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Aircraft Maintenance practices introduction

This slide is prepared by me for the students studying in 1st Semester of Aircraft Maintenance Engineering. This is only the the introduction of Maintenance Practices involved in Aircraft Maintenance. Reference is taken from various aviation books and websites. Suggestions are welcome. Pls leave a like
PS- after downloading please don't change the name of author as you will be disregarding all the hard work done by me.

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Aircraft Maintenance practices introduction

  1. 1. First Semester By- Gaurav
  2. 2. Maintenance  The process of keeping something in useable condition by checking or repairing it on regular basis. Maitenance Practice-1
  3. 3. Practice  Actual doing of something rather than ideas  Way of doing something  Doing an activity or training on regular basis to improve skills  Habit or Custom Maitenance Practice-1
  4. 4. Maintenance Practice  This subject deals with the way of keeping something in useable/good condition Maitenance Practice-1
  5. 5. Why this subject?  Prime objective of an AME is to maintain an aircraft in airworthy condition so that it can fly safe and reach its destination with all its passenger safely.  If there is an error in maintenance or ignorance of maintenance procedure by maintenance personnel then the life of passengers and crews and machine is at stake.  So it is important that the persons involved in maintenance of aircraft must have proper knowledge of procedures and practices involved in maintenance of aircraft Maitenance Practice-1
  6. 6. Maintenance Practice This Subject is divided in 03 parts - Maintenance Practice -1- Ist Semester - Maintenance Practice -2- IInd Semester - Maintenance Practice -3-IIIrd Semester Maitenance Practice-1
  7. 7. Maintenance Practice-1  Safety Precaution-Aircraft and Workshop  Workshop Practices  Tools  Operation, Function and Use of Electrical General Test Equipment  Fits and Clearances  Weight and Balance Maitenance Practice-1
  8. 8. Chapter-1 Safety Precaution Aircraft and Workshop Maitenance Practice-1
  9. 9. Safety Precaution An action taken in advance to protect against possible danger, failure, or injury. Maintenance Practice-1
  10. 10. Aircraft  Any machine which can derive support in the atmosphere from reactions of the air other than reactions of the air against the earth's surface and includes balloons whether fixed or free, airships, kites, gliders and flying machines. (source: Aircraft Rules 1937)  Any vehicle designed to be supported by air, heavier or lighter than air, mechanically or non-mechanically driven Maintenance Practice-1
  11. 11. Workshop  A room or shop where work is done It includes -Aircraft hanger maintenance bays -Mechanical and electrical bays -Machine shops -Cleaning plants -Battery rooms -Basic bench tool work areas Maitenance Practice-1
  12. 12. Accident  An unfortunate incident that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, and may result in injury or death of people and/or damage to equipments or facilities  Accident always have a cause.  That cause may be -unsafe human condition -unsafe environmental condition (Humans are responsible for choosing or creating unsafe condition ) Maitenance Practice-1
  13. 13. Hazard  anything that has the potential to create danger and thus harm.  Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm; however, once a hazard becomes "active", it can create an emergency situation.
  14. 14. Hazard  Hazards occurs as a result of day-to-day activities in and around the workplace. e.g.  Slippery floor  Defective tools  Spilled chemicals  Overconfidence  Fatigue  Stress  Lack of fitness  Inappropriate or incorrectly worn dresses
  15. 15. Risk  ‘risk is the likelihood/chance that a person may be harmed or suffers adverse health effects if exposed to a hazard.’  The level of risk is often categorised upon the potential harm or adverse health effect that the hazard may cause, the number of times persons are exposed and the number of persons exposed.  Exposure to airborne asbestos fibres will always be classified as high because a single exposure may cause potentially fatal lung disease, whereas the risk associated watching a television for a short period could be considered to be very low as the potential harm or adverse health effects are minimal.
  16. 16. Risk and Hazard  The terms Hazard and Risk are often used interchangeably but this simple example explains the difference between the two.  If there was a spill of water in a room then that water would present a slipping hazard to persons passing through it. If access to that area was prevented by a physical barrier then the hazard would remain though the risk would be minimised.  So, Risk and Hazard collectively leads to Accident.
