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Confined space safety

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Confined Space Safety.
(Thanks to OSHA & Other members for contributing to this presentation)

Publicada em: Engenharia
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Confined space safety

  1. 1. Confined Space Safety By - GSG
  2. 2. Introduction  Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be "confined" because their configurations that hinder the activities of employees who must enter to work in or exit from them.  In many instances, employees who are bound to work in confined spaces also face increased risk of exposure to serious physical injury from hazards such as entrapment, engulfment and hazardous atmospheric conditions.
  3. 3. What is Confined Space ?  Is large enough for an employee to enter fully and perform assigned work.  Is not designed for continuous occupancy by the worker.  Has a limited or restricted means of entry or exit.  Can represent a risk for the for the health and safety of anyone who enters, due to one or more of the following factors:  Its design, construction, location or atmosphere.  The materials or substances in it.  Work activities being carried out in it, or  the mechanical, process and safety hazards present.
  4. 4. Types of Confined Space  Confined spaces can be below or above ground.  A confined space, despite its name, is not necessarily small.  Confined spaces vary in size, shape and location and there isn't a standard or typical application.  A confined space safety system can usually be divided into either a "vertical" entry type system or a "horizontal" type.
  5. 5. Typical Confined Spaces  Boiler, Degreaser, Furnace  Pipeline, Pit, Pumping Station  Reaction or Process Vessel, Mills  Septic Tank, Sewage Digester  Silo, Storage Tank, Barges  Sewer, Utility Vault, Manhole  Trenches, Shafts, Caissons
  6. 6. Some Examples
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  14. 14. Some Examples
  15. 15. Why Confined Space entry is required? Entry into Confined Spaces may be necessary to periodically perform the following functions:  Construction  Maintenance  Removal  Inspection  Cleaning  Repairing
  16. 16. Issues in Confined Space  Entry into confined spaces can be very dangerous / hazardous.  A worker is considered to have entered a confined space just by putting his head across the plane of the opening.  If the confined space contains toxic gases, workers who are simply near the opening may be at risk.  The concentration of toxic gases near the entrance to the confined space can be high enough to cause death.  Unless proper training, tools & procedures are in place, workers must not be allowed to enter such spaces.
  17. 17. Hazards associated with Confined Space  Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from Toxic Atmosphere and Oxygen Deficiency.  Oxygen Enrichment  Flammable or Explosive Atmospheres  Flowing Liquid or Free Flowing Solids  Injuries arising from fire and explosion;  Electrocution  Falls from height.  Critters (Dangerous insects)  Psychological effect of person entering.  Other hazards due to fire injuries, excessive Heat, Noise, Drowning arising from an increase in level of liquid, Physical contact with moving parts; etc.
  18. 18. Hazards & Effects in Confined Space
  19. 19. Confined Space Hazard Categories
  20. 20. Confined space hazard categories  Usually, confined space incidents are caused by multiple factors.  There are two primary categories of hazards: 1. Atmospheric, or those that involve problems with the air in the space (lack of oxygen, the presence of other gases in the space, etc.) 2. Non-atmospheric, physical, or those hazards that are caused either by equipment (rotors, sparks, etc.) or by other dangerous conditions (slippery surfaces, heat, etc.).
  21. 21. Atmospheric Hazard
  22. 22. What is Hazardous Atmosphere ? A hazardous atmosphere is any atmosphere that may pose a risk of death, physical disability to self-rescue, or acute illness. An atmosphere is hazardous when:  It has too much or too little oxygen; or,  It contains flammable, combustible or explosive agents; or,  It contains contaminants (for example, fumes, dusts, mists) that could pose an immediate threat to life or interfere with a person's ability to escape unaided from a confined space.
  23. 23. What is Hazardous Atmosphere ? The atmosphere is considered to be dangerous if;  Flammable gas, vapor or mist above 1% of LEL (Lower Explosive Limit ).  Oxygen less than 19.5% or above 23.5%.  Airborne combustible dust that meets LFL (Lower Flammability Limit).  Atmospheric concentration of substance in excess of PELs (Permissible Exposure Limit).  Any other condition that is considered IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health).
