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Design principles final

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Principles of Design

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Design principles final

  1. 1. Design Principles
  2. 2. Design Principles • The Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the structural elements of design. Again, the way in which these principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work.
  3. 3. Design Principles The principles are: • Balance • Rhythm • Proportion • Harmony • Emphasis
  4. 4. Balance • Balance is the concept of visual equilibrium, and relates to our physical sense of balance. It is a reconciliation of opposing forces in a composition that results in visual stability. Most successful compositions achieve balance in one of two ways: symmetrically or asymmetrically. Balance in a three dimensional object is easy to understand; if balance isn't achieved, the object tips over.
  5. 5. Symmetrical balance • can be described as having equal "weight" on equal sides of a centrally placed fulcrum. It may also be referred to as formal balance.
  6. 6. Asymmetrical balance • also called informal balance, more complex and difficult to envisage. It involves placement of objects in a way that will allow objects of varying visual weight to balance one another around a fulcrum point. For example, it is possible to balance a heavy weight with a cluster of lighter weights on equal sides of a fulcrum; in a picture, this might be a cluster of small objects balanced by a large object.
  7. 7. TYPES OF BALANCE • SYMMETRICAL – Achieved by placing identical objects on either side of a central point. • ASYMMETRICAL – Achieved by placing different objects of equal visual weight on either side of a central point.
  8. 8. RHYTHM • Leads the eye from one point to another, creates motion.
  9. 9. Rhythm • This is achieved by positioning of lines and parts. It gives a pleasing appearance and a sense of movement. Knurl on a shaft is a example of rhythm
  10. 10. Proportion • Proportion refers to the relative size and scale of the various elements in a design. The issue is the relationship between objects, or parts, of a whole. This means that it is necessary to discuss proportion in terms of the context or standard used to determine proportions.
  11. 11. Harmony • There are 2 types of harmony. –Unity –Variety
  12. 12. UNITY • Unity occurs when all the parts of a home or room are related by one idea. • A unified design has consistency of style
  13. 13. VARIETY • When two or more different elements of design are used to add interest to a design. • Variety can be achieved by combining different styles and materials, as long as they are compatible.
  14. 14. HARMONY • Is achieved when unity and variety are effectively combined. – Carrying variety too far creates confusion. – A lack of unity may make a small home seem even smaller.
  15. 15. EMPHASIS • The center or focus of attention and interest within a design – The feature that commands attention and makes a design visually interesting.
  16. 16. Emphasis • Architectural features such as fireplaces or decorative windows are often used as focal points. • Works of art and decorative accessories are often emphasized in a design.
  17. 17. WAYS TO CREATE EMPHASIS • Arrangement of furniture around a focal point. • Use of color, texture, or pattern. • Placement of accessories. • Use of lighting.
  18. 18. Guidelines for Creating Emphasis • The point of emphasis should command attention, but not dominate the overall design. • Other features within the room should not compete for the emphasis.