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Transaction Processing Systems These are information systems carry out the seven processes with regards to the transactions of an organisation. A transaction occurs when goods and services are exchanged for some form of payment. See Text page 117 table 4.1 for an example.
ACID is the acronym for the four properties A tomicity-the transaction starts and each step must be completed or it will be undone. C onsistency-data is agreed upon, remains in a consistent state and is accounted for. I solation-treats each transaction separately and keeps data from each transaction separate. D urability-the data should continue to exist. Transaction Processing Systems
characteristics of transaction processing systems There are two types of TPS: Batch processing and Real Time processing . Batch Processing transactions is the processing as the collection/storage of data at the time of the event with actual updating of the database later when it is scheduled or there is enough data. An example may be the accounts which are not able to be easily stored and updated due to the amount and type of data used. Examples of this may be a telephone account, which accumulates over a period of time. Transaction Processing Systems
<ul><li>characteristics of transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Batch processing : (compared to real time) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Control over time of processing; </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation; </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced setup and processing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Errors corrected after the processing of data; </li></ul><ul><li>Time delay in gathering data, storing and bulk processing; </li></ul><ul><li>Operational costs may increase; </li></ul><ul><li>Only identical data is processed in one batch. </li></ul>Transaction Processing Systems
characteristics of transaction processing systems Real time transaction processing as the immediate processing of data with the database updated as the transaction is being carried out. An example may be the Bank ATM and POS terminal, both of which have user input which requires immediate feedback. Transaction Processing Systems
<ul><li>characteristics of transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Real time transaction processing: (compared to batch) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction response time is quick if not immediate; </li></ul><ul><li>Data is processed as demanded; </li></ul><ul><li>Error correction can be immediate. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation may not exist or may be more difficult; </li></ul><ul><li>Processing needs make control difficult; </li></ul><ul><li>System hardware and software is expensive; </li></ul><ul><li>Backup is critical incase of system crashing; </li></ul><ul><li>Security is critical incase of crashing or data security; </li></ul><ul><li>The possibility of data corruption requires backup. </li></ul>Transaction Processing Systems
characteristics of transaction processing systems Data validation is a process that ensures that the correct type and valued data is input into a system. There are two types involved in TPS: 1. Transaction Initiation-provides correct steps of access. (verification) 2. Field Checking-ensures correct data type is used by checking entered data by type required. (comparison) Transaction Processing Systems
<ul><li>characteristics of transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of data validation in transaction processing is that it will provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the transaction a way of processing the data; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the maintains that transaction data and information is current, accurate and up to date; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>required reports and documentation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased efficiency, resulting in improved service; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a communicative process between provider and client. </li></ul></ul>Transaction Processing Systems
characteristics of transaction processing systems The historical significance of transaction processing as the first type of information systems, was driven by business. Business computerised manual processes used such as collecting, recording and reporting. Punch cards and tape drives suited batch processing. Processing was carried out after hours mainly concerned with payrolls. Developments in technology providing greater speed and lower costs allowed Real Time processing to be developed alongside Batch Processing. Transaction Processing Systems
characteristics of transaction processing systems Transaction processing is easily computerised as it is based on clear sets of rules followed by an operator in equivalent manual systems. Rules are set out and must be followed step by step to be considered as a successful transaction. Computerisation also is able to be set up in the same way. A TPS needs therefore, to be based on detailed specifications, dealing with the collection of data, in which formats and matching the operation of the organisation. Transaction Processing Systems
examples of transaction processing systems The components of a transaction processing system, including: 1. users of the information system as belonging to the same organisation that owns the transaction processing system 2. participants as the people who conduct the information processing 3. people from the environment becoming participants in real time systems as they directly enter transactions and perform validation Examples of real time transaction processing, including: 1. reservation systems; 2. point of sale terminal;3. library loans Examples of batch processing, including: 1. clearing of presented cheques; 2. generation of bills; 3. systems that appear real time, computerising transactions as they occur, but actual updating is processed in batch, such as credit card transactions. Transaction Processing Systems
storing/retrieving in transaction processing systems Storage of data in relational and flat-file databases in digital form as it has the ability to manipulate, store and retrieve along with process and display with digital technology. Data, is for large companies collected in batched format Retrieval of stored data to conduct further transaction is usually warehoused. Sequential, indexed sequential and hashed files generally store the data in databases. Transaction Processing Systems