  24. 24. Monitoring Hazardous Atmosphere Atmospheric monitoring is necessary whenever:  A safe atmosphere cannot be ensured.  An existing hazardous atmosphere cannot be removed.  The confined space cannot be physically isolated from the penetration of hazardous materials.  There is reason to suspect the development of a hazardous atmosphere during work activity.
  25. 25. OFT order of testing Confined Space Always test for atmospheric hazards in the following order: 1) Oxygen is tested first because both oxygen-deficient and oxygen-enriched atmospheres are extremely hazardous to workers’ health and safety. (Oxygen levels should be between 19.5% - 23.5%). 2) Flammable or explosive gases & vapors are tested because the threat of fire and explosion is both more immediate and more life-threatening. Flammability limits should be less than 10% of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). 3) Toxic atmospheres are tested last. Readings should be less than recognized standards of exposure limits .
  26. 26. Physical Hazard in Confined Space
  27. 27. Physical Hazards Hazardous atmospheres are not the only hazards within confined spaces. There are many actual and potential non- atmospheric hazards within confined spaces like:  Mechanical & Electrical Hazards  Skin Contact Hazards  Limited Access Hazards  Slip and Trip Hazards  Fall Hazards
  28. 28. Classes of Confined Space  Class A  Class B  Class C The classification of any confined space shall be determined only by Trained and Authorized persons.
  29. 29. Classes of Confined Space Class ”A” :- IDLH atmosphere (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health). May contain oxygen deficiency, explosive or flammable atmospheres, and /or concentrations of toxic substances. Class “B”:- Space has potential for causing injury if proper safety steps are not followed. Class “C” :- Space has potential hazards, but would not require any special modification of the work procedures.
  30. 30. Characteristics of Confined Space  The space must be substantially enclosed.  There must be a risk of at least one of the hazards (mentioned earlier) occurring within the space.  The risk of serious injury from the hazard must be created by virtue of the enclosed nature of the space.  The potential injury must be serious and be such as to require emergency action to rescue the person involved.
  31. 31. The key elements to be considered when drawing up a safe system of work are:  Competence, training, supervision and suitability  Permit-to-work procedure  Gas purging and ventilation  Dangerous residues  Testing and monitoring of the atmosphere  Mechanical, electrical and process isolation  Respiratory protective equipment  Other personal protective equipment  Safe use of work equipment  Communications  Access and egress  Flammable or explosive atmospheres  Combustible materials
  32. 32. Risk Assessment in a confined space When carrying out a risk assessment it is important to ensure that all risks associated with the hazards are evaluated and controlled. When carrying out a risk assessment the following questions should be asked:  What could be inside the space that would pose a risk?  What will be created due to the work carried out in the space?  What‘s outside the space that might pose a risk during the proposed work?
  33. 33. Risk Assessment in a confined space  What could be inside the confined space that would pose a risk?  Contents?  Oxygen Deficiency?  Previous Contents?  Oxygen Enrichment?  Residues?  Structure and Layout?  Contamination?  What will be created due to the work carried out in the space?  Sources of Ignition?  Flammable Substances?  What‘s outside the space that might pose a risk during the proposed work?  Inadequate Isolation?  Inadvertent Operation Of Plant?  Nearby Work Activities?
  34. 34. Exemptions from Confined Space The regulations do not generally apply to : Any place below ground in mines (as this is covered under the Mines and Quarries Act ) To any under water diving operations (Normally in sports category and covered under Fire Regulations.
  35. 35. Control of Confined Space Hazards It is important to follow the steps in the hierarchy of control measures to manage the identified risks:  Elimination  Substitution  Engineering Control  Administrative Control  Personal Protective Equipment
  36. 36. Types of Confined Space Non-Permitted & Permitted
  37. 37. Non-Permitted Confined Space  This does NOT contain physical, chemical or atmospheric hazards capable of causing death or serious physical harm.  However, Non-permit confined spaces should also be monitored regularly to determine if conditions within the space changes.  Examples of non-permit required confined spaces might include the interiors of HVAC units, certain air plenums and pipe chases, attics, walk-in freezers or refrigerators, and some building crawl spaces.
  38. 38. Permit-Required Confined Space By definition, a permit-required confined space has one or more of these characteristics:  Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;  Contains a material with the potential to engulf someone who enters the space;  Has an internal configuration that might cause an entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated and/or  Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards.
