1. Metals and non metals
ST. XAVIERS HIGH SCHOOL
PRESENTED BY –ER. GAURAV ANAND
2. What is metals and non metals
Metals are elements that form
negative ions when going through
a chemical reaction.ex-Gold ,
silver, copper etc
Non-metals are elements which
do not form positive ions when
going through a chemical
reaction. Ex-Phosphorus, sulphur
9. Amphoteric metal and oxide
The word amphoteric means
both. Many metals such
as copper, zinc, tin, lead,
aluminium and beryllium form
amphoteric oxides or
12. Extraction of metals
Metallurgy is the process in which the extraction of the metals are
done to obtain the crude metal from their ores is defined as
The three steps involved in the process of metallurgy are:
Crushing or grinding of the ore into smaller pieces.
Concentration of the or ORE DRESSING or ENRICHMENT
OF THE ORE(gangue- to remove the earthly impurities)
Converting into oxides by roasting(sulphide ores in
presence of o2and calcination of the carbonate ores in limited
amount of o2)
Reduction of metaloxides into metals
Refining with the help of ELECTROLYTIC REFINING
Roasting: The process of metallurgy
where an ore is converted into its
oxide by heating it above its melting
point in the presence of excess air is
called roasting. Usually sulfide is
converted to an oxide, and sulfur is
released as sulfur dioxide, a gas.
Example: 2ZnS+3O2 → 2ZnO+2SO2
The process of conversion of a concentrated
ore into its oxide by heating in absence of air
below its melting point is called calcination. It
is usually done for hydroxide and carbonate
16. Why we convert sulphide and
corbonate ores in oxides??
We connvert ores in metal oxide
because it’s easy to extract metals
Calamine ore decomposes into zinc oxide and carbon dioxide when
heated rapidly in the absence of air.
ZnCO3 → ZnO + CO2
The zinc oxide is then heated with carbon to generate zinc metal.
ZnO + C → Zn + CO
18. Electrolytic reduction
During electrolysis, the electric
current passes through an ionic
substance in a molten or
dissolved state causing the
electrodes to react chemically
and the materials to
decompose is known as
The reduced metals are
collected at the cathode.
Metals like PotassiumK,
AluminiumAl are obtained
through the process of
20. Electro refining process
Electrorefining is a process in which
materials, usually metals, are purified by
means of an electrolytic cell. The anode is the
impure metal and the cathode is a very pure
sample of the metal
An electric current is passed between a sample of
the impure metal and a cathode when both are
immersed in a solution containing cations of the
metal. The metal is stripped off the impure
components and deposited in pure form on the
22. Why Sodium and potassium reacts
with cold water??
When sodium reacts with hot water
the hydrogen is produced so rapidly
that it may push the sodium away
from contact with the water
And due to it’s very reactive in nature
it reacts easily with cold water
25. Why Hydrogen gas is not evolved
when metals react with nitric
Hydrogen gas is not evolved when a
metal reacts with nitric acid because
nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent;
it oxidizes the hydrogen to produce
26. Why does magnesium need hot
water to react?
However,mg is very less reactive in
nature so in order to start the reaction
(the burning) the magnesium metal needs
a source of energy. The Hot water a
source of heat so that the magnesium
metal atoms can overcome their
activation energy. Activation energy is the
minimum energy required in order for a
chemical reaction to proceed.
27. Why are boilers usually made of
copper and aluminium? and why
not made up of iron ?
Iron will react with hot water and rust
over time but copper does not react with
water and will remain intact.
Thus, hot water tanks in boilers are
made of copper, not iron because
copper does not react with water at all.
28. What is corrosion and rusting?
corrosion is the process by which certain
materials, metals and non-metals,
deteriorate as a result of oxidation
Ex-corrosion of copper is called-patina
. Rusting is oxidation of only iron in the
presence of air and moisture.
Ex-corrision of iron is called –Rusting
31. Important key terms 🔑
Gangue-Gangue is generally an unwanted
material or impurity that is present in an
ore and impurities in form of stone ,
sand, rock, etc.
Flux --: The foreign substance
which is added to the ore to remove
gangues is called flux. Ex. CaO1
Slag/sledge--:: The light fusible
substance which is made my the
combination of gangue and flux is called
32. Thank you
Thankx to all students ....who believes in me and all
those who took the time to read this..
And there is no substitute for hard work... No one
is going to do it for you ....