2. A 19 year old male presented with chief complaints of
swelling over the right shoulder since 5 years.
Swelling is insidious in onset and gradually progressive in
nature and attained the present size . No sudden
increase in size.
Not associated with pain or discharging sinuses .
3. No history of trauma or fever.
No history of any other swellings in the body.
No history of chronic cough , significant weight loss.
No other co-morbid conditions, otherwise a healthy
No past history of similar swellings.
No relevant family history.
4. On General examination
No significant pallor, cyanosis, icterus , oedema,
regional lymphadenopathy noted.
No signs of infection or any chronic disease.
CVS : S1 S2 +
CNS : No focal neurological deficit
RS : NVBS, no added sounds
P/A : soft, no organomegaly .
6. ON INSPECTION
A 4 X 4 cm size swelling over the antero- lateral
aspect of Left proximal arm.
Surface is Smooth , ovoid in shape,
Skin over the swelling is normal .
No significant muscle wasting.
No scars, dilated veins, discharging sinuses
7. ON PALPATION
No local raise of temperature.
No bony tenderness.
Well defined margins.
Swelling is hard in consistency and fixed to the
Not reducible or compressible .
No fixity to the overlying skin.
8. No pulsations.
No bruit on auscultation.
Movements of the shoulder joint normal .
No distal neurovascular deficit.
12. X-ray report
Exophytic lesion noted in lateral cortex of left
humerus at meta-diaphysial junction away from the
Cortex and medulla of the lesion is continuous with
that of the host bone.
Asymmetric widening of meta-diaphysial juntion.
Evidence of cartilage cap noted.
Impression: Osteochondroma of left
15. MRI report
Focal bony projection in metaphysical region of left proximal
humerus laterally and anteriorly.
Irregular cartilaginous cap covering the lesion. Maximum
thickness of the cartilage cap is 5mm.
No obvious bursal formation or vascular compression noted.
IMPRESSION : Osteochondroma of left proximal humerus.
Cartilage cap thickness is within normal limits.
16. Patient was advised
EXCISION of the lesion
1. To rule out malignancy.
2. To prevent complications.
3. To confirm the diagnosis.
17. SURGICAL APPROACH
approach a curved incision is
made over the left proximal
arm and plane is created
between Deltoid and
Pectoralis major muscles.
2. Lesion is exposed on
anterolateral aspect of
1.Multiple drill holes are
made at the base of
stalk of the lesion.
2. Drill holes are
osteotome and lesion is
Sections show cartilage with mature bone trabecule
having bone marrow elements.
IMPRESSION: Histological features are
consistent with Osteochondroma.
Total of 15 cases of exostosis were operated in the
past 3 years.
All cases are solitary exostosis.
Male 10/ Female 5.
Age group ranging from 8 – 21 years.
Distal Femur: 8 cases
Proximal Humerus : 6 cases
Distal Tibia : 1 case.
25. Post operative period is un-eventfull .
No recurrence .
No neurovascular complications .
Range of movements of adjacent joints is
Is a developmental anomaly of bone that result in
formation of an exophytic outgrowth.
Most common bone tumor .
30-50% of benign bone tumors .
10-15 % of all bone tumors.
AGE : First two decades of life.
Sex : male : female 1.5 to 1.
Metaphysis of long bones.
Most common sites
Also seen in flat bones like ilium, scapula, clavicle.
Herniation of a fragment of epiphyseal growth plate
through the periosteal bone cuff.
Misdirected growth of portion of physical plate.
Development of eccentric cartilage capped bony
30. Clinical features
Mostly asymptomatic presenting as painless lump.
Pain may be due to
-pressure on surrounding structures.
-fracture of bony stalk
mechanical block to joint movements.
31. Radiographic features.
Occur in metaphysis or in the diaphysis. Never found
in the epiphysis.
Directed away from the growing end of long bones.
Cortex and medulla of the tumor is continuous with
that of the host bone.
Exostosis is either pedunculated or sessile.
- to determine thickness of cartilage cap
-extent of the bursa
STRUCTURE AND THICKNESS OF CARTILAGE CAP
CORD COMPRESSION IN SPINAL LESIONS
INDICATIONS FOR EXCISION OF THE LESION
Fracture of the pedicle
Cosmetic ( commonest reason for excision)
34. Sarcomatous change
Malignant transformation in
solitary exostosis < 1%
multiple exostosis 5%
flat bones 10%
rapid increase in size
local raise of temperature.