♣ ThenameGreececomesfrom the Latin
Graeciawhichin turn comesfrom the Greek
wordGraikoi,the originalnameof the people
♣ Theoriginal Greeknamewas,andstill is
Hellas.,the landof the Helens.
♣ Influencesfrom their art andculturehave
madeagreat impactonthe Europeanand
Americanculture. Their highlyorganized
society(eventhe wordpoliticsisa Greek
word), their systemof justice, andof course
their art, the sculptures,statues,playsand
mythology have been a major sourceof
♣ The origin of this isunclear
although it was believed to
have been influenced by the
Mediterranean whose origins
lie in Crete andAsia Minor.
♣ The Greek mythological gods
and goddesseswere made out of
their own image very different
from the Egyptiansand the
♣ They were believed to be the
controller of the life of human
♣ Greekgodswere not supreme, almighty
beings.Theywere looked upon asidealized
humanbeings.Theywere powerful, but
looked humanand had the sameflaws
Theywere immortal,didn’t getoldor sick
and had eternal youth, but they did have
human flaws, desiresand needs,suchas
hunger and thirst.
9. Ancient Greek
-refersto literature written inAncientGreek
from the oldestsurvivingwritten worksin the
Greeklanguageuntil approximatelythe fifth
centuryADandthe riseof the Byzantine
- arosefrom the proto-Indo-European
wordscannotbederived from various
reconstructionsof the tongue.--
10. Ancient Greek
♣ Atthe beginningof Greekliterature standthe
two monumentalworksof Homer,the Iliad and
.Theother great poet of the
worksare WorksandDaysand Theogony
11. Ancient Greek
-30%of the wordsinaordinarydictionarycomes
from the ancientGreeklanguage.
Ancient Greekswere the first to usevowels.
Thevowelsmadethe languageeasierto learn
- Ouralphabetcamefromthe Greeklanguage.
12. Ancient Greek
AncientGreekliterature hadfour major writings;
Anexampleof the epictraditionsare the Iliad
Lyricpoemsgotits namefrom agroupof
individualssingingwhile playingthe lyre.
14. Theseare the five main dialectsof ancient
Greekthat havebeenfoundon inscriptions:
17. Zeus(Romanname: Jupiter)
Themostpowerful of all,
♣ godof the skyandthe kingof
♣ Histemper affectedthe weather,
♣ Hewasmarried to Herabut had
♣ Hissymbolsincludethe oakand
18. Hera(Romanname: Juno)
♣ Herawasgoddessof marriage an
the queenof Olympus.
♣ ShewasZeus'swife andsister;
manymythstell of howshesought
♣ Her symbolsincludethe peacock
20. Aphrodite(Romanname: Venus)
♣ Aphroditewasthe goddessof love
, andthe protector of
♣ She may have been the daughter of
Zeus and the Titan Dione, or she may
♣ Hersymbolsincludethe myrtletree
♣ Apollowasthe godof musicand
with asilverbow.Apollowasthe son
of Zeusandthe TitanLeto,andthe
♣ Hissymbolsincludethe laurel
tree, the crow,andthe dolphin.
22. Ares(Romanname: Mars)
♣ Areswasthe godof war.
♣ Hewasboth cruelanda coward.
♣ Areswasthe sonof ZeusandHera,
but neither of hisparentsliked him.
♣Hissymbolsincludethe vulture and
the dog,andheoften carried a
23. Artemis(Romanname: Diana)
♣ Artemiswasthe goddessof the
huntandthe protector of women in
♣ Shehuntedwith silverarrowsand
lovedall wild animals.
♣ Artemiswasthe daughterofZeus
andLeto,andthe twin ofApollo.
♣ Her symbolsincludethe cypress
tree andthe deer.
24. Athena(Romanname: Minerva)
♣ Athenawasthe goddessof
♣ Shewasalsoskilledin the art of
♣ Athenasprangfull-grown fromthe
♣ Her symbolsincludethe owland
26. Hermes(Romanname: Mercury)
♣ Hermes was the messenger
god, a trickster, and a friend to
♣ Hewasthe sonof Zeusandthe
♣ Thespeediestof all, hewore
28. Hestia(Romanname: Vesta)
♣ Hestiawasthe goddessof the
hearth (a fireplaceat the centerof
♣ Shewasthe mostgentleof the
gods,anddoesnot playarole in
♣ Hestiawasthe sisterof Zeusand
the oldestof theOlympians.