  17. 17. Risk Assessment for Safety  A risk assessment would involve identifying a hazard and then evaluating the risk in the light of precautions to reduce the danger or remove it.  First hazard must be recognized; then they must be assessed; and finally, if necessary, they must be controlled.
  18. 18. Recognition of Hazard  Slippery floors  Untidy work areas  Cluttered walkways  Insecure handrails  Defective tools  Spilled chemicals  Inadequate lighting  Poor ventilation  Lack of equipment  Excessive noise
  20. 20. Safety Precaution- Aircraft Maitenance Practice-1
  21. 21. Airport  An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consists of at least one surface such as a runway for a plane to take off and land, a helipad, or water for takeoffs and landings, and often includes buildings such as control towers, hangars and terminal buildings. Maitenance Practice-1
  22. 22. Airside and Landside  Airports are divided into landside and airside areas.  Landside areas include parking lots, public transportation train stations and access roads. It is the area accessible to normal public.  Airside areas include all areas accessible to aircraft, including runways, taxiways and ramps.  Access from landside areas to airside areas is tightly controlled at most airports. Maitenance Practice-1
  23. 23. Airside and Landside Maitenance Practice-1
  24. 24. Airside and Landside Maitenance Practice-1
  25. 25. APRON  Area that accommodates aircraft for the purpose of loading/off-loading passengers and cargo, refueling, parking and maintenance. Maitenance Practice-1
  26. 26. APRON Maitenance Practice-1
  27. 27. APRON  Tarmac: Though commonly used to describe the area where planes park, tarmac isn’t officially a place. That word is the name of a product produced by a British company that produces a surface coating that is applied to roads and airfields.  Using tarmac to describe where planes park is like calling the area outside a building where cars park “the concrete” instead of calling it the parking lot. Tarmac® with a capital “T” is a registered trademark. Maitenance Practice-1
  28. 28. APRON  Ramp: It’s a common unofficial term that is very much in use at airports of some American and Asian countries. Maitenance Practice-1
  29. 29. APRON  Apron: This is in fact the official term used by both the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which advises on aviation practices worldwide, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), which regulates aviation in the U.S., to designate the area at the airport where parked and serviced at airports.  The apron is a busy place. It’s the part of the airport where vehicles and airplanes share the same space. The many movements on the apron are not generally controlled by the air traffic control tower. Maitenance Practice-1
  30. 30. Maneuvering Area  Area other than apron, used for the movement of the aircraft on the ground and for the taking-off and landing. Maitenance Practice-1
  31. 31. Movement Area  Comprises both the maneuvering area and the apron. Maitenance Practice-1
  32. 32. Taxiway  Path connecting the runway to other aircraft facilities, such as hangers and apron. Maitenance Practice-1
  33. 33. Runway  A strip of land or water from which aircraft can takeoff and land on airport. Maitenance Practice-1
  34. 34. Hanger  An enclosed structure designed to hold the aircraft in protective storage. Maitenance Practice-1
  35. 35. Points to be Observed  Apron environment is often a busy one and be aware of the danger.  Aware with airport operations instructions rules.  Entry to the maneuvering area require clearance from local air traffic controller. Maitenance Practice-1
  36. 36. Airport Marking  Airport markings are used to mark structures, and path so that these can be used by required personnel or vehicles without confusion.  Both paint and lights are used for marking so that, markings are visible in day as well as night.  Vehicle routes – white line  Aircraft routes – yellow line  Pedestrian routes – green line  Delineation between apron and maneuvering area – double white lines Maitenance Practice-1
  37. 37. Aircraft Taxiway  The taxiway centre-line is a single continuous yellow line, 6 inches (15 cm) to 12 inches (30 cm) in width. This provides a visual cue to permit taxiing along a designated path.  Taxiway edge marking are of two types:  Continuous: Consist of a continuous double yellow line, with each line being at least 6 inches (15 cm) in width spaced 6 inches (15 cm) apart. They are used to define the taxiway edge from the paved surface not intended for use by aircraft. Maitenance Practice-1
  38. 38. Aircraft Taxiway  Dashed Markings. define the edge of a taxiway or taxi-lane on a paved surface where the adjoining pavement to the taxiway edge is intended for use by aircraft. e.g., an apron. Dashed taxiway edge markings consist of a broken double yellow line, with each line being at least 6 inches (15 cm) in width, spaced 6 inches (15 cm) apart (edge to edge). These lines are 15 feet (4.5 m) in length with 25 foot (7.5 m) gaps.  Identified by blue edge light and sometimes green centre line lights.  Also have red stop bar lights at various holding points. Maitenance Practice-1
  39. 39. Aircraft Taxiway Maitenance Practice-1
  40. 40. Runways Maitenance Practice-1
  41. 41. Apron Maitenance Practice-1 Normally illuminated by an array of overhead pylon lights.
