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Introduction to psychology

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Introduction to psychology

  1. 1. Introduction to Psychology with Elements of Cognitive and Developmental Psychology By: Gaurav Gill
  2. 2. Case Study- To question Nature vs Nurture • Biologically it is sex hormones, physical appearance and the sex chromosomes - XX for a woman, XY for a man - which dictate whether someone is male or female. • But what happens if you bring up someone who was a boy as a girl? • There was a case just like this in the 1960s, a case which ended in tragedy.
  3. 3. • Twins Bruce and Brian Reimer were born in Canada as two perfectly normal boys. But after seven months, both were having difficulty urinating. • Acting on advice, the parents, Janet and Ron, took the boys to the hospital for a circumcision. • The next morning, they received a devastating phone call - Bruce had been involved in an accident. • Doctors had used a cauterizing needle instead of a blade, and the electrical equipment had malfunctioned and the surge in current had completely burned off Bruce's penis. • "I could not comprehend what he was talking about," Janet Reimer remembered.
  4. 4. • Ideal experiment • Months passed, and they had no idea what to do until one evening they met a man who would change their lives, and the lives of their twins, forever. • Dr John Money was a psychologist specialising in sex changes. • He believed that it wasn't so much biology that determines whether we are male or female, but how we are raised. • "We just happened to be watching TV," remembers Mrs Reimer. • "Dr Money was on there and he was very charismatic, he seemed highly intelligent and very confident of what he was saying." • Janet wrote to Dr Money, and within a few weeks she'd taken Bruce to see him in Baltimore. • For Dr Money the case provided the ideal experiment.
  5. 5. • Here was a child he believed should be brought up as the opposite sex, who even brought his own control group with him - an identical twin. • If it worked this would provide irrefutable evidence that nurture could over-ride biology - and Dr Money genuinely believed that Bruce had a better chance of living a happy life as a woman than as a man without a penis.
  6. 6. • Lonely girl • And so, when Bruce was 17 months old, he became Brenda. Four months later, on 3 July 1967, the first surgical step was taken - with castration. • Dr Money stressed that, if they wanted the sex change to work, the parents must never let Brenda or her twin brother know that she had been born a boy. • From now on they had a daughter, and every year they would go and visit Dr Money who was keeping track of the twins' progress in what became known as the John/Joan case. Brenda's identity was kept a secret.
  7. 7. • She was very rebellious. She was very masculine, and I could not persuade her to do anything feminine. Brenda had almost no friends growing up. Everybody ridiculed her, called her cavewoman.Janet Reimer • Although, in contrast, he also noted: "The girl had many tomboy traits, such as abundant physical energy, a high level of activity, stubbornness, and being often the dominant one in a girl's group." • By 1975, the children were nine years old, and Dr Money published a paper detailing his observations. The experiment, he said, had been a total success.
  8. 8. • Yet by the time Brenda reached puberty at 13, she was feeling suicidal. • "I could see that Brenda wasn't happy as a girl," Janet recalled. • "She was very rebellious. She was very masculine, and I could not persuade her to do anything feminine. Brenda had almost no friends growing up. Everybody ridiculed her, called her cavewoman. • "She was a very lonely, lonely girl." • Faced with their daughter's sadness, Brenda's parents stopped taking her to see Dr Money
  9. 9. • Soon after, they did the one thing Dr Money had warned them against: they told her she had been born a boy. • Within weeks Brenda had chosen to become David. • He had re-constructive surgery and eventually he even married. He couldn't have children himself, but he loved being a stepfather to his wife's three children. • Yet what David did not know was that he had still been immortalised as 'John/Jane' in medical and academic papers about gender reassignment, and that the "success" of Dr Money's theory was affecting other patients with similar gender issues.
  10. 10. • Depression • Now well into his thirties, David had become depressed. He'd lost his job and he was separated from his wife. • In the spring of 2002 his brother died from a drug overdose. • Two years later on 4 May 2004, when David was 38, Janet and Ron had a visit from the police. David had committed suicide. • "They asked us to sit down and they said they had some bad news, that David was dead. I just cried."
  11. 11. Meaning of Development • According to Elizabeth, B. Hurlock (1975) the term development implies a progressive series of changes that occur as a result of maturation and experience. • As Van den Daele has pointed out, “ development implies qualitative change”. • This means that development is just not adding inches to ones height or refining one’s ability but it is a complex process which involves integration of many structures and functions.
