Development of gender roles

Student at University of Phoenix
28 de Jun de 2014
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
Development of gender roles
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Development of gender roles

Notas do Editor

  1. Psychoanalytic Theory – will include Freud’s theory of the Oedipus or Electra complex.
  2. During this stage, Freud said that boys go through the Oedipus crisis and girls go through the Electra crisis. In both cases, the child fantasizes about marrying the opposite-sex parent and doing away with the parent of the same sex. For boys, the Oedipus crisis is resolved when they realize that they cannot beat their more powerful father. Instead they identify with the father, deciding to be like him and hoping that someday they will find someone like their mother for themselves. For girls, the situation is more complicated. Essentially Freud believed that girls develop their gender identity by identifying with their mothers, whom they believe to be damaged in the same way that they are because they do not have a penis. There is little research evidence to support these ideas as the basis of gender identity in children (Golombok & Fivush, 1994).
  3. Boys who display opposite sex dress or play are less tolerated than girls. Fathers are particularly annoyed by non stereotypical play by their sons.
  4. Young girl imitating superstar Beyonce (right pic) Little boy imitating Superman (left pic) Over sensualized little girl model (bottom left pic) Little boy holding a rifle and in fatigues (bottom right pic)
  5. *Gender Identity-Child may think a person’s gender is changed if outward appearance is not stereotypical male/female dress. *Gender Stability-Child may think gender can change in non stereotypical gender activity. *Gender Constancy-Kohlber theorized children have reached full gender constancy when they inquire about appropriate gender behavior. For example, I am a boy and wear a tie because daddy wears a tie or I am a girl and wear a dress because mommy wears a dress.
  6. Gender roles extend beyond anatomy. Social attributes shape gender roles as well. The gender roles we subscribe to are highly individualistic, built on biological and physical traits, appearance and personality, life experiences, career and education and history of sexual and romantic interaction (Lee & Ashcraft, 2005, p. vii). Besides social pressure, children learn stereotypical male and female behavior through the media.
  7. Looking back at Kohlberg’s gender identity development (see slide 6). Children around the ages of 3-4 will start gender labeling. Young children can tell the difference between boys and girls, however they think gender can change if the stereotypical outward appearance is changed. As children get older, they begin to move to gender stability. Children are rather certain they know what gender are but will think gender will change if they adhere to cross-sex activity or appearance. After preschool, children know that nothing will change their biological sex and will stay that way for life. This is also a stage where they struggle with their gender identity onto adulthood. (Oswalt, 2014) Adolescence will experience gender intensification, a hypothesis states that girls and boys experience increased pressure to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles during adolescence (Hill and Lynch 1983). This is a time when they question their gender role or prescribe to roles. Transgendered teen boy (bottom left pic) Transgendered Teen couple (bottom middle pic) Transgender teen girl (bottom right pic)
  8. Children may distance themselves from traditional gender roles. *Girls will be more masculine or “tomboyish” (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2014)
  9. Even though these are actors, look at the fooled parents forcing the kids to wear stereotypical gender role costumes. The children were sure and had good reasons why they wanted to wear the costumes, but the parents insisted to the wear “appropriate” gender role costumes. Notice what the last woman said ,”…she did not say she was gay she just wanted to wear a boy’s costume.”