  42. 42. Runways  A line of lights on an airfield or elsewhere to guide aircraft in taking off or coming in to land or an illuminated runway is sometimes also known as a Flare Path.  Runway center Line: embedded in surface of runway at 50 ft interval along runway center line. White light is used for this except last 900 m, alternate white and red for next 600m, and red for last 300m.  Runway edge lights: white elevated lights that run the length of the runway on either side. On precision instrument runways, the edge-lighting becomes yellow in the last 2,000 ft (610 m) of the runway, or last third of the runway, whichever is less. Maitenance Practice-1
  43. 43. Vehicles  For driving in the movement area personnel must require Airfield Driving Permit (ADP).  Aircraft have priority over all vehicles in the airside.  Fire and rescue vehicles on emergency call out have priority.  Pedestrian have priority on apron. Maitenance Practice-1
  44. 44. Vehicles  All vehicles display a roof mounted yellow flashing obstruction light in movement area.  Fire and rescue vehicles display a flashing blue light when emergency callout.  In apron speed of vehicles restricted to 15 mph.  Vehicles use dipped headlight while moving .  Vehicles must not approach aircraft until the aircraft is choked and engines have been shut down and anti-collision lights have been switched off. Maitenance Practice-1
  45. 45. Vehicles  Vehicles have to positioned so that they do not have to reverse in order to leave the zone. Maitenance Practice-1
  46. 46. Clothing  Wear approved high visibility anoraks or tabards at all times. Maitenance Practice-1
  47. 47. Noise  Noise from turbine engine can cause temporary or long-term damage to hearing.  This noise also blankets the sound of approaching vehicles and will drown out shouted warnings.  Personnel working on airport needs to wear the ear defenders. Maitenance Practice-1
  48. 48. Engine Maitenance Practice-1  Personnel must be alert at the time of starting of engine not to stray in front of engine intakes, propellers or into the jet-blast.  Even at low power setting hot jet blast can be left 100ft behind the aircraft.  At full power some engines can even pull a full grown man into intake. And can throw a truck, if is in the vicinity of engine’s exhaust.  So areas coming directly under the operation of engine should be avoided.
  49. 49. Engine Maitenance Practice-1
  50. 50. Engine  Video Maitenance Practice-1
  51. 51. Fuel Spill  The source of spill should be shutoff .  All sources of ignition should be removed.  All engines in Ground Power Unit and vehicles in the area should be turned off. Maitenance Practice-1
  52. 52. Task Lighting  Overhead pylon lights are capable of illuminating the area but this does not help when personnel are working under aircraft.  Lighting in these area are well below what would considered adequate for conducting maintenance task.  Hand torches may seem to be an ideal solution but their batteries gradually deplete and they do restrict user to one handed operation. Maitenance Practice-1
  53. 53. Task Lighting  Ensure that the light being used during maintenacne is of approved flameproof type. Maitenance Practice-1
  54. 54. Foreign Object Damage (FOD)  Unwanted object other than objects required aircraft maintenance and operation are known as Foreign Object. Cuts of locking wire, split pins, plastic bags, stones etc.  Can damage the turbine engine.  Can cause serious damage to the moving propeller blades.  Maitenance Practice-1
  55. 55. Working on A/c  Appropriate clothing and suitable footwear, do not wear jewellery or loose items.  Don’t carry means of ignition.  Be aware that it takes time to gain fully night vision when moving from a brightly lit area to a dark place.  Always ground aircraft before fueling, de-fueling or work on oxygen system.  Approved fire extinguisher should be located at easily accessible area. Maitenance Practice-1
  56. 56. Working on A/c  Aircraft should be correctly choked, and appropriate covers and locks should be used when required.  Before moving flight control surfaces ensure that movement is not obstructed by ground equipment, and don’t posses hazard to personnel.  Specified procedure and must be followed during removal or installation of aircraft’s component.  Don’t use tools carelessly as this may scratch the aircraft paint finish and will introduce corrosion. Maitenance Practice-1
