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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
MADE BY
GUNJAN
INTRODUCTION
CONSTITUTION:
A constitution is a set of fundamental
principles or established precedents
according to which a state or other
organization is governed.
NEED OF A CONSTITUTION
• It generates trust that is necessary for different kinds of people to live
together.
• It specifies how the government will be constituted which means who
will have the power and what decisions will they be responsible for.
• It lays down limitations on the powers of the government and makes
the citizens aware of their rights.
• It expresses the aspirations of people for building a good society.
• It defines the nature of political system of a country.
• It provides a set of rules that allow the minimal
coordination amongst members of society.
• It enable the govt. to fulfil the separation of a society
and create conditions for just society.
Characteristics of Indian
Constitution
The Constitution of India has some distinct and
unique features as compared to other constitutions to
the world. Dr. Ambedkar, the Chairman of Drafting
Committee puts it, the framers had tried to
accumulate and accommodate the best features of
other constitutions, keeping in view the peculiar
problems and needs of our country.
Constitution of india
The main characteristics are:
• Longest written constitution
• Partly rigid and flexible
• Democratic Republic
• Parliamentary System of Govt.
• A Federation
• Fundamental Rights
• Directive Principles of State Policy
• Fundamental Duties
• Secular States
• An independent Judiciary
• Single Citizenship
A BRIEF HISTORYOFTHE
CONSTITUTION
Emperor Ashoka Maurya was the first to introduce and establish the
constitutional principles, engraved them in major rocks , pillars and
minor rocks. Which is known as edicts of Ashoka.
Before 1947, India was divided into two main entities – The British
India which consisted of 11 provinces and the Princely states ruled by
Indian princes under subsidiary alliance policy.
The two entities merged together to form the Indian Union. The
historical underpinnings and evolution of the India Constitution can
be traced to many regulations and acts passed before Indian
Independence .
 The East Indian Company which came to India in
early 1600 established their total administrative
control by gaining right of taxation in Bengal after
the battle of Plessey (1757) and thereafter took the
total unified control over India.
Constitution of india
PREAMBLE TO CONSTITUTION OF
INDIA
The preamble can be referred to as the preface which
highlights the essence of the entire Constitution. It
was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent
Assembly and came into effect from 26th January,
1950. The 'preamble' to the Constitution of India is a
brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding
purpose and principles of the document.
Meaning :
The 1st words of the preamble – “ We The People “ –
signifies that the power is ultimately vested in the
hands of the people of India . So far the preamble has
been amended only once in 1976 by 42nd amendment
(change) which inserted the words Socialism ,
Secularism and Integrity. A brief description of theses
concepts is given in the following slides.
Secular
Secular means the relationship between the government
and the people which is determined according to
constitution and law. By the 42nd Amendment, the term
"Secular" was also incorporated in the Preamble.
Secularism is the basic structure of the Indian constitution.
The Government respects all religions.
Democratic
The first part of the preamble “We, the people of
India” and, its last part “give to ourselves this
Constitution” clearly indicate the democratic spirit
involved even in the Constitution. India is a
democracy. The people of India elect their
governments at all levels (Union, State and local) by a
system popularly known as "one man one vote".
Republic
As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state
is appointed on hereditary basis for a lifetime or until
he abdicates from the throne, a democratic republic is
an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly
or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. . The leader of the
state is elected by the people.
Justice
The term 'justice' in the preamble refers to three
varying aspects - Political, Social and Economic
which are secured through different provisions of
Fundamental Rights & Directive Principles of State
Policy.
Liberty
The ideal of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities
of Indian nationals. All the citizens are secured with liberty
of thought, expression, belief, faith & worship through the
Fundamental Rights . However, liberty does not mean
freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the
constitutional limits.
Equality
This envisages that no section of the society enjoys
special privileges and individuals are provided with
adequate opportunities without any discrimination.
Again, there are three dimensions of Equality -
Political, Economic & Civic.
Fraternity
This refers to a feeling of brotherhood & a sense of
belonging with the country among its people.
FRAMING OF THE CONSTITUTION OF
INDIA
OBJECTIVES
• To set up a Union of India comprising British India and the princely
states.
• To set up federal form of govt. with separate state and central
government.
• To set up a democracy in which all power is derived from the people.
• To protect the integrity of India and her sovereign rights over land, sea
and air.
• To help India attain its rightful place in the world and work for peace
and welfare.
FATHER OF OUR CONSTITUTION
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar became the Chairman of its Drafting Committee
on December 11 , 1946.
Constitution of india
FROM UNITED KINGDOM
• President, Prime minister, Parliamentary type of
govt.
