Metals and non metals class 10 th

Metals and non metals
ST. XAVIERS HIGH SCHOOL
MANARA JAGDEESHPUR
SARAIMEER
PRESENTED BY –ER. GAURAV ANAND
(CIVIL DEPARTMENT)
What is metals and non metals
Metals are elements that form
negative ions when going through
a chemical reaction.ex-Gold ,
silver, copper etc
 Non-metals are elements which
do not form positive ions when
going through a chemical
reaction. Ex-Phosphorus, sulphur
Physical properties of metals
Ductility – all metals are ductile
Mallleability
Physical properties of Non metals
Chemical properties of metals
Metals and non metals class 10 th
Chemical properties of non metals
Reactivity series
Amphoteric metal and oxide
The word amphoteric means
both. Many metals such
as copper, zinc, tin, lead,
aluminium and beryllium form
amphoteric oxides or
hydroxides.
Metals and non metals class 10 th
Metals and non metals class 10 th
Extraction of metals
 Metallurgy is the process in which the extraction of the metals are
done to obtain the crude metal from their ores is defined as
metallurgy.
 The three steps involved in the process of metallurgy are:
 Crushing or grinding of the ore into smaller pieces.
 Concentration of the or ORE DRESSING or ENRICHMENT
OF THE ORE(gangue- to remove the earthly impurities)
 Converting into oxides by roasting(sulphide ores in
presence of o2and calcination of the carbonate ores in limited
amount of o2)
 Reduction of metaloxides into metals
 Refining with the help of ELECTROLYTIC REFINING
Roasting
Roasting: The process of metallurgy
where an ore is converted into its
oxide by heating it above its melting
point in the presence of excess air is
called roasting. Usually sulfide is
converted to an oxide, and sulfur is
released as sulfur dioxide, a gas.
Example: 2ZnS+3O2 ​→ 2ZnO+2SO2​
Calcination
The process of conversion of a concentrated
ore into its oxide by heating in absence of air
below its melting point is called calcination. It
is usually done for hydroxide and carbonate
ores.Example: MgCO3​→ΔMgO+CO2​
Metals and non metals class 10 th
Why we convert sulphide and
corbonate ores in oxides??
We connvert ores in metal oxide
because it’s easy to extract metals
oxides
Calamine ore decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide when
heated rapidly in the absence of air.
 ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2
 The zinc oxide is then heated with carbon to generate zinc metal.
 ZnO + C → Zn + CO
Oxidising agent and reducing agent
Electrolytic reduction
During electrolysis, the electric
current passes through an ionic
substance in a molten or
dissolved state causing the
electrodes to react chemically
and the materials to
decompose is known as
electrolytic reduction.
The reduced metals are
collected at the cathode.
Metals like PotassiumK,
Sodium(Na), and
AluminiumAl are obtained
through the process of
Electrolytic refining
Electro refining process
 Electrorefining is a process in which
materials, usually metals, are purified by
means of an electrolytic cell. The anode is the
impure metal and the cathode is a very pure
sample of the metal
 An electric current is passed between a sample of
the impure metal and a cathode when both are
immersed in a solution containing cations of the
metal. The metal is stripped off the impure
components and deposited in pure form on the
cathode
Metals and non metals class 10 th
Why Sodium and potassium reacts
with cold water??
When sodium reacts with hot water
the hydrogen is produced so rapidly
that it may push the sodium away
from contact with the water
momentarily....
And due to it’s very reactive in nature
it reacts easily with cold water
vigorously
Metals and non metals class 10 th
Metals and non metals class 10 th
Why Hydrogen gas is not evolved
when metals react with nitric
acid???
Hydrogen gas is not evolved when a
metal reacts with nitric acid because
nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent;
it oxidizes the hydrogen to produce
water.
Why does magnesium need hot
water to react?
However,mg is very less reactive in
nature so in order to start the reaction
(the burning) the magnesium metal needs
a source of energy. The Hot water a
source of heat so that the magnesium
metal atoms can overcome their
activation energy. Activation energy is the
minimum energy required in order for a
chemical reaction to proceed.
Why are boilers usually made of
copper and aluminium? and why
not made up of iron ?
Iron will react with hot water and rust
over time but copper does not react with
water and will remain intact.
 Thus, hot water tanks in boilers are
made of copper, not iron because
copper does not react with water at all.
What is corrosion and rusting?
corrosion is the process by which certain
materials, metals and non-metals,
deteriorate as a result of oxidation
Ex-corrosion of copper is called-patina
. Rusting is oxidation of only iron in the
presence of air and moisture.
 Ex-corrision of iron is called –Rusting
Metals and non metals class 10 th
How to prevent corrosion?
Important key terms 🔑
Gangue-Gangue is generally an unwanted
material or impurity that is present in an
ore and impurities in form of stone ,
sand, rock, etc.
Flux --: The foreign substance
which is added to the ore to remove
gangues is called flux. Ex. CaO1
SiO2 etc.