  57. 57. Working on A/c  Ensure that aircraft electrical bonding wires and static discharges are left intact and connected after work has been completed.  Always take extra care while handling the aircraft fluids. As there spillage may damage other aircraft parts.  Approach the helicopter in view of the pilot.  Never approach a helicopter carrying anything with a vertical height that the blades could hit. This could cause blade damage and injury to the person. Maitenance Practice-1
  58. 58. Shop Safety  The highest standards of orderly work arrangements and cleanliness should be observed during the maintenance of aircraft.  Where continuous work shifts are established, the outgoing shift should remove and properly store personal tools, rollaway boxes, all work stands, maintenance stands, hoses, electrical cords, hoists, crates, and boxes that were needed for the work to be accomplished. Maitenance Practice-1
  59. 59. Shop Safety  Signs should be posted to indicate dangerous equipment or hazardous conditions. There should also be signs that provide the location of first aid and fire equipment.  Safety lanes, pedestrian walkways, and fire lanes should be painted around the perimeter inside the hangars. This is a safety measure to prevent accidents and to keep pedestrian traffic out of work areas. Maitenance Practice-1
  60. 60. Shop Safety  Technicians and supervisors should watch for their own safety and for the safety of others working around them.  If other personnel are conducting their actions in an unsafe manner, communicate with them, reminding them of their safety and that of others around them. Maitenance Practice-1
  61. 61. Electrical Safety  It is known that when electricity is applied to the human body, it can create severe burns.  In addition, the nervous system is affected and can be damaged or destroyed.  To safely deal with electricity, the technician must have a working knowledge of the principles of electricity, and a healthy respect for its capability to do both work and damage. Maitenance Practice-1
  62. 62. Electrical Safety  Wearing or use of proper safety equipment can provide a psychological assurance at the same time it physically protects the user.  The use of rubber gloves, safety glasses, rubber or grounded safety mats, and other safety equipment contributes to the safety of the technician working on or with electrical equipment.  Two factors that affect safety when dealing with electricity are fear and overconfidence. While both a certain amount of respect for electrical equipment is healthy and a certain level of confidence is necessary, extremes of either can be deadly. Maitenance Practice-1
  63. 63. Electrical Safety  Lack of respect is often due to lack of knowledge. Personnel who attempt to work with electrical equipment and have no knowledge of the principles of electricity lack the skills to deal with electrical equipment safely.  Overconfidence leads to risk taking. The technician who does not respect the capabilities of electricity will, sooner or later, become a victim of electricity’s awesome power. Maitenance Practice-1
  64. 64. Fire Safety  Anytime current flows, whether during generation or transmission, a byproduct of that flow is heat. The greater the current flow, the greater the amount of heat created.  When this heat becomes too great, protective coatings on wiring and other electrical devices can melt, causing shorting, which leads to more current flow and greater heat. This heat can become so great so that metals can melt, liquids vaporize, and flammable substances ignite. Maitenance Practice-1
  65. 65. Fire Safety  To prevent electrical fires : - keep the area around electrical work or electrical equipment clean, uncluttered, and free of all unnecessary flammable substances. - Never place wires or cords where they will be walked on or run over by other equipment Maitenance Practice-1
  66. 66. Compressed Gas  Storage room for Gas cylinder should be well ventilated  Cylinders should not be exposed to sunlight.  Gas cylinders should not be laid on damp ground.  Lightning for stores containing combustible gas cylinder should be flameproof.  Breathing oxygen and welding oxygen should be segregated and properly labeled to avoid confusion.  Grit, dirt and oil should be prevented from entering the cylinder valves.  Acetylene cylinder should be stored vertically. Maitenance Practice-1
  67. 67. Compressed Gas  Compressed air, like electricity, is an excellent tool as long as it is under control.  Inspect air hoses frequently for breaks and worn spots. Unsafe hoses should be replaced immediately.  Keep all connections in a “no-leak condition.”  Air used for paint spraying should be filtered to remove oil and water.  Never use compressed air to clean hands or clothing. Pressure can force debris into the flesh leading to infection. Maitenance Practice-1