  39. 39. Example -Permit-Required Confined Space Workplace. Sewer entry. Potential hazards.  Presence of toxic gases. (=) or (>) 1 ppm hydrogen sulfide measured as an 8-hour time-weighted average.  Presence of explosive/flammable gases. (=) or (>) 1% of the lower flammable limit (LFL).  Oxygen Deficiency. A concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere equal to or less than 19.5% by volume.
  40. 40. Procedures for Permitted Confined Space Entry
  41. 41. Procedures for Permit-Required Confined Space 1. Written Programs 2. Controlling Hazards 3. Equipment for safe entry 4. Detection of hazardous conditions 5. Informing Contract Employees 6. Entry Permits 7. Worker Training 8. Assigned Duties 9. Emergencies
  42. 42. 1). Written Program
  43. 43. Written Programs (Plan)  The written program (plan) is an important element of the Confined Space Program because it helps to clarify what everyone is supposed to do and how to do it (a recurring theme).  If everyone understands their duties and responsibilities, and is able to perform in a professional manner, the likelihood of serious accidents will decrease significantly.  Any employer who allows employee for entry into a permit space must develop and implement an effective written program.
  44. 44. Elements in Written Program (Plan)  Identification of confined spaces  Evaluation of permit spaces and hazards  Development & implementation of safe entry operations  Providing and maintaining all necessary PPE equipment  Evaluating permit space conditions before & during entry operations  Confined space entry team duties (Entrant, attendant, supervisor)  Procedures for multiple spaces  Confined space entry and rescue training.  Rescue & emergency procedures  Entry permit procedures (issue, use, cancel)  Measures implemented to prevent unauthorized entry  Multi-employer entry procedures  Procedures for concluding the entry (closing off the space)  Review & evaluation of entry operations during the year.  Annual permit space program review using the historic permits
  45. 45. 2). Controlling Hazards
  46. 46. Controlling Hazards The employer's written program should establish the means, procedures and practices to eliminate or control hazards necessary for safe permit space entry operations. These may include:  Specifying acceptable entry conditions;  Isolating the permit space;  Providing barriers;  Verifying acceptable entry conditions; and  Purging, making inert, flushing or ventilating the permit space.
  47. 47. 3). Equipment for Safe Entry
  48. 48. Equipment for Safe Entry  In confined space entry and confined space rescue situations, the safety equipment must operate quickly and flawlessly.  In addition to personal protective equipment, other equipment that employees may require for safe entry into a permit space includes:  Testing, monitoring, ventilating, communications and lighting equipment;  Barriers and shields;  Ladders; and  Retrieval devices.
  49. 49. Equipment for Safe Entry  Harness  First aid kit  Breathing apparatus  Life / rescue line  Basket stretcher  Oxygen resuscitation equipment (Oxy-Viva)  Tripod / davit / anchor points  Roll-up stretcher  Lighting  Polycarbonate slide sheet  Rescue strop  Fire fighting equipment  Hazardous chemical suit  Satellite / mobile phone  Ventilation equipment  Crane  Gas detector  Defibrillator  Other rescue equipment requirements:  Rescue equipment must be available at the job location prior to commencing the work activity.
  50. 50. Safety Equipment for Confined Space
  51. 51. 4). Detection of hazardous conditions
  52. 52. Detection of hazardous conditions  If hazardous conditions are detected during entry, employees must immediately leave the space.  The employer must evaluate the space to determine the cause of the hazardous atmosphere and modify the program as necessary.  When entry to permit spaces is prohibited, the employer must take effective measures to prevent unauthorized entry.  Non-permit confined spaces must be evaluated when changes occur in their use or configuration & where appropriate, must be reclassified as permit spaces.
  53. 53. 5). Informing Contract Employees
  54. 54. Informing Contract Employees Employers must inform any contractors whom they hire to enter permit spaces about:  The permit spaces and permit space entry requirements;  Any identified hazards & pertinent information regarding hazards and operations in permit spaces ;  The employer's experience with the confined space, such as knowledge of hazardous conditions;  Precautions or procedures to be followed when in or near permit spaces.  When employees of multiple employers are conducting entry operations, the employers must coordinate entry operations to ensure that all the employees are protected from hazards.