  12. 12. Is Development Paradoxical? • Development involves two paradoxical processes in it, that is growth or evolution and atrophy (decay) or involution. The two processes begin at the time of birth and end at death. In the early phases of life, growth predominates, as for example, • the development of teeth, hair, increase in height etc., while atrophy or decay is dominant in the later years of life when we lose our teeth, there is loss of hair and sagging of muscles etc.
  13. 13. Domains of Development • three dimensions, viz., • (i) Physical development • (ii) Cognitive development • (iii) Emotional and social development.
  14. 14. Trolley Dilemma
  15. 15. Trolley Dilemma Experiment- Situation 1 • A trolley is barreling down a train track out of control. 4 workers are making repairs farther down the track and you bystander quickly realize that they will all be killed by runaway trolley. • Then you notice that there’s a lever nearby that can divert the trolley onto another track. • But, hang on, you can see 1 worker on that diverted track. • So if you pull the lever, 1 worker will be killed however if you don’t pull the lever 4 workers will be killed. • What would you do in such a situation?
  16. 16. Situation 2
  17. 17. Situation 2 Trolley Experiment • Now consider a slightly different but same scenario. • A trolley is barreling down a train track out of control. 4 workers are making repairs farther down the track and you bystander quickly realize that they will all be killed by runaway trolley. • But this time you re standing at the deck of water tower overlooking the tracks and you notice there’s a large man standing ahead of you at water tank. You realize that if you push the man off the water tank, his weight is enough to stop the trolley though he will get killed but you will end up saving the 4 workers on the track. • Would you push the man on water tank?
  18. 18. • In Situation 1 it seems like a Maths problem to the brain. • In situation 2 when you actually have to physically push off a man your brain region’s corresponding to emotions get activated.
  19. 19. • Formula of I.Q. is • Mental Age Intelligent Quotient = ---------------------- x 100 Chronological Age M. A. = -------------------------x 100 C. A. • CA should not go beyond 15 years of age, cause it is said after 15 years brain starts declining.
  20. 20. • If you give a child same test twice with enough time between two tests, you will find that his scores would improve as he grew older. • He would certainly do better at the age of 18th than at the age of 4 years. However, a time would come when his ability to answer the test questions would no longer improve. • A person does not stop learning even he reaches to mental maturity. Generally mental maturity reached some where between 14 to 18th age. The generally accepted figure is 15th year.
  21. 21. Who am I? • I was a Swiss clinical psychologist known for my pioneering work in child development. • At a young age I published a paper on mollusks.
  22. 22. • Cognitive approach to development was postulated by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Piaget stated that children are not passive learners but they actively explore and manipulate the world around them. • Would anyone help with stages of Cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget?
  23. 23. • Jean Piaget believed in “Constructivism”- children are active thinkers who are constantly trying to construct or more accurate understanding of the world around them. • Schemas- mental frameworks for organizing, interpreting and processing social information. • For instance if you visit a doctor at a clinic you might wait in queue and then get examined by the doc, pay the bill and leave. • You almost know what to expect when you appear for an interview and how it would be at a family gathering, all of this is done through schemas.
  24. 24. Assimilation & it’s example • The process by which new information is taken into the previously existing schema is known as assimilation. • For example, a small child may have a schema about a type of animals. The child’s only experience with dogs is their pet dog, and he knows that dogs have four legs. One day this child sees another dog. He identifies the new animal as a dog based on his previous knowledge of his dog. Labeling it as a dog is an example of assimilating the animal into the child’s dog schema.
  25. 25. Accommodation & its example • Accommodation is the process by which pre-existing knowledge is altered in order to fit in the new information. A new schema might be created in this process. • For example, a child knows that a dog has four legs. When the child sees a horse for the first time, he calls it dog as it has four legs. He fits in the new animal with the existing knowledge; this is assimilation. But an adult points out that it is a horse, not a dog; then the child alters his knowledge that all four-legged animals are not dogs.
  26. 26. • Piaget described four stages of development • 1) Sensorimotor stage ( birth – 2 years), • 2) Preoperational stage (2-7 years), • 3) Concrete operational stage (7-11 years), • 4) Formal operational stage ( 11 years and older)
  27. 27. • “ The Descent of Man” by Charles Darwin. • According to this theory, Darwin’s evolutionary theory is applied to explain development. In this the main focus is on natural selection. • It foucses on genetic factors as well as environmental factors contributing to human development . • According to this theory genetic and environmental mechanisms are the basic influence in the development of humans and according to Darwin this is a universal phenomenon. • Those who are genetically strong will develop into a stronger human as compared to those who have inherited weak genes.
