2. Historical Background
•The Filipinos did not get the
reforms demanded by the
•The government turned deaf ears
to the oppression and abuses of
the colonial officials.
•The good intention of Mother
Spain was reversed by the friars.
3. •Events which triggered the outbreak of
• The Banishment of Rizal to Dapitan,
Zamboanga del Norte;
• The establishment of the then secret
society KKK (Katipunan);
• The execution of Jose Rizal; and
• The discovery of Katipunan and
arrest of its members.
4. ANDRES BONIFACIO
Father of Filipino Democracy
Father of the Katipunan because he led in
establishing the Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-
galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK).
came from a poor family and it is said that what he
learned he got from the school of experience.
He established the Katipunan which triggered the
spirit of freedom especially when Rizal was
banished to Dapitan, Mindanao.
5. 1.Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga
Tagalog (What the Tagalogs
should Know) – an essay
outlining the basic tenets of
Bonifacio’s ideas on
“To eyes long blind,” the
light of reason has now revealed
this harsh injustice and shown
the separate, self-reliant road
the Tagalogs must take.
6. 2. Katungkulang Gagawin ng
mga Anak ng
Bayan (Obligations of our
Countrymen) – an outline of
obligations just like the Ten
Commandments, hence, it is
likewise called Ang Dekalogo.
one of the most famous Katipunan texts,
printed in schoolbooks and inscribed on
monuments. The format in which Bonifacio
sets out the duties of KKK members
obviously derives from the Old Testament
Duties of the Sons of the People
1. Believe with a fervent heart in the Creator.
2. Reflect always that a sincere faith in Him involves love of
one’s native land, because this shows true love for one’s
3. Engrave on the heart the conviction that to die for the
liberation of the country from enslavement is the highest
honor and fortune.
4. In any endeavor, the realization of good aspirations depends
on calmness, perseverance, reason and hope.
5. Guard the instructions and plans of the K.
. as you
would guard your own honor.
8. 3. Pag-ibig sa
Lupa (Love of One’s
Native Land) – a
poem describing love
of one’s country
considered as his
“Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa”
ni Andres Bonifacio
Aling pag-ibig pa ang hihigit kaya
sa pagkadalisay at pagkadakila
gaya ng pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa?
Aling pag-ibig pa? Wala na nga, wala.
PUBLISHED IN KALAYAAN
USING THE INITIALS AIB
to rise up and rescue the unhappy motherland from her torment.
9. 4. Huling
Farewell) – his
Rizal’s Mi Ultimo
Pinipintuho kong Bayan ay paalam,
Lupang iniirog ng sikat ng araw,
mutyang mahalaga sa dagat Silangan,
kaluwalhatiang sa ami’y pumanaw.
Masayang sa iyo’y aking idudulot
ang lanta kong buhay na lubhang
maging maringal man at labis ang
sa kagalingan mo ay akin ding handog.
10. Emilio Jacinto
• “The Brains of the Katipunan.”
•He was the adviser of Bonifacio and
the secretary of the Katipunan.
•He served as editor
of Kalayaan (Freedom), the official
newspaper of Katipunan.
•He used Dimas-Ilaw as pen name.
•After the death of Bonifacio, he led the
fight independently of Aguinaldo in his
hometown in Laguna.
11. •His major works include:
• Ang Kartilya ng Katipunan (A Primer Book of
Katipunan) – this served as the charter of the
Katipunan which is required to be read by all
To do good for personal gain and not for its own
sake is not virtue.
It is rational to be charitable and love one’s
fellow creature, and to adjust one’s conduct,
acts and words to what is in itself reasonable.
Whether our skin be black or white, we are all
born equal: superiority in knowledge,
wealth and beauty are to be understood, but not
superiority by nature.
12. • Liwanag at Dilim (Light and Darkness)
– a collection of essays on different
subjects like freedom, work, faith,
government and love of country.
