must be painted on scaffolding at arm’s reach, while envisioning it as viewed from 70’ feet below.
  74. 74. Michelangelo, Ceiling, Sistine Chapel, 1508-12.
  75. 75. The High Renaissance in Rome
  76. 76. Michelangelo, Ceiling, Sistine Chapel, 1508-12.
  77. 77. The High Renaissance in Rome
  78. 78. Studies for the Libyan Sibyl ; Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564) Italian Michelangelo,The Libyan Sibyl, Detail of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, 1508-1512.
  79. 79. Michelangelo, Ceiling, Sistine Chapel, 1508-12.
  80. 80. Michelangelo, Last Judgment (after cleaning), Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. 1534-1541
  81. 81. 1    The Archangel Gabriel
 2    Pharaoh’s daughter who found Moses; or Eve; or Sarah
 3 and 4   Niobe and a daughter [Niobe is a queen from mythology whose many children were killed by Apollo and Artemis; see this ancient statue]; or Eve and a daughter (the personification of maternity); or the merciful Church and a believer
 5    Abel, who was murdered by his brother Cain; or Eve
 6    Abraham; or St. Bernard; or Pope Julius II
 7    St. John the Baptist; or Adam
 8    Rachel; or Dante’s Beatrice
 9    Noah; or Enoch; or Pope Paul III
 10  St. Andrew; or John the Baptist; or Dimas [St. Dimas was the Good Thief who was crucified with Jesus]
 11  St. Martha; or St. Anne; or Vittoria Colonna, Michelangelo’s great friend
 12  St. Lawrence
 13  *The Virgin Mary
 14  *Christ the Judge
 15  Solomon’s wife; or Dante
 16  Francesco Amadori (the Urbino); or Tommaso de Cavalieri, Michelangelo’s friend
 17  St. Bartholomew with the face of Pietro Aretino, the poet who criticized the painting as indecent
 17a  The skin of St. Bartholomew with the face of Michelangelo
 18  St. Paul
 19  St. Peter
 20  St. Mark; or Pope Clement VII
 21  St. Longinus, the soldier who lanced Christ on the Cross
 22  Simon Zelote
 23  St. Philip; or Dimas
 24  Job; or Adam;  or Abraham
 25  Job’s wife; or Eve; or Pope Hadrian VI
 26  St. Blaise
 27  St. Catherine of Alexandria
 28  St. Sebastian with the arrows of his martyrdom
 29  Dimas; or St. Francis of Assisi;  St. Andrew;  Simon the Cyrenian; the encarnation of Justice; the symbol of Man with his trials and tribulations
 30  Moses; or Adam

  82. 82. Michelangelo, The Conversion of Saul 1542-45 Fresco, 625 x 661 cm Cappella Paolina, Palazzi Pontifici, Vatican
  83. 83. Raphael, Pope Leo X withTwo Cardinals, C. 1518. •Raphael; (Raffaelo Sanzio) •Most famous painter of his time. •Usually painted religious scenes for clergy. •Used all of the Renaissance innovations. The High Renaissance in Rome
  84. 84. Raphael’s first commission at theVatican was to decorate the Stanza della Segnatura, the library of Pope Julius. He painted first the Disputa (disputation), a composition on three tiers representing the Church, on earth and in heaven, with the Trinity above an altar displaying the Eucharist. Raphael’s next work in this room was the Parnassus. It depicts great poets assembled on the slopes of the hill where Apollo’s music enraptures the Muses. Raphael's famous fresco The School of Athens is also in the Stanza della Segnatura. Executed in 1510–11, the painting depicts an imaginary gathering of Greek philosophers, many rendered as portraits of Raphael's contemporaries. the pope's books. The High Renaissance in Rome
  85. 85. The Disputation of the Holy Sacrament The High Renaissance in Rome
  86. 86. The Parnassus, from the Stanza delle Segnatura The High Renaissance in Rome
  87. 87. The Parnassus and the School of Athens from the Stanza delle Segnatura
  88. 88. Raphael, School of Athens (c. 1510–12), fresco, Stanza della Segnatura,Vatican, Rome; The High Renaissance in Rome
  89. 89. 1: Zeno of Citium 2: Epicurus Possibly, the image of two philosophers, who were typically shown in pairs during the Renaissance: Heraclitus, the "weeping" philosopher, and Democritus, the "laughing" philosopher. 3: unknown (believed to be Raphael)[14] 4: Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? 5: Averroes 6: Pythagoras 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon or Timon? 9: Raphael,[14][15][16] Fornarina as a personification of Love[17] or Francesco Maria della Rovere? 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? 11: Parmenides? (Leonardo da Vinci) 12: Socrates 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci) 15: Aristotle (Giuliano da Sangallo) 16: Diogenes of Sinope 17: Plotinus (Donatello?) 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students (Bramante?) 19: Strabo or Zoroaster? (Baldassare Castiglione) 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael) 21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo Viti)[18] The High Renaissance in Rome
  90. 90. Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-11.
  91. 91. Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-11.