  55. 55. 6). Entry Permits
  56. 56. Entry Permits  An entry permit is a document prepared by the employer and is designed to be used as a checklist to document the completion of all steps necessary to prepare for safe entry and work in a confined space.  A permit, signed by the entry supervisor, must be posted at all entrances or otherwise made available to entrants before they enter a permit space.  The permit must verify that pre-entry preparations outlined in the standard have been completed.  The duration of entry permits must not exceed the time required to complete an assignment.
  57. 57. Entry Permits must include: 1. The location of the permit space to be entered. 2. Purpose of the entry. 3. The date and the authorized duration of the entry permit. 4. The names of authorized entrants, attendants, and entry supervisors. 5. The hazards of the permit space. 6. The measures used to eliminate, isolate, or control permit space hazards before entry. 7. The detailed report on tests conducted in the space with results. 8. The acceptable entry conditions. 9. Name, telephone numbers of rescue & emergency services. 10.Communication procedures and equipment to maintain contact during entry; 11.Additional permits, such as for hot work, that have been issued authorizing work in the permit space; 12.Special equipment and procedures, including personal protective equipment and alarm systems; and 13.Any other information needed to ensure employee safety.
  58. 58. Cancelled Entry Permits  The entry permit is valid once it has been signed by the entry supervisor.  The entry supervisor must cancel entry permits when an assignment is completed or when new conditions exist.  New conditions must be noted on the cancelled permit and used in revising the entry permit for confined space program.  The standard requires that the employer keep all cancelled entry permits for at least one year.
  59. 59. 7).Worker Training
  60. 60. Worker Training  Before the initial work assignment begins, the employer must provide proper training for all workers who are required to work in permit spaces.  After the training, employers must ensure that the employees have acquired the understanding, knowledge and skills necessary to safely perform their duties.  After completion of training, the employer must keep a record of employee training and make it available for inspection by employees & statutory authorities.  The record must include the employee's name, the trainer's signature or initials and dates of the training.
  61. 61. Worker Training (Contd..) Additional training is required when:  The job duties change;  A change occurs in the permit space program or the permit space operation presents any new hazard;  An employee's job performance shows deficiencies.  In addition to this training, rescue team members also require training in CPR and first aid.  Employers must certify that this training has been provided.
  62. 62. 8).Assigned Duties
  63. 63. Assigned Duties For any confined space entry, there must be :  Entry supervisor.  Authorized entrant.  Attendant. All these employees/ workers should have been properly trained and also have thorough knowledge of the job/ duties assigned for them.
  64. 64. Assigned Duties – (Authorized Entrant) Authorized entrants are required to:  Know about confined space hazards, Read and observe the entry permit requirements .  Stay alert to the hazards that could be encountered in a confined space.  Use the protective equipment required by the permit system.  Maintain frequent communication with attendants to enable them to monitor the entrant's status and alert the entrant to evacuate when necessary;
  65. 65. Assigned Duties :Authorized Entrant (Contd) Confined space entrants must immediately exit the confined space when:  Ordered to do so by the attendant or authorized person.  When he recognizes the warning signs or symptoms of exposure and perceive that they are in danger .  A prohibited condition exists;  Activation of Automatic alarms sound.  They notice physiological stresses or changes in themselves or co-workers (e.g., dizziness, blurred vision, breath issues).  Alert the attendant when a prohibited condition or when warning signs or any other symptoms of exposure exists.
  66. 66. Assigned Duties – (Attendant) (Contd) The attendant is required to:  Be knowledgeable of, and be able to recognize potential confined space hazards;  Monitor surrounding activities to ensure the safety of personnel;  Remain outside the permit space during entry operations unless relieved by another authorized attendant;  Maintain communication with and keep an accurate account of permit space entrants.  Summon the Rescue Team, if crew rescue becomes necessary;  Ensure that unauthorized people stay away from permit spaces or exit immediately if they have entered the permit space;  Perform no other duties that interfere with the attendant's primary duties.
