Republic of the Philippines
Department of Education
BINISAYA: CODE-SWITCHING UTILIZATION OF AGUSAN DEL SUR
NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
A Research Proposal Submitted to the
Policy, Planning and Research
Division, DepEd Caraga Region
AGUSAN DEL SUR NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Giovanne O. Lapay
Dandy V. Anino
Welgie M. Eva
Manilyn D. Catipay
Ruvelyn C. Layno
I. Introduction of the Research
Code-switching is a phenomenon that exists in bilingual societies where people have
the opportunity to use two or more languages to communicate. Being able to speak more than
one language, bilinguals can code-switch and use their languages as resources to find better
ways to convey meaning. Code-switching can also be defined as: “the alternation of two
languages within a single discourse, sentence, or constituent” (Jamshidi & Navehebraim 2013).
There are several functions of code-switching such as filling linguistic gaps, expressing ethnic
identity and achieving particular discursive aims (Bullock & Toribio 2009:2).
Later studies show that code-switching is used to create close relationships between
students and their teachers (Lin 2013:202; Jingxia 2010:21) and that students find classroom
interaction more natural and easy when code-switching is allowed (Cook 2001:413). This
comfortable atmosphere that code-switching can contribute to is important in the teacher-
student relationship since it gives them an opportunity to communicate in a more informal way
where the risk of misunderstandings due to English language shortcomings can be avoided
(Simon 2001:317). In formal situations code-switching can be used to make the teaching more
effective. Code switching also leads to more efficient teaching for the simple reason that the
students understand faster and more thoroughly. Hence, teachers’ code switching is an
important tool for explanations and instructions (Cook 2001:418).
In the Philippines, code-switching is widely used among private and public schools
since it help teachers to express their thoughts and ideas of the topics regardless of its medium
of instruction. The use of code-switching help students to understand and comprehend lessons
easily because they are familiar with the use of native or first language. Majority of the teachers
use code-switching to their learners espcially subjects that English as medium of instruction.
This will help teachers to facilitate leaning and assess students in their needs specially in
undestanding the content using the English language.
The scenario is also manifested in elemetary schools since the Department of Education
implemented the use mother tongue in the discussion. One the objective of this implementation
is for the learners to comprehend and understand easily with the discussion and give them
enough time so with avenue to participate in the classroom discussion unlike the use of English
language. It is important not to prevent students from using their first language but to encourage
them to use the English in as many situations as possible and to find out when and why code-
switching should occur.
On the other hand, some arguments for avoiding code-switching is that the students
miss out on input in the target language and are deprived of genuine English language
interaction.There seems to be an agreement on the effects of code-switching in classroom
discussion both the sociolinguistic approach focusing on conversation, the participants and the
setting, and the grammatical approach focusing on grammatical functions of code-switching.
Senior High School students of Agusan del Sur National High school are moulded to
become competitive and employable if not to consider their academic pursuits in college.
Understading and comprehension of the lessons are very essential in this regard. The capacity
to express one’s self in spoken or written depends on how they strategized their level of
understanding to respective learning areas. Code-switching in the classroom during discussions
are used by the teachers to deliver the lesson effectvely considering the different type of leaners
of the senior high school of Agusan del Sur National High School.
The researchers take the initiative to undergo research on the effectiveness of using
code-switching to the Grade 12 students of Agusan del Sur National High School. The
fogegoing will answer the question relative to level of comprehension and understanding of
the Grade 12 students in code-switching due to the fact that Agusan del Sur National High
School offers different strands namely STEM, ABM, GAS and TVL respectively. With this,
learners from one strand to the others differs when it comes to thier understanding and
comprehension of the subject content. It is manifested with the observations of the teachers.
Background and foundation of education of learners is another factor. The groupings of the
strand is another issue since grades of the learners is a parameter in determining the qaulified
students for a specific strands.
II. Literature Review
Basically, teachers play a vital role in determining the performance of the students
inside the classroom. Teacher decisions lead to positive outcomes and improved student
learning. However, if students continue to perform poorly without getting all of the support
they need – not necessarily mean due to a lack of effort on the teachers. There is a need for
interventions for the educators identify these students’ needs more efficiently and
systematically. One of which is the use of code-switching in the classroom discussion. This
method will help assess the comprehension of learners towards the lesson despite majority of
the subject use English as medium of instruction.
Grammatical Theory and Bilingual Codeswitching
Codeswitching is the alternate use of two or more languages among bilingual
interlocutors. It is distinct from borrowing, which involves the phonological and morphological
integration of a word from one language into another. Codeswitching involves the mixing of
phonologically distinctive elements into a single utterance. This volume examines the
grammatical properties of languages mixed in this way, focusing on cases of language mixing
within a sentence. It considers the grammar of codeswitching from a variety of perspectives,
offering a collection of theoretically significant work by the leading researchers in the field.