  68. 68. Compressed Gas  Air hoses should be straightened, coiled, and properly stored when not in use.  Many accidents involving compressed gases occur during aircraft tire mounting. To prevent possible personal injury use appropriate lifting and mounting devices in mounting or removing heavy aircraft tires. Maitenance Practice-1
  69. 69. Welding Safety  Welding should be performed only in designated areas.  Any part to be welded should be removed from the aircraft, if possible.  A welding shop should be equipped with proper tables, ventilation, tool storage, and fire prevention and extinguishing equipment.  Welding on an aircraft should be performed outside, if  possible. Maitenance Practice-1
  70. 70. Welding Safety  If welding in the hangar is necessary, observe these precautions:  During welding operations, there should be no open fuel tanks, and no work on fuel systems should be in progress.  No painting should be in progress.  No aircraft are to be within 35 feet of the welding operation.  No flammable material should be in the area around the welding operation. Maitenance Practice-1
  71. 71. Welding Safety  Only qualified welders should be permitted to do the work.  Fire extinguishing equipment of a minimum rating of 20B should be in the immediate area with 80B rated equipment as a backup.  Aircraft being welded should be in towable condition, with a tug attached, and the aircraft parking brakes released. A qualified operator should be on the tug, and mechanics available to assist in the towing operation should it become necessary to tow the aircraft. If the aircraft is in the hangar, the hangar doors should be opened. Maitenance Practice-1
  72. 72. Fire Protection  Rapid oxidation, accompanied by a noticeable release of heat and light, is called combustion or burning.  Requirements for Fire To Occur:  Fuel: something that will, in the presence of heat, combine with oxygen, thereby releasing more heat and as a result reduces itself to other chemical compounds;  Heat: accelerates the combining of oxygen with fuel, in turn releasing more heat  Oxygen: the element which combines chemically with another substance through the process of oxidation. Maitenance Practice-1
  73. 73. Fire Protection  Classification of Fires:  For commercial purposes, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has classified fires into three basic types: Class A, Class B, and Class C.  Class A fires occur in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, upholstery materials, and so forth.  Class B fires occur in flammable petroleum products of other flammable or combustible liquids, greases, solvents, paints, and so forth. Maitenance Practice-1
  74. 74. Fire Protection  Class C fires occur involve energized electrical wiring and equipment.  Class D fire Class D fires are not commercially considered by the National Fire Protection Association to be a basic type or category of fire since they are caused by a Class A, B, or C fire. Usually Class D fires involve magnesium in the shop or in aircraft wheels and brakes, or are the result of improper or poorly conducted welding operations. Maitenance Practice-1
  75. 75. Fire Extinguishers  Any type of fire can occur during maintenance on or around, or operations involving, aircraft. There is a particular type extinguisher which is most effective for each type of fire.  Water extinguishers are the best type to use on Class A fires. Water has two effects on fire: it deprives fire of oxygen and cools the material being burned.  Never use water-type fire extinguishers on Class D fires. Because metals burn at extremely high temperatures, the cooling effect of water causes an explosive expansion of the metal. Maitenance Practice-1
  76. 76. Fire Extinguishers  Carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguishers are used for Class A, B, and C fires, extinguishing the fire by depriving it of oxygen.  Additionally, like water-type extinguishers, CO2 cools the burning material.  Carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguishers are used for Class A, B, and C fires, extinguishing the fire by depriving it of oxygen. Additionally, like water-type extinguishers, CO2 cools the burning material. Maitenance Practice-1
  77. 77. Fire Extinguishers  Never use CO2 on Class D fires. As with water extinguishers the cooling effect of CO2 on the hot metal can cause explosive expansion of the metal.  When using CO2 fire extinguishers, all parts of the extinguisher can become extremely cold, and remain so for a short time after operation. Wear protective equipment or take other precautions to prevent cold injury (such as frostbite) from occurring.  Extreme caution must be used when operating CO2 fire extinguishers in closed or confined areas. Maitenance Practice-1