  67. 67. Assigned Duties : Attendant– (Contd..) The attendant is required to order Entrant to evacuate the confined space if he/she:  Notices a prohibited condition exists.  Notices the entrants shows signs of physiological effects of hazard exposure.  An emergency outside the confined space exists.  Notices within the confined space, a hazard which has not been previously recognized or taken into consideration.  The attendant cannot effectively and safely perform required duties.  Must focus attention on the rescue of personnel in some other confined space that he/she is monitoring;
  68. 68. Assigned Duties – (Entry Supervisor) The Entry Supervisors are required to:  Know space hazards including information on the mode of exposure, signs or symptoms and consequences;  Verify emergency plans and specified entry conditions such as permits, tests, procedures & equipment before allowing entry;  Terminate entry and cancel permits when entry operations are completed or if a new condition exists;  Verify that rescue services are available and that the means for summoning them are operable;  Take appropriate measures to remove unauthorized entrants;  Ensure that entry operations remain consistent with the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained.
  69. 69. Additional Responsibilities
  70. 70. Management Responsibilities Management Responsibility should include:  Ensure that a list of confined spaces is maintained.  Ensure that canceled permits are reviewed for lessons learned.  Ensure training of entry team members (authorized entrants, attendants, and entry supervisors) and other affected persons are conducted.  Ensure coordination with outside emergency responders.  Ensure personal protective equipment is in compliance with permit space safety standards.
  71. 71. Confined Space Rescue Team Responsibilities The Rescue Team members should:  Complete a training drill using mannequins or personnel in a simulation of the confined space prior to the issuance of an entry permit for any confined space and at least annually thereafter;  Respond immediately to rescue calls from the Attendant or any other person recognizing a need for rescue from the confined space;  In addition to emergency response training, receive the same training as that required of the authorized entrants;  Have certification in first-aid and CPR.
  72. 72. 9).Emergencies
  73. 73. Emergencies  A confined space emergency is any occurrence inside or outside the space, including failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment, that may endanger authorized confined space entrants.  A person shall not enter a confined space unless there is a suitable emergency arrangements have been made which are appropriate to the confined space in question.  It is important to know that the period of time for successful rescue is very limited. Otherwise, a rescue attempt will become body retrieval.
  74. 74. Emergencies The emergency arrangements shall include:  All practical measures necessary to ensure the health and safety of those taking part in the rest.  The provision of a suitable and reliable means of raising the alarm in the event of an emergency.  Having all necessary rescue equipment nearby and in a well maintained, good condition.  The provision of information, instruction and training to all involved in rescue procedures  A rescue drill in a confined space shall be held at least once in a year.
  75. 75. Confined Space Rescue  Two-thirds of all confined space fatalities occur among would-be rescuers.  Remember, even a well-planned rescue can end up as a body retrieval.  Rescues can be performed by any employee or a professional rescuer so long as he has been fully trained and qualified to act as a rescuer.  Qualifications include knowledge and experience of working with all hazards associated with rescue and confined space entry operations.
  76. 76. The Rescue Plan  A barricade area for crowd control.  Additional ventilation options.  Control of other hazards (cave-ins, traffic, etc.).  Protective clothing and equipment.  Appropriate lighting equipment (explosion-proof).  Methods of communication.  A standby rescue team.  Victim removal procedures and devices.  Available emergency vehicles.  Medically trained personnel.
  77. 77. At a minimum, training must include:  Recognition of permit space hazards.  Control of permit space hazards.  Use of atmospheric monitoring equipment.  Use & maintenance of Personal Protective Equipment.  Use and maintenance of rescue equipment.  Annual practice of permit space rescues.  Proficiency in first aid training and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).  Documentation of training. Confined Space Rescue Training
  78. 78. Rescue strategies  Depending on the severity of the emergency, different rescue strategies or methods can be used.  There are three types of emergency rescue techniques: 1. Self-Rescue 2. Non-entry Rescue 3. Entry Rescue  On site Rescue  Off site Rescue
  79. 79. Rescue Techniques (Self Rescue)  When the emergency is minor, self-rescue is often the best approach;  The self-rescue plan provides entrants with the best chance of escaping a permit space when hazards are present.  Whenever authorized entrants recognize their own symptoms of exposure to a dangerous atmosphere, or when a prohibited condition is detected, entrants are still able to escape from the space unaided and as quickly as possible.
  80. 80. Rescue Techniques (Self Rescue) Self-rescue is vitally important because the entrant is:  Conscious and alert.  Able to recognize his or her own signs and symptoms.  Still physically able to evacuate space more rapidly than waiting for someone else to rescue him or her.  Able to alert fellow workers of impending dangers.  Not endangering anyone else.