storing/retrieving in transaction processing systems Sequential data storage are data records one after the other in entry or key field order, header stores and field order of each record in a data dictionary with a search completed using either binary or linear. Indexed sequential data storage are records stored in any order and with a separate index file, keeping matching key field items with the records position. This is faster, but continual updates to index file requires two files which must be maintained. Hashed file storage will divide the disk space into numbered locations, with key field. At the time that they are divided by the total locations a remainder is provided as storage location. Transaction Processing Systems
storing/retrieving in transaction processing systems data warehousing is the collection of data from a range of data sources. Transaction Processing Systems
storing/retrieving in transaction processing systems transaction database for analysis-backup procedures, including: Grandfather is the oldest backup, Father is the middle backup, Son is the most recent backup Incremental will only back up files that were altered since the last full or partial backup. This saves time as an entire data backup does not occur. Tape is a preferred medium, which is a slow backup process, but is cheap and is portable. This can be archived for many years. Transaction Processing Systems
storing/retrieving in transaction processing systems transaction database for analysis- backup procedures, including: Off-site storage is physically separated from the main system. This is also more secure as if the main system is damaged due to fire, the data is safe. partial backup, or differential backup does only files that were altered since the last full backup was completed. Recovery testing will backup small subsets of files and recovering them for storage in new location. Transaction Processing Systems
storing/retrieving in transaction processing systems transaction database for analysis-backup procedures, including: Sequential process will use tape rotation to complete the backup procedure. Specialised backup software permits scheduling of unattended backup procedures, reports and compression. Transaction Processing Systems
Updating is different for Real time processing and for Batch processing Real-time updating is suited to the direct access to storage system. This system usually has a RAID hard drives which are very reliable. Data is entry updated onto a daily transaction file and master file with Transaction data kept online on a master file. There is user interface with validation fields used such as radio buttons and pull-down menus. Transaction Processing Systems
Updating is different for Real time processing and for Batch processing Batch updating is suited to the use of sequential tape-based storage systems. Used previously along with paper records, magnetic tape, punched cards with an offline master retained. Record deletion was required and a complete copy was made to a second tape, which was slow. There maybe a user interface but was not essential. The storage system very often had its own display. Transaction Processing Systems
other information processes in transaction processing systems Collecting in transaction processing: hardware , including: - MICR is used by banks as a high speed and accurate reader of the characters that are printed on a cheque and deposit slips using ink that has magnetised particles. This is an example of batch processing. - ATM is a banking terminal, which customers are able to access to carry out common banking transactions. This is an example of real time processing. - Barcode readers is a fixed or handheld device that reads barcodes that hold details about product, price and description. The bar code reader uses a lazer. Transaction Processing Systems
other information processes in transaction processing systems Collecting data collection: MICR on cheques, barcodes, ATM, screen-based collection screen design: white space, grey shades, standout colours for critical data, group related data, use of buttons for selection, objects alignment, minimal keying, logical order for fields. web form collection: screen design, submit and clear entries button, frames for consistency, resolution of user’s screen, 216 colours, cross-platform and browser version compatibility, relating to both real-time or batch processing Transaction Processing Systems
other information processes in transaction processing systems Analysing The output of a TPS is often the input to other information systems. Management Information Systems (MIS) will provide business managers factual details of interest. These may include reports on inventory, sales and orders Decision Support Systems (DSSs) give people particularly in business information that will allow them to make decisions. Sales data, future and demographic trends. Data mining in particular comes into play here. Transaction Processing Systems
<ul><li>issues related to transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Changing nature of work and the effect on participants, including: </li></ul><ul><li>– the automation of jobs once performed by clerks </li></ul><ul><li>– the bypassing of clerks by people in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>manual operations are becoming automated by technology </li></ul><ul><li>work boundaries between users and participants, are fuzzy </li></ul><ul><li>employer ability to monitor performance has social implications </li></ul><ul><li>disappearance of repetitive tasks easily accomplished by computer systems </li></ul>Transaction Processing Systems
issues related to transaction processing systems bias in data collection: Data needs to be collected fairly, this means without bias. This word bias means that the data will not give an accurate account of a situation or of a need. At the point of collection of a TPS such as a POS is usually very accurate. The bias may appear when the data is displayed. All data may not be represented. This may become an ethical issue if this bias has occurred on purpose. Transaction Processing Systems
issues related to transaction processing systems The importance of data in transaction processing, including: data security is important as data is often confidential or has a commercial value, therefore, it needs to be protected from unauthorised access. data accuracy means that the data is correct and that the data is up to date (current) data integrity describes the reliability of data. This will include statements of data currency, correct entry of data and accuracy of the data. Transaction Processing Systems
Transaction Processing Systems issues related to transaction processing systems Control in the transaction processing commences with collecting and the way the TPS manipulates the data. Preparation and authorisation of the data entered needs to be considered. The control over the TPS is vital due to the large volume of data and the TPS usually only provides the user with a part of the transaction process. The TPS method of error correction is very important. The TPS should not be the only source of information that the business operator uses to make decisions. Information from management information and decision support systems need to be considered as well.