Slag/sledge--:: The light fusible
substance which is made my the
combination of gangue and flux is called
slag.
Thank you
 Thankx to all students ....who believes in me and all
those who took the time to read this..
 And there is no substitute for hard work... No one
is going to do it for you ....
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Metals and non metals class 10 th

  • 1. Metals and non metals ST. XAVIERS HIGH SCHOOL MANARA JAGDEESHPUR SARAIMEER PRESENTED BY –ER. GAURAV ANAND (CIVIL DEPARTMENT)
  • 2. What is metals and non metals Metals are elements that form negative ions when going through a chemical reaction.ex-Gold , silver, copper etc  Non-metals are elements which do not form positive ions when going through a chemical reaction. Ex-Phosphorus, sulphur
  • 3. Physical properties of metals Ductility – all metals are ductile Mallleability
  • 9. Amphoteric metal and oxide The word amphoteric means both. Many metals such as copper, zinc, tin, lead, aluminium and beryllium form amphoteric oxides or hydroxides.
  • 12. Extraction of metals  Metallurgy is the process in which the extraction of the metals are done to obtain the crude metal from their ores is defined as metallurgy.  The three steps involved in the process of metallurgy are:  Crushing or grinding of the ore into smaller pieces.  Concentration of the or ORE DRESSING or ENRICHMENT OF THE ORE(gangue- to remove the earthly impurities)  Converting into oxides by roasting(sulphide ores in presence of o2and calcination of the carbonate ores in limited amount of o2)  Reduction of metaloxides into metals  Refining with the help of ELECTROLYTIC REFINING
  • 13. Roasting Roasting: The process of metallurgy where an ore is converted into its oxide by heating it above its melting point in the presence of excess air is called roasting. Usually sulfide is converted to an oxide, and sulfur is released as sulfur dioxide, a gas. Example: 2ZnS+3O2 ​→ 2ZnO+2SO2​
  • 14. Calcination The process of conversion of a concentrated ore into its oxide by heating in absence of air below its melting point is called calcination. It is usually done for hydroxide and carbonate ores.Example: MgCO3​→ΔMgO+CO2​
  • 16. Why we convert sulphide and corbonate ores in oxides?? We connvert ores in metal oxide because it’s easy to extract metals oxides Calamine ore decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide when heated rapidly in the absence of air.  ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2  The zinc oxide is then heated with carbon to generate zinc metal.  ZnO + C → Zn + CO
  • 17. Oxidising agent and reducing agent
  • 18. Electrolytic reduction During electrolysis, the electric current passes through an ionic substance in a molten or dissolved state causing the electrodes to react chemically and the materials to decompose is known as electrolytic reduction. The reduced metals are collected at the cathode. Metals like PotassiumK, Sodium(Na), and AluminiumAl are obtained through the process of
  • 20. Electro refining process  Electrorefining is a process in which materials, usually metals, are purified by means of an electrolytic cell. The anode is the impure metal and the cathode is a very pure sample of the metal  An electric current is passed between a sample of the impure metal and a cathode when both are immersed in a solution containing cations of the metal. The metal is stripped off the impure components and deposited in pure form on the cathode
  • 22. Why Sodium and potassium reacts with cold water?? When sodium reacts with hot water the hydrogen is produced so rapidly that it may push the sodium away from contact with the water momentarily.... And due to it’s very reactive in nature it reacts easily with cold water vigorously
  • 25. Why Hydrogen gas is not evolved when metals react with nitric acid??? Hydrogen gas is not evolved when a metal reacts with nitric acid because nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent; it oxidizes the hydrogen to produce water.
  • 26. Why does magnesium need hot water to react? However,mg is very less reactive in nature so in order to start the reaction (the burning) the magnesium metal needs a source of energy. The Hot water a source of heat so that the magnesium metal atoms can overcome their activation energy. Activation energy is the minimum energy required in order for a chemical reaction to proceed.
  • 27. Why are boilers usually made of copper and aluminium? and why not made up of iron ? Iron will react with hot water and rust over time but copper does not react with water and will remain intact.  Thus, hot water tanks in boilers are made of copper, not iron because copper does not react with water at all.
  • 28. What is corrosion and rusting? corrosion is the process by which certain materials, metals and non-metals, deteriorate as a result of oxidation Ex-corrosion of copper is called-patina . Rusting is oxidation of only iron in the presence of air and moisture.  Ex-corrision of iron is called –Rusting
  • 30. How to prevent corrosion?
  • 31. Important key terms 🔑 Gangue-Gangue is generally an unwanted material or impurity that is present in an ore and impurities in form of stone , sand, rock, etc. Flux --: The foreign substance which is added to the ore to remove gangues is called flux. Ex. CaO1 SiO2 etc. Slag/sledge--:: The light fusible substance which is made my the combination of gangue and flux is called slag.
  • 32. Thank you  Thankx to all students ....who believes in me and all those who took the time to read this..  And there is no substitute for hard work... No one is going to do it for you ....