  81. 81. Rescue Techniques (Non-Entry)  Rescue that is conducted without entry into the confined space.  when self-rescue is not possible, non-entry rescue can be started right away and prevents additional personnel from being exposed to unidentified and uncontrolled confined space hazards.  Usually, equipment and other rescue aids are employed to assist in removing endangered entrants.
  82. 82.  Entry rescue involves rescuers entering the space to retrieve the entrant and provide the victim with emergency assistance.  An entry rescue plan needs to be developed ahead of time in the event of an emergency.  Rescue by entry can be classified into:  On Site Rescue  Off Site Rescue Rescue Techniques (By Entry)
  83. 83.  Because most rescue service providers are unable to rescue within the four-minute time limit, most employers develop their own rescue teams.  All the rescue team members should be trained to:  Properly use and maintain PPE and rescue equipment.  Act as a rescuer in annual simulated emergencies.  Assume individual roles and take on any emergency. Rescue By Entry (ON - Site Rescue)
  84. 84.  If the company do not have trained personnel for emergency rescue, then they must hire a third-party rescue service to conduct emergency rescues.  The window of opportunity for a rescue is very brief—only four minutes—the response time for an off-site rescue team may be considerably longer.  To make sure the confined rescue plan is effective, organise local rescue/fire departments prior to the job.  Provide access to the space so that they can familiarize themselves with the site, develop a rescue plan in advance, and practice rescue operations. Rescue By Entry (OFF - Site Rescue)
  85. 85. Re-evaluate the plan whenever:  Conditions change within the space.  Workers discover any new hazards.  There are changes in the rescue personnel and/or personnel availability.  New equipment is purchased.  Routine proficiency training results are unsatisfactory.  A rescue plan is found to be deficient (e.g., a failed simulated rescue). Re-evaluating rescue plans
  86. 86. Other tips on Confined Space Safety
  87. 87.  Natural ventilation is usually not reliable and not sufficient to maintain the air quality.  Mechanical ventilation (blowers, fans) is usually necessary to maintain air quality.  Ease of air movement throughout the confined space should be considered because of the danger of pockets of toxic gases still remaining even with the use of mechanical ventilation.  Do not substitute oxygen for fresh air. Increasing the oxygen content will significantly increase the risk of fire and explosion. Maintaining Air Quality
  88. 88.  Hot work should not normally be performed in a confined space unless:  All flammable gases, liquids and vapors are removed before the start of any hot work.  Surfaces coated with combustible material should be cleaned or shielded to prevent ignition.  Where appropriate, use spark resistant tools, and make sure all equipment is bonded or grounded.  If possible, avoid bringing fuel or fuel containers into the confined space (e.g., gasoline, propane).  While doing the hot work, the concentrations of oxygen and combustible materials must be monitored regularly. How are fire and explosion prevented?
  89. 89. Prcautions for welding in Confined Space
  90. 90.  All potentially hazardous energy sources such as electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, or thermal must be de-energized and locked out prior to entry to the confined space so that equipment cannot be turned on accidentally. How are energy sources controlled?
  91. 91. Many other situations or hazards may be present in a confined space. Be sure that all hazards are controlled including:  Any liquids or free-flowing solids are removed from the confined space to eliminate the risk of drowning or suffocation.  All pipes should be physically disconnected or isolation blanks bolted in place. Closing valves is not sufficient.  A barrier is present to prevent any liquids or free-flowing solids from entering the confined space.  The opening for entry into and exit from the confined space must be large enough to allow the passage of a person using protective equipment. Other Safety Precautions
  92. 92. Do’s and Don’ts in Confined Space Do…  Be aware of the risks that may occur within a confined space.  Make sure the person doing the work is capable and trained in both the work and the use of any emergency equipment. Don’t…  Work in confined spaces unless it’s essential to do so.  Ignore the risks – just because a confined space is safe one day doesn’t mean it will always be.  Let others enter a confined space until you are sure it’s safe to do so.
  93. 93. Conclusion
  94. 94.  Many factors need to be evaluated when looking for hazards in a confined space.  There is smaller margin for error. An error in identifying or evaluating potential hazards can have more serious consequences.  The conditions in a confined space are always extremely hazardous and sometimes are life threatening too.  This variability & unpredictability is why the hazard assessment is extremely important and must be taken very seriously every time. To Conclude

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