• Lower house more powerful
• Council of ministers responsible for lower house
• Provision of Speaker in Lok Sabha
FROM UNITED STATES OF AMERCIAA
• Written constitution, fundamental rights, Supreme
Court
• Appointment of Vice President, Head of the state
known as President
• Provision of states, Judicial review
FROM AUSTRALIA
• Concurrent list, Central-State relationship, Language
of the Preamble
FORM RUSSIA
• Fundamental duties, Five year plans
FROM GERMANY
• Emergency provisions
FROM JAPAN
• Law on which the Supreme Court functions
FROM CANADA
• Federal system and residuary powers
FROM SOUTH AFRICA
• Procedure of constitutional amendment
FROM IRELAND
• Concept of Directive Principles of State Policy
FROM FRANCE
• Concept of “Republic”
Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (contained
in the Preamble)

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Constitution of india

  • 2. INTRODUCTION CONSTITUTION: A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
  • 3. NEED OF A CONSTITUTION • It generates trust that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together. • It specifies how the government will be constituted which means who will have the power and what decisions will they be responsible for. • It lays down limitations on the powers of the government and makes the citizens aware of their rights. • It expresses the aspirations of people for building a good society.
  • 4. • It defines the nature of political system of a country. • It provides a set of rules that allow the minimal coordination amongst members of society. • It enable the govt. to fulfil the separation of a society and create conditions for just society.
  • 5. Characteristics of Indian Constitution The Constitution of India has some distinct and unique features as compared to other constitutions to the world. Dr. Ambedkar, the Chairman of Drafting Committee puts it, the framers had tried to accumulate and accommodate the best features of other constitutions, keeping in view the peculiar problems and needs of our country.
  • 7. The main characteristics are: • Longest written constitution • Partly rigid and flexible • Democratic Republic • Parliamentary System of Govt. • A Federation • Fundamental Rights • Directive Principles of State Policy • Fundamental Duties • Secular States • An independent Judiciary • Single Citizenship
  • 8. A BRIEF HISTORYOFTHE CONSTITUTION Emperor Ashoka Maurya was the first to introduce and establish the constitutional principles, engraved them in major rocks , pillars and minor rocks. Which is known as edicts of Ashoka. Before 1947, India was divided into two main entities – The British India which consisted of 11 provinces and the Princely states ruled by Indian princes under subsidiary alliance policy. The two entities merged together to form the Indian Union. The historical underpinnings and evolution of the India Constitution can be traced to many regulations and acts passed before Indian Independence .
  • 9.  The East Indian Company which came to India in early 1600 established their total administrative control by gaining right of taxation in Bengal after the battle of Plessey (1757) and thereafter took the total unified control over India.
  • 11. PREAMBLE TO CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights the essence of the entire Constitution. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly and came into effect from 26th January, 1950. The 'preamble' to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document.
  • 12. Meaning : The 1st words of the preamble – “ We The People “ – signifies that the power is ultimately vested in the hands of the people of India . So far the preamble has been amended only once in 1976 by 42nd amendment (change) which inserted the words Socialism , Secularism and Integrity. A brief description of theses concepts is given in the following slides.
  • 13. Secular Secular means the relationship between the government and the people which is determined according to constitution and law. By the 42nd Amendment, the term "Secular" was also incorporated in the Preamble. Secularism is the basic structure of the Indian constitution. The Government respects all religions.
  • 14. Democratic The first part of the preamble “We, the people of India” and, its last part “give to ourselves this Constitution” clearly indicate the democratic spirit involved even in the Constitution. India is a democracy. The people of India elect their governments at all levels (Union, State and local) by a system popularly known as "one man one vote".
  • 15. Republic As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne, a democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. . The leader of the state is elected by the people.
  • 16. Justice The term 'justice' in the preamble refers to three varying aspects - Political, Social and Economic which are secured through different provisions of Fundamental Rights & Directive Principles of State Policy.
  • 17. Liberty The ideal of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities of Indian nationals. All the citizens are secured with liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith & worship through the Fundamental Rights . However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.
  • 18. Equality This envisages that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination. Again, there are three dimensions of Equality - Political, Economic & Civic.
  • 19. Fraternity This refers to a feeling of brotherhood & a sense of belonging with the country among its people.
  • 20. FRAMING OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
  • 21. OBJECTIVES • To set up a Union of India comprising British India and the princely states. • To set up federal form of govt. with separate state and central government. • To set up a democracy in which all power is derived from the people. • To protect the integrity of India and her sovereign rights over land, sea and air. • To help India attain its rightful place in the world and work for peace and welfare.
  • 22. FATHER OF OUR CONSTITUTION Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar became the Chairman of its Drafting Committee on December 11 , 1946.
  • 24. FROM UNITED KINGDOM • President, Prime minister, Parliamentary type of govt. • Lower house more powerful • Council of ministers responsible for lower house • Provision of Speaker in Lok Sabha
  • 25. FROM UNITED STATES OF AMERCIAA • Written constitution, fundamental rights, Supreme Court • Appointment of Vice President, Head of the state known as President • Provision of states, Judicial review
  • 26. FROM AUSTRALIA • Concurrent list, Central-State relationship, Language of the Preamble
  • 27. FORM RUSSIA • Fundamental duties, Five year plans
  • 29. FROM JAPAN • Law on which the Supreme Court functions
  • 30. FROM CANADA • Federal system and residuary powers
  • 31. FROM SOUTH AFRICA • Procedure of constitutional amendment
  • 32. FROM IRELAND • Concept of Directive Principles of State Policy
  • 33. FROM FRANCE • Concept of “Republic” Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity (contained in the Preamble)