  28. 28. Do you think that being Gay is to do with choices or with genes? • Male sexual orientation may be influenced by genetics, a new study suggests. • The findings, shared at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago , revealed that in a study that tested the DNA of 409 gay men, at least two chromosomes may affect a man’s sexual orientation. • "Sexual orientation has nothing to do with choice. Our findings suggest there may be genes at play, and we found evidence for two sets that affect whether a man is gay or straight," said Michael Bailey of Northwestern University, who carried out the research.
  29. 29. • The study involved drawing blood from 409 gay brothers and heterosexual members of their families. Analysis confirmed that an area on the X chromosome – which men inherit from their mothers -- known as Xq28 has some impact on sexual orientation. Another stretch of DNA on chromosome 8 also affects male sexual behavior, they said. • In a follow-up work, he found 33 out of 40 gay brothers had similar genetic markers on the Xq28 region of the X chromosome, the Guardian reports.
  30. 30. SRY Gene- determiner for male gene • The SRY gene provides instructions for making a protein called the sex-determining region Y protein. This protein is involved in male sexual development, which is usually determined by the chromosomes an individual has. People usually have 46 chromosomes in each cell.
  31. 31. • The sex chromosomes in birds are designated Z and W, and the male is the homomorphic sex (ZZ) and the female heteromorphic (ZW). • The ZW sex-determination system is a chromosomal system that determines the sex of offspring in birds, some fish and crustaceanssuch as the giant river prawn, some insects (including butterflies and moths), and some reptiles, including Komodo dragons.
  32. 32. • Glands help regulate the internal environment of our body. There are two types of glands- endocrine glands and exocrine glands. • While the Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream, • the latter that is the exocrine glands secretes hormones through ducts.
  33. 33. Endocrinology • Endocrinology- the branch of physiology and medicine concerned with endocrine glands and hormones. • Hormones has been derived from Greek word “ Hormon” which means to set in motion , excite, stimulate)
  34. 34. The following glands make up the endocrine system: Mnemonic “ HP PPT AT TOP 1. Adrenal Glands 2. Hypothalmus 3. Ovaries 4. Pancreas 5. Parathyroid 6. Pineal Gland 7. Pituitary Gland 8. Testes 9. Thymus 10. Thyroid
  35. 35. • Our body has 2 bosses they are: • 1) Endocrine system • 2) Nervous system. • They are constantly trafficking information across the human body. • Our Nervous system uses action potential and lightening fast pace of neurons to
  36. 36. • Endocrine also transmits messages but relatively slowly, hormones that travel through your blood and not through your neurons. • On the other hand endocrine glands are those which secrete their hormones directly into the blood and are also known as ductless glands. Major endocrine glands • are (i) Pituitary (ii) Adrenal (iii) Pineal and (iv) Thyroid gland.
  37. 37. Master Gland • Which is the master gland in your body? Why is it called so? • The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master" gland of the endocrine system, because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, and is located at the base of the brain. It produces many hormones which in turn signals Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal and Pineal glands to make their own hormones.
  38. 38. • Glands that makes and secretes hormone. • Endocrine system also includes organs like Pancreas, Gonads and Placenta in pregnant women. • Hypthalamus is also in Endocrine club.
  39. 39. • Hormones can only trigger a reaction in a specific cell called Target Cell which have right receptors for it. • Thyroid gland produces throxine. • Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development and maintenance of bones.
  40. 40. • Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone- Follicle stimulating hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It regulates the functions of both the ovaries and testes. Lack or insufficiency of it can cause infertility or subfertility both in men and women. • The Luteinizing hormone or LH stimulates formation of egg inthe ovaries of women, while in males it promotes the development of testosterone, growth hormone or GH also known as somatotropic hormone.
  41. 41. • Pancreas releases Insulin and glucagon. • Adrenal gland is located above the kidneys. It has two parts (i) adrenal medulla • and (ii) adrenal cortex. Adrenal medulla helps prepare the body for emergency • The adrenal glands, located at the top of each kidney, produce hormones that help the body control blood sugar, burn protein and fat, react to stressors like a major illness or injury, and regulate blood pressure. Two of the most important adrenal hormones are cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands also produce adrenaline and small amounts of sex hormones called androgens, among other hormones.
  42. 42. Phineas Gage- Biological basis of brain
  43. 43. In 1848, Gage, 25, was the foreman of a crew cutting a railroad bed in Cavendish, Vermont. On September 13, as he was using a tamping iron to pack explosive powder into a hole, the powder detonated. The tamping iron—43 inches long, 1.25 inches in diameter and weighing 13.25 pounds—shot skyward, penetrated Gage’s left cheek, ripped into his brain and exited through his skull, landing several dozen feet away. Though blinded in his left eye, he might not even have lost consciousness, and he remained savvy enough to tell a doctor that day, “Here is business enough for you.”