Each contribution investigates a particular grammatical phenomenon as it relates to bilingual
codeswitching data, mostly from a Minimalist perspective. The contributors first offer detailed
grammatical accounts of codeswitching, then consider phonological and morphological issues
that arise from the question of whether codeswitching is permitted within words. Contributors
additionally investigate the semantics and syntax of codeswitching and psycholinguistic issues
in bilingual language processing. (Bandi-Rao, Rakesh M. Bhatt, Sonia Colina, Marcel den
Dikken, Anna Maria Di Sciullo, Daniel L. Finer, Kay E. González-Vilbazo, Sílvia Milian Hita,
Jeff MacSwan, Pieter Muysken)
Grammatical theory is primarily focused on relations below the sentence level, and research on
grammatical aspects of code-switching has focused almost exclusively on intrasentential code-
switching. The chapter begins with a discussion of early research on code-switching, and the
emergence of code-switching as a field of linguistic research. It then reviews a number of
theoretical approaches to code-switching, focusing on a discussion of the implications of
current research in syntactic theory for the analysis of code-switching data. The chapter
demonstrates that an approach which engages in the analysis of mix-language data, without
reference to specifically crafted constraints or other mechanisms, can be successful and may
reveal interesting properties of the languages and linguistic theory. It ends with some comments
regarding directions for future research in code-switching.
heory [accessed Jul 07 2018].
The Use of Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education
Nowadays, educational system around the world supports the use of mother tongue
instruction specially in the early years of child’s education. Most of the countries in Asia,
Southeast Asia to be specific, utilized this kind of approach to their instruction and code-
switching is widely used. On the other hand, our country institutionalized a national policy
requiring mother tongue as mode of instruction in the primary school years of which conducted
in the local context rather than its national settings.
One of the rationale of mother tongue based multilingual education is to alleviate
student achievement by focusing the cognitive development in a learner first language and a
basis for learning the English language during later years. Moreover, code-witching in the
discussion would somehow mean monther tongue multilingual education for the teachers to
express the ideas and for the students to comprehend the lessons regardless of the medium of
instruction.At present, mother tongue based-multilingual is a component of the K to 12 Basic
Education Program thus there is a need to consider language of instruction in providing
learning interventions for students including code-switching
III. Research Questions
This study sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the level of English proficiency of Grade 12 students based on:
1.1 the use of code-switching; and
1.2 without code-switching?
2. Is there a significant difference between the:
2.1 pre-test and post-test using code-switching; and
2.2 pre-test and post-test without the use code-switching?
3. What English proficiency program will be crafted?
Ho1: There is no significantt difference between the:
1.1 pre-test and post-test using the code-switching, and
1.2 pre-test and post-test without using the code-switching?
Ho2: There is no significantt different between the post-test results of not using and using
code-switching in the classroom discussion.
IV. Scope and Limitation
This study will be conducted to the Grade 12 students of Agusan del Sur National High
School. The said school is located at National Highway, Brgy. 5, San Francisco Agusan del
The respondents are Grade 12 TVL, GAS, ABM and STEM students of Agusan del Sur
National High School.
The determination of the scope ensures the “NO-disruption-of-classes Policy” of the
V. Research Methodology
This study will be employed using questionnaires. The respondents will take the test
before and after the application of code-switching in the classroom discussion.
The researchers will select two sections from TVL, GAS, and STEM of Agusan del Sur
National High School. To avoid discrimination, the researchers will use stratified Random
Sampling among sections of students. The set A will take the pre-test and post test with code-
switching in their subjects using English as medium of instruction while the Set B will take the
pre-test and post-test without code-switching in the classroom discussion.
b. Data collection
Prior to the giving of interventions, the researcher will design a 15-item test (Multiple
Choice) using a Table of Specifications. The test will undergo face and content
validation by three English teachers to ensure its validity. The test will undergo a
reliability test. The Reliability test is necessary to ensure that the test is within the range
of the target respondents. The said test will be given to both sets of respondents as pre-
test, the papers will be collected, checked, and recorded right after the retrieval. After
the pre-test, respondents of the two sets will be given interventions. The papers will be
collected, checked, and recorded right after the retrieval.
c. Ethical Issues
The researches will write an approval letter to the School Head signifying his interest
in conducting this study. The researchers, before the conduct of pre and post-rest, will inform
the respondents about the complete confidentiality of the test results and further inform them
that the results will not affect their grades and academic records.
d. Data Analysis
Several Statistical treatments will be used in this study to answer the Research Questions.
VII. Cost Estimates
ACTIVITY PARTICULARS ESTIMATE
Concept Paper Making 15 ream bond paper (A4) 3,750.00
Outlining and Proposal Making Internet Expenses 1,000.00
Preparing Pretest/Post-test Printing & Binding 300.00
Flash Drive 16 GB HDMI 500.00
Phase 1 Present the
study in the
Phase 2 Present
ization of Code-
Agusan del Sur
Conduct of School
Workshop in Using of
Speaking Activities to
Promote Confidence in
Speaking English of
Grade 12 Students in
Agusan del Sur
National High School
Phase 3 Present in the
Phase 4 Publish
VIII. Plans for Dissemination
At the school level, Grade 12 subject teachers together with the Grade 12 year level
coordinator will be under focused-group discussion regarding on the conduct and
implementation of the research.
ical_Theory [accessed Jul 07 2018].