  78. 78. Fire Extinguishers  Halogenated hydrocarbon extinguishers are most effective on Class B and C fires. They can be used on Class A and D fires but they are less effective. Halogenated hydrocarbon, (commonly called Freon™ by the industry) are numbered according to chemical formulas with Halon™ numbers. Maitenance Practice-1
  79. 79. Fire Extinguishers  Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211),  chemical formula CBrClF2,  is a liquefied gas with a UL toxicity rating of 5.  It is colorless, noncorrosive and evaporates rapidly leaving no residue.  It does not freeze or cause cold burns, and will not harm fabrics, metals, or other materials it contacts.  acts rapidly on fires by producing a heavy blanketing mist that eliminates oxygen from the fire source.  It has outstanding properties in preventing reflash after the fire has been extinguished. Maitenance Practice-1
  80. 80. Fire Extinguishers  Bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301):  chemical formula CF3Br,  is a liquefied gas with a UL toxicity rating of 6.  It has all the characteristics of Halon 1211.  The significant difference between the two is: Halon 1211 forms a spray similar to CO2, while Halon 1301 has a vapor spray that is more difficult to direct. Maitenance Practice-1
  81. 81. Fire Extinguishers  Dry powder  Stored as a fine powder in a blue colored extinguisher, pressurized by a CO2 or a nitrogen cartridge.  Suitable for brake fires and class B, C and D fires.  Has a little cooling effect and fires may re-ignited. Maitenance Practice-1
  82. 82. Fire Extinguishers  Dry powder extinguishers: while effective on Class B and C fires, are the best for use on Class D fires. Dry powder is not recommended for aircraft use (except on metal fires as a fire extinguisher) because the leftover chemical residues and dust often make cleanup difficult, and can damage electronic or other delicate equipment. Maitenance Practice-1
  83. 83. Fire Extinguishers Foam:  Two types of foam  Fluoroprotein (used on class B fires)  Aqueous film (used on class A & B fires)  Not suitable for class C and D fires.  Stored in white or cream colored extinguishers pressurized with CO2 Maitenance Practice-1
  84. 84. Inspection of Fire Extinguishers  Fire extinguishers should be checked periodically utilizing a checklist. If a checklist is unavailable, check the following as a minimum: • Proper location of appropriate extinguisher • Safety seals unbroken • All external dirt and rust removed • Gauge or indicator in operable range • Proper weight • No nozzle obstruction • No obvious damage Maitenance Practice-1
  85. 85. Identifying Fire Extinguishers  Fire extinguishers should be marked to indicate suitability for a particular class of fire.  The markings should be placed on the fire extinguisher and in a conspicuous place in the vicinity of the fire extinguisher.  When the location is marked, however, extreme care must be taken to ensure that the fire extinguisher kept at that location is in fact the type depicted by the marking. In other words, if a location is marked for a Class B fire extinguisher, ensure that the fire extinguisher in that location is in fact suitable for Class B fires. Maitenance Practice-1
  86. 86. Identifying Fire Extinguishers Maitenance Practice-1
  87. 87. Identifying Fire Extinguishers Maitenance Practice-1
  88. 88. Identifying Fire Extinguishers  Markings should be large enough and in a form that is easily seen and identifiable by the average person with average eyesight at a distance of at least 3 feet.  Where markings are applied to wall panels, and so forth, in the vicinity of extinguishers, they should be large enough and in a form that is easily seen and identifiable by the average person with average eyesight, at a distance of at least 25 feet. Maitenance Practice-1
  89. 89. Identifying Fire Extinguishers Maitenance Practice-1
  90. 90. Using Fire Extinguishers  When using a fire extinguisher, make sure you have the correct type for the fire. Most extinguishers have a pin to pull that will allow the handle to activate the agent. Stand back 8 feet and aim at the base of the fire or flames. Squeeze the lever and sweep side to side until the fire is extinguished. Maitenance Practice-1
