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Chronic Glomerulonephritis
Chronic Glomerulonephritis
Chronic glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder
caused by slow, cumulative damage and scarring,...
Chronic Glomerulonephritis
Nearly all forms of acute glomerulonephritis have a
tendency to progress to chronic glomerulone...
NKF Guidelines
The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) defines CKD
on the basis of:
 Evidence of kidney damage based on abno...
NKF Guidelines
Classification of the renal disease progression:
 Stage 1 – This stage is characterized by kidney
damage w...
NKF Guidelines
Stage 2 – This stage is characterized
by kidney damage with a mild
decrease in the GFR (60-90 mL/min)
Estim...
NKF Guidelines
Stage 3 – This stage is characterized
by a moderately decreased GFR (to
30-59 mL/min)
Evaluation + treatmen...
NKF Guidelines
Stage 4 – This stage is characterized
by a severe decrease in the GFR (to
15-29 mL/min) Preparation for ren...
NKF Guidelines
Stage 5 – This stage is characterized
by kidney failure
Kidney replacement if the patient is
uremic
If not treated
 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
 End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
 Cardiovascular Disease
 Renal Failure
 ...
Cause
 The specific cause of most cases of chronic
glomerulonephritis is unknown.
 Viral infections, such as hepatitis B...
Pathophysiology
The majority of the glomeruli are affected.
Depending on the stage of the disease, they may
present differ...
Pathophysiology
Few glomeruli may still present changes which
permit to discern the etiology of chronic
glomerulonephritis...
Pathophysiology
Symptoms
Specific symptoms include:
 Blood in the urine (dark, rust-colored, or brown urine)
 Foamy urine
 Facial puffi...
Symptoms
 Decreased sensation in the hands, feet, or other
areas
 Decreased urine output
 Easy bruising or bleeding
 F...
Symptoms
 Muscle cramps
 Muscle twitching
 Nausea and vomiting
 Need to urinate at night
 Seizures
 Unintentional we...
Physical examination
 Hypertension
 Jugular venous distention (if severe volume overload
is present)
 Pulmonary rales (...
Laboratory tests and examination
Because symptoms develop gradually, the
disorder