♣ Fireisamongher symbols.
♣ Greekschoolswere small. Theyhadonlyone
were not free andsoonlythe richcouldreally
afford to sendtheir childrento school.
♣ They don’t need much of
school equipments, as they
had learn everything off by
♣ Theyuseda wooden pencalled astyluswith a
sharpendforwriting andaflat endfor 'rubbing out'.
33. In ancient Athens, the purpose of
education was to produce citizens
Trained inthe arts,andto preparecitizensfor
both peaceand war.
Until age6 or so,boyswere
taught at homebytheir
mother or bya male slave.
Bookswere very expensiveandrare, sosubjects
were readout-loud, andthe boyshadto memorize
everything. Tohelpthem learn, they usedwriting
In primary school,they
hadto learn two important
things– the wordsof Homer
andhow to play lyre.
Their teacher,who wasalwaysa man,
could choosewhat additional subjectshe
wanted to teach. Hemight to teachdrama,
publicspeaking,government, art, writing,
instrument – flute.
35. Following that, boysattended a higher school
for four more years. When they turned 18, they
entered military schoolfor two additional years.
Atage20, they graduated.
Girls– werenotallowedto gotoschool.
to lookafter thefamily
In Ancient Sparta, the purpose of
education was to produce a well-
drilled, well-disciplined marching
Spartansbelieve in alife of
.Theywere very loyal
to the stateof Sparta. Every
Spartan,male or female, was
requiredto haveaperfect body
37. ♣ Whenbabieswere bornin ancient
houseandcheckthe baby.If the babydidnot
appear healthy and strong, the infant was
, and left to die on a hillside, or
taken to betrainedasaslave(a helot).
SpartanBoys: Spartanboyswere sentto
military schoolat age6 or 7. They
lived,trainedandsleptinthe barracksof their
brotherhood. Theywere taughtsurvivalskills
andother skillsnecessaryto beagreat
46. The Homeric
This age marked the creation of
the Greek epics, The Iliad and
The Odyssey. This age was
preceded by unknown literature
which were mostly unwritten.
47. The Attic Age
♣ Thisisthe periodof the emergenceof
♣ Thisperiodwasthe mostgloriousinancient
historythat revolvesaroundgreat political
leaderinthe personof PericlesItisalsoknown
48. The Hellenic
♣ Thisagebeganafter the death of
Demosthenesin 322 B.C.Thefollowing
year justafter the death ofAlexander
the di8visionof hisempire. Theliterary
Alexandria, a cityin Egyptfoundedby
metropolisof the Hellenisticworld.
50. Modern Greek
♣ Recognizedasmasters of modern Greek
letters, SeferisandElytisreceivedthe Novel
♣ The poet Maria Polydouri (1902-30) gain
renownthgroughher intense,erotic love lyrics.
♣ Theeffort of modernGreekwriters to
achieveasynthesisof the richtraditionso9f
the Greekheritageiswell representedin the
53. Modern Greek
♣ TheGreekswere the first civilization to use
♣ TheAlphabetwasdevelopedafter the Dark
Agewhenthe Greeksstoppedusing their
odaymany letters of our modern alphabet
originate from the Greek alphabet suchasthe
54. Modern Greek
Thefirst library in the world, the library of
Alexandria wasactually built in Egypt,
becauseafter Egyptsubmitted to
Alexander’srule the Macedonians started
spreadingthe Greekwayof life to all of the
55. Modern Greek
The Olympic Games started in
ancient Greece. The participants
were the city- states of Ancient
Greece and their colonies. The
Olympic Games were held every 4
years in honor of Zeus, the king
56. Modern Greek
We still useGreek-style architecture
.Atype of GreekArchitecture
that is usedtoday would be pillars.
♣ In Greece a building which pillars
were usedwould be the
Parthenon located in Athens.