  91. 91. Oils  Specified for components on the basis of their properties in relation to operating conditions of the component.  High viscosity oil- for heavily loaded component at high temperature.  Low viscosity oil- for lightly loaded application at low temperature. Maitenance Practice-1
  92. 92. Oils  Turbine engine oils  Are low viscous, synthetic ester base formed from cocktail of chemical compounds.  Type 1- first generation in older type engines  Type 2 – withstand the high temperature of later engines.  Not compatible with each other. Maitenance Practice-1
  93. 93. Oils  Ester based fluid  hygroscopic nature.  Care in dispensing oil and with container.  Aggressive to most of the paints finishes.  Polyurethane provides best protection with them. Maitenance Practice-1
  94. 94. Oils  Never mix type-1 and type-2.  Wear protective gloves, apron and face shield when handling.  Wash hands before smoke, eat or drink.  Use correct dispensing equipment.  Follow the correct replenishment procedure. Maitenance Practice-1
  95. 95. Chemicals  Flammable Chemicals:  Spark, heat or a naked flame may ignite.  At its flash point may ignite.  Like fuels, oils, solvents and paints.  Prevent them with exposed to source of heat.  Adequate ventilation to prevent the vapor concentration.  Suitable containers  Adequate fire extinguisher  Wear gloves and a respirator Maitenance Practice-1
  96. 96. Chemicals  CORROSIVE CHEMICALS:  React with and attack metals and burn the skin.  Etching agents, battery electrolyte and corrosion fluids.  Mostly in liquid form but some be in powder form.  Adequate type of container.  Avoid the contact with sensitive material.  Clean the surface adequately.  Wear suitable clothing, goggles or a face shield, gloves and apron.  Take the precaution for fire flammable or toxicity.  Check the eye wash facility. Maitenance Practice-1
  97. 97. Chemicals  Toxic Chemicals:  poisonous, can cause injuries or diseases in short term or long term. (asthma, cancers etc.)  Have number of routes in the body- Breathe in the vapor, skin can absorb, carry substances onto food and into drink and ingest them.  Solid chemical- harmful dust, hazardous fumes.  Required personal protective equipment. Maitenance Practice-1
  98. 98. Chemicals  Reactive Chemicals:  Are those that experience a chemical change when exposed to other chemicals.  Reaction may have slow change or voilent explosion.  Some create high temperature causes to fire.  Surface treatment- Alchrom, Cd-plating involve reactive chemicals.  Some create toxic vapors- phosgene, chlorine and ferro-cyanide. Maitenance Practice-1
  99. 99. Safety Around Hazardous Materials  A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that contains information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) and how to work safely with the chemical product. It is an essential starting point for the development of a complete health and safety program.  MSDSs are prepared by the supplier or manufacturer of the material. It is intended to tell what the hazards of the product are, how to use the product safely, what to expect if the recommendations are not followed, what to do if accidents occur, how to recognize symptoms of overexposure, and what to do if such incidents occur. Maitenance Practice-1
  100. 100. Safety Around Hazardous Materials  MSDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.  It is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures. Maitenance Practice-1
  101. 101. Safety Around Hazardous Materials  The most observable portion of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) label is the risk diamond.  It is a four color segmented diamond that represents Flammability (Red), Reactivity (Yellow), Health (Blue), and special Hazard (White). In the Flammability, Reactivity, and Health blocks, there should be a number from 0 to 4. Zero represents little or no hazard to the user; 4 means that the material is very hazardous. Maitenance Practice-1
  102. 102. Safety Around Hazardous Materials  The special hazard segment contains a word or abbreviation to represent the special hazard. Some examples are: RAD for radiation, ALK for alkali materials, Acid for acidic materials, and CARC for carcinogenic materials. The letter W with a line through it stands for high reactivity to water Maitenance Practice-1
  103. 103. Risk Diamond Maitenance Practice-1 Health Special Hazard
  104. 104. Safety Signs and Signals Maitenance Practice-1
  105. 105. Safety Around Machine Tools  Hazards in a shop’s operation increase when the operation of lathes, drill presses, grinders, and other types of machines are used. Each machine has its own set of safety practices. Maitenance Practice-1