  92. 92. The Renaissance in the North
  93. 93. Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (exterior), 1515. The Renaissance in the North
  94. 94. JanVan Eyck, Man in a RedTurban (Self Portrait?), 1433. The Renaissance in the North Oil Paint: Paint made of pigment suspended in vegetable oil, usually linseed. Slow drying time allows sections to be reworked. Allows for thin transparent layers called glazes.
  95. 95. Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (open), completed 1432. oil on panel, 3.65×4.87 m (wings open), c. 1423–32 (Ghent, St Bavo); The Renaissance in the North
  96. 96. Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), completed 1432. Oil on panel,
  97. 97. Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (open), completed 1432. Oil on panel, The Renaissance in the North
  98. 98. Hubert and Jan van Eyck,Adoration of the Lamb detail of the Ghent Altarpiece, c. 1432. The Renaissance in the North
  99. 99. Albrecht Durer • Traveled to Italy bringing back artistic innovations to Germany. • Known for elaborate print work and book illustration. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, ca. 1497–98 Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528) Woodcut The Renaissance in the North
  100. 100. Albrect Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500. Oil on wood,
  101. 101. 1. Relief Method: Raised area prints (woodcut). 2. Intaglio: Depressed area prints (engraving). Printmaking An “indirect” process that results in multiples or editions that are each unique, original works of art. “Registration” (repeatable alignment) allows for multiple colors to be added.
  102. 102. Woodcuts: This process of transferring ink is similar to the process of rubber stamping. An artist cuts away areas not meant to print, then inks the wood plate and presses to transfer the ink onto paper. This is the oldest print-making method used to produce text and books, textiles, and cards. Not until the 15th century was paper cheap enough to create the “information revolution.” Printmaking
  103. 103. Woodblock for Samson Rending the Lion, ca. 1497–98 Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528) Pearwood Printmaking The print block made of carved wood..
  104. 104. Samson Rending the Lion, ca. 1497–98 Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528) Woodcut Printmaking The finished woodblock print on paper. Note that it is the reverse of the image on the block.
  105. 105. Detail Samson Rending the Lion
  106. 106. Intaglio is the reverse of relief, so the artist cuts away the areas to print or hold ink. Ink is pressed in the grooves and then transferred to damp paper by pressing through a strong roller press. Engraving is the oldest of intaglio methods, developed from incising designs in Medieval armor and jewelry. The method is similar to pen and ink drawing. The clean, sharp lines create the possibility of a full tonal range. Printmaking
  107. 107. Adam and Eve, 1504 Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471– 1528) Engraving
  108. 108. Knight, Death, and the Devil, 1513–14 Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471– 1528) Engraving
  109. 109. Melencolia I, 1514 Albrecht Dürer (German, 1471–1528) Engraving; 9 1/2 x 7 3/8 in. (24 x 18.5 cm)
  110. 110. The Reformation
  111. 111. Martin Luther (1483–1546) Workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder (German, 1472–1553) In 1517,Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, a manifesto listing 95 arguments, or Theses, against the use and abuse of indulgences, which were official pardons for sins granted through penance. Protestantism
  112. 112. The result of Martin Luther’s treatise was a radical shift in spiritual authority from the Catholic church to individual Christians. 1). Instead of salvation coming through the rituals prescribed by the church, individuals could control their own access to salvation by their actions (faith vs. non-faith). 2). Instead of reliance on church theologians to read the scripture in Latin, it was published for layman to read for themselves. Martin Luther would later translate the New Testament into German himself. Protestantism
  113. 113. Gutenberg Bible 1455 C.E. Used movable type. Printed books were embellished with woodcut prints. Allowed more copies to be created easily.
  114. 114. Satire on Popery, 1555 German Printed images were effective tools for handing out negative portrayals of the Catholic church and for popularizing Reformation ideas. Protestantism
  115. 115. Adriaen Pietersz. van deVenne Fishing for Souls. 1614, Oil on panel The Renaissance in the North
  116. 116. Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Harvesters, Oil on wood 1565. The Renaissance in the North
  117. 117. Northern artists turned increasingly to the everyday world around them, including the landscape. Religious authority ----> Secular authority “genre” painting: scenes of everyday life. The Renaissance in the North
  118. 118. The Renaissance in the North Pieter Brueghel the Elder,The Blind Leading the Blind, 1568.Tempera on canvas,
  119. 119. Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Hunters Returning in a Winter Landscape. Oil on canvas,
  120. 120. Merrymakers at Shrovetide, ca. 1615 Frans Hals (Dutch, 1582/83–1666) The Renaissance in the North
  121. 121. The Dissolute Household, ca. 1663–64 Jan Steen (Dutch, 1626–1679) Oil on canvas
  122. 122. Scholars generally date the end of the High Renaissance in Italy with the death of Raphael in 1520.The most interesting trend is Mannerism, an Italian word for “stylishness,” suggesting grace and sophistication. They were reacting against the logic, order, and balance of the High Renaissance and artists like Michelangelo. The Late Renaissance in Italy

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