  44. 44. • John Harlow, the physician who attended to Gage at the scene, noted that the tamping iron was found some 10 metres away, "where it was afterward picked up by his men, smeared with blood and brain". • The tamping rod fractured the frontal and parietal bones extensively. Remarkably, Gage survived this horrific ordeal, and by all accounts was conscious and walking within minutes.
  45. 45. • Several days later, one of the wounds became infected and he fell into a semi-comatose state. Fearing the worst, his family prepared a coffin, but Gage soon recovered and by January 1849 was leading an apparently normal life. But those closest to him began to notice dramatic changes in his behaviour.
  46. 46. • Harlow described the "mental manifestations" of Gage's injury in the Bulletin of the Massachusetts Medical Society: • His contractors, who regarded him as the most efficient and capable foreman in their employ previous to his injury, considered the change in his mind so marked that they could not give him his place again. He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint of advice when it conflicts with his desires, at times pertinaciously obstinent. In this regard, his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was "no longer Gage".
  47. 47. Do you know?
  48. 48. Do you know? • Dolphins babies are born swimming and giraffes learn to stand within hours and a baby zebra can run within 45 minutes of birth whereas a human takes almost a year to walk. • Would anyone know the reason? • Baby animals develop quickly because their brains are wired according to a largely preprogrammed routine. • However when a human baby is born the brains are remarkably unfinished.
  49. 49. • ) Myencephalon: This is the first and oldest part of the brain. It extends from spinal cord. It has within it Medulla oblongata. The main function of this structure • is to take care of the autonomic activities of breathing, respiration etc. • 2) Metaencephalon: This is the next part of the brain which is old in terms of evolution. It has within it pons and cerebellum. The main function of this structure of the brain is to maintain balance between different physical • activities, as for example rhythm and coordination between the movements or hands and leges and other parts of the body.
  50. 50. Nervous System
  51. 51. Mnemonic for learning Nervous System • There are 2 types of Nervous people • 1) Nervous people see critical situations • 2) Nervous people also seek peace • And other category is : • New confidence brings strength.
  52. 52. Sympathetic- Fight or Flight • It is a nice, sunny day...you are taking a nice walk in the park. Suddenly, an angry bear appears in your path. Do you stay and fight OR do you turn and run away? These are "Fight or Flight" responses. In these types of situations, your sympathetic nervous system is called into action - it uses energy - your blood pressure increases, your heart beats faster, and digestion slows down.
  53. 53. Parasympathetic Nervous System • It is a nice, sunny day...you are taking a nice walk in the park. This time, however, you decide to relax in comfortable chair that you have brought along. This calls for "Rest and Digest" responses. Now is the time for the parasympathetic nervous to work to save energy. This is when blood pressure can decrease, pulse rate can slow, and digestion can start.
  54. 54. • CNS- This comprises of two parts i.e. brain and spinal cord. Spinal cord runs from cervics to the end of waist. It is filled with fluid which is covered with meninges. • Brain is located in the bony skull. Within the skull, the brain is protected by • three layers of tissues called meninges. Outer most layer is called dura matter • and inner most layer is called pia matter. • White matter is called so because it is covered with a sheath known as mylin sheath.
  55. 55. • A) Fore brain ( thalamus, hypothalamus and cerebrum).-HTC • B) Mid brain (situated between forebrain and hind brain) • C) Hind brain (medulla, pons, cerebellum and reticular formation
  56. 56. • Peripheral Nervous System • This comprises of all those neurons which lie outside the brain and spinal cord and connect these two with receptors, effectors and glands. It is divided into two • parts i.e. somatic and autonomic nervous system. •  Somatic nervous system is primarily related to voluntary activities. Central nervous system sends impulses to voluntary muscles through somatic nervous system. • It is further divided into cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
  57. 57. • The reptilian brain, the oldest of the three, controls the body's vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, body temperature and balance. Our reptilian brain includes the main structures found in a reptile's brain: the brainstem and the cerebellum. The reptilian brain is reliable but tends to be somewhat rigid and compulsive.
  58. 58. Old brain • Brain Stem- where the spinal cord enters the skull. ( most ancient part of the brain)- It includes three main parts – the "midbrain," the "pons," and the "medulla.“It has a key role in regulation of basic body functions, including breathing, eating, blood flow and the nervous system (including sensitivity to pain). It is also central in managing wakefulness and the sleep cycle. • The brainstem is an evolutionary ancient part of the brain and is sometimes called the 'reptilian brain' as it provides the basic bodily control in reptiles and other non-mammals. • Generally reptiles have Old brains or reptilian brains.
  59. 59. • Some regulation of body functions is automatic, for example control of breathing. We do not need to think about this and if we try to stop it, the brainstem will override such cortical foolishness (if necessary, making us unconscious to do so). • Other activities need the body to take conscious actions, such as eating
  60. 60. • Medulla- beating of heart, breathing of lungs. The medulla oblongata helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing. This part of the brain is a center for respiration and circulation. • Pons is perched on Medula and it helps coordinate movements. Arousal,Autonomic Function: Breathing Regulation,Relaying Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum Sleep
  61. 61. • Thalamus- The thalamus is involved in several functions of the body including: • Motor Control • Receives Auditory, Somatosensory, and Visual Sensory Signals • Relays Sensory Signals to the Cerebral Cortex • Memory Formation and Emotional Expression • Pain Perception • Controls Sleep and Awake States
  62. 62. • The cerebellum is one of the most identifiable parts of the brain due to its unique shape and location. • It is extremely important for being able to perform everyday voluntary (done with purpose and intent) tasks such as walking and writing. • It is also essential to being able to stay balanced and upright. • Patients who have suffered from damaged cerebellums often struggle with keeping their balance and maintaining proper muscle coordination. • It gets impaired under the influence of alcohol
  63. 63. Limbic Brain- Higher functions • The limbic brain emerged in the first mammals. It can record memories of behaviors that produced agreeable and disagreeable experiences, so it is responsible for what are called emotions in human beings. • The main structures of the limbic brain are the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the hypothalamus. • The limbic brain is the seat of the value judgments that we make, often unconsciously, that exert such a strong influence on our behaviour.
  64. 64. • Limbic System has : • 1) Amygdala- aggression and fear • 2) Hypothalamus- regulating body temperature. The hormones from the hypothalamus govern physiologic functions such as temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sleep, mood, sex drive, reward and the release of other hormones within the body. This area of the brain houses the pituitary gland and other glands in the body. • 3) Hippocampus- learning and memory
  65. 65. • The neocortex first assumed importance in primates and culminated in the human brain with its two large cerebral hemispheres that play such a dominant role. • These hemispheres have been responsible for the development of human language, abstract thought, imagination, and consciousness. • The neocortex is flexible and has almost infinite learning abilities. • The neocortex is also what has enabled human cultures to develop.
  66. 66. • The neocortex is part of the cerebral cortex - t is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought, and in humans, language.
  67. 67. Glial Cells • Nearly 90 percent of the brain is composed of glial cells, not neurons. • Glial cell: A supportive cell in the central nervous system. Unlike neurons, glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses. • The glial cells surround neurons and provide support for and insulation between them. • Glial cells are the most abundant cell types in the central nervous system. Types of glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, Schwann cells, microglia, and satellite cells.
  68. 68. • The Cerebrum largest portion of the brain is divided into two hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure. Both right and left hemispheres are composed of gray matter. • Cerebral Cortex is divided into 4 lobes. • The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. • The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and is associated with reasoning, motor skills, higher level cognition, and expressive language.
  69. 69. • The parietal lobe is located in the middle section of the brain and is associated with processing tactile sensory information such as pressure, touch, and pain. • A portion of the brain known as the somatosensory cortex is located in this lobe and is essential to the processing of the body's senses. • Damage to the parietal lobe can result in problems with verbal memory, an impaired ability to control eye gaze and problems with language.
  70. 70. • The temporal lobe is located on the bottom section of the brain. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is important for interpreting sounds and the language we hear. • The hippocampus is also located in the temporal lobe, which is why this portion of the brain is also heavily associated with the formation of memories. • Damage to the temporal lobe can lead to problems with memory, speech perception, and language skills
  71. 71. • The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain and is associated with interpreting visual stimuli and information. The primary visual cortex, which receives and interprets information from the retinas of the eyes, is located in the occipital lobe.
  72. 72. • Brain is divided into 3 parts Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. • Forebrain is the largest part of the brain, most of which is made up of Cerebrum also known as Telencephalon and Diencephalon.
  73. 73. • There are two regions, outer grey matter is cortex and the inner matter is white. • Two cerebral hemispheres are connected through corpous callousm. • Cerebrum is associated with higher brain function such as thought and action.