Ang ningning at liwanag ay
paningin. Ang liwanag ay
kinakailangan ng mata, upang
mapagwari ang buong katunayan ng
mga bagay-bagay. Ang bubog kung
tinatamaan ng nag-aapoy na sikat ng
araw ay nagniningning; ngunit
sumusugat sa kamay ng nagaganyak
na dumampot. Ang ningning ay
13. • A Mi Madre (To my
Mother) – a touching
ode to his mother,
• A La Patria (To my
County) – an ode he
composed believed as
his poetic masterpiece.
14. Apolinario Mabini
•He was deeded as “The Sublime
•He was regarded as The Brains of
•He was a working honor student
despite his handicap and finished
his law degree.
•He wrote several works about
government, society, philosophy and
15. His major works include:
• El Verdadero Decalogo (The
True Decalogue) – this is
considered as his literary
masterpiece which aims to
1. Love God and your honor overall
truth, all justice, and all activity; your
honor, the only power that obliges you
to be truthful, just and industrious.
2. Worship God in the form that in your
conscience God speaks to you,
reproaching you for your misdeeds and
applauding you for your good deeds.
16. Jose Palma
•He was a poet, a writer and a
•He wrote the lyrics of
the Himno Nacional
Filipino (The Philippine
National Anthem) composed
by Julian Felipe which was
originally entitled, Marcha
17. •His major works include:
• Himno Nacional
Filipino (Philippine National
Anthem) – his poem which
became the lyrics of our national
anthem, which was composed by
• Melancolias (Melancholies) –
his collection of poems.
19. The Filipino Revolutionists won
against the Spaniards who colonized
for more than 300 years.
June 12, 1898 raised the Philippine
flag as a symbol of our
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was selected
the first president of
the Philippine Republic but this was
20. Many filipino started writing again and
the nationalism of the people remain
undaunted. Filipino writers went into all
forms of literature like news
reporting, poetry, stories,
plays, essays and novels.
Their writings clearly depicted their
love of country and thier longings
21. A new group started to write in English.
Hence, Spanish, Tagalog , the Vernaculars and
finally , English, were the mediums used in
literature during these times.
The writers in Spanish write about nationalism to
honor Rizal and other heroes.
The writers in Tagalog continued in their
lamentations on the conditions of the country and
their attempts to arouse love for one’s native
tongue. The writers in English imitated the themes
and methods of the Americans.
22. Dead Stars by Paz Marquez Benitez
stand out as a model of perfection in
character delineation, local color, plot
Footnote to youth by Jose Garcia Villa
23. Education became a very important
issue for the united states colonial
government, since it allowed them to
spread their cultural values, particularly
the english language, to the filipino
people. By 1901, public education was
institutionalized in the philippines, with
English serving the medium of
24. 1.Adelina Guerrea was first woman poet in the
Philippines who was good in Spanish. She
obtained the Nobel Prize in her EL NIDO.
2.Isidro Marpori became famous for his four
books entitled Aroma de Ensueno.
3.Macario Adriatico wrote of Legend of
Mindoro entitled La Punta de Salto
25. a) Lope K. Santos - "Father of the National language
Grammar", he was also called "apo" of the tagalog writers.
"BANAAG AT SIKAT" was his master piece.
b) Jose Corazon de Jesus - known as huseng batute, he
was also called the poet of love in his time. "ANG ISANG
PUNONG KAHOY", an elegy, is believed to be his
c) Armando V.Hernandez - was dubbed "Poet ofthe
Laborers", his masterpiece is "ANG PANDAY"
d) Valeriano Hernandez Pena - known as Tandang Anong,
he considers "NENA AT NENENG" hismasterpiece.
26. 1. Poet of the Heart (Makata ng Puso).
These included Lope K. Santos, Iñigo Ed. Regalado,
Carlos Gatmaitan, Pedro Deogracias del Rosario,
Ildefonso Santos, Amado V.Hernandez, Nemecio
Carabana, and Mar Antonio.
2. Poets of Life (Makata ng Buhay).
Led by Lope K Santos, Jose Corazon de
Jesus, Florentino Collantes, Patricio Mariano,
Carlos Garmaitan, and Amado V. Hernandez.
3. Poets of the Stage (Makata ng Tanghalan).
Led by Aurelio Tolentino, Patricio Mariano,
Severino Reyes, and Tomas Remigio.