  106. 106. Safety Around Machine Tools  Drill Press: can be used to bore and ream holes, to do facing, milling, and other similar types of operations.  The following precautions can reduce the chance of injury: • Wear eye protection. • Securely clamp all work. • Set the proper RPM for the material used. • Do not allow the spindle to feed beyond its limit of travel while drilling. • Stop the machine before adjusting work or attempting to remove jammed work. • Clean the area when finished. Maitenance Practice-1
  107. 107. Drill Press Maitenance Practice-1
  108. 108. Safety Around Machine Tools  Lathes: are used in turning work of a cylindrical nature. This work may be performed on the inside or outside of the cylinder. The work is secured in the chuck to provide the rotary motion, and the forming is done by contact with a securely mounted tool. Maitenance Practice-1
  109. 109. Lathes Maitenance Practice-1
  110. 110. Safety Around Machine Tools  Lathes : following precautions can reduce the chance of injury: • Wear eye protection. • Use sharp cutting tools. • Allow the chuck to stop on its own. Do not attempt to stop the chuck by hand pressure. • Examine tools and work for cracks or defects before starting the work. • Do not set tools on the lathe. Tools may be caught by the work and thrown. • Before measuring the work, allow it to stop in the lathe. Maitenance Practice-1
  111. 111. Safety Around Machine Tools  Milling machines: are used to shape or dress; cut gear teeth, slots, or key ways; and similar work.  The following precautions can reduce the chance of injury: • Wear eye protection. • Clean the work bed prior to work. • Secure the work to the bed to prevent movement during milling. • Select the proper tools for the job. • Do not change the feed speed while working. Maitenance Practice-1
  112. 112. Safety Around Machine Tools  Milling machines Maitenance Practice-1
  113. 113. Safety Around Machine Tools  Grinders: are used to sharpen tools, dress metal, and perform other operations involving the removal of small amounts of metal.  The following precautions can reduce the chance of injury: • Wear eye protection even if the grinder has a shield. • Inspect the grinding wheel for defects prior to use. • Do not force grinding wheels onto the spindle. • Do not stand in the arc of the grinding wheel while operating, in case the wheel explodes. • Do not force grinding wheels onto the spindle. They fit snugly, but do not require force to install them. Maitenance Practice-1
  114. 114. Safety Around Machine Tools  Grinders: Maitenance Practice-1
  115. 115. Battery Maintenance  Battery is an integral part of the electrical system in aircraft.  Two types of batteries are used: Pb-acid and Ni- Cd.  Charging rooms are potential very dangerous area.  Hydrogen is vented during every stage of Pb-acid battery charging. Maitenance Practice-1
  116. 116. Battery Maintenance  There must be separate room for Pb-acid and alkaline battery charging, repair/maintenance and electrical supply and storage.  All tools and equipment must be separate and marked for the purpose.  All electrolyte and neutralizing agents containers must be clearly marked.  Charging rooms – well vented, explosion proof lighted and with air extraction system. Maitenance Practice-1
  117. 117. Battery Maintenance  Ambient temperature in the charging rooms must be maintained within limits. e.g. lead acid- below 27° C and Ni-Cd 21° C.  Floor – Level, dry, dust free, proof against acid or alkali e.g. concrete.  Bench: Height should be 20 inch from floor, to enable inspection and reduce lifting effort. Should be made of latticed panels of waxed wood.  Co2 type fire extinguisher should be strategically placed. Maitenance Practice-1
  118. 118. Battery Maintenance  Battery charging supply is normally D.C. but supplied from A.C. distribution system.  When disconnecting batteries, the cable should be removed from the battery first and then from the charging board.  Individual charging boards should be mounted adjacent to each charging point and be mounted adjacent to each charging point and be mounted directly above and to rear of the bench to minimize the need for long connecting cables. Maitenance Practice-1
  119. 119. Battery Maintenance  H2SO4 SPILLAGE- should be washed in solution of bicarbonate of soda and fresh water. Other neutralizing agent Ammonia powder or borax powder.  Alkaline Solution- washed in saturated solution of boric acid (crystal and powder) and fresh water. Maitenance Practice-1
  120. 120. Maitenance Practice-1
  121. 121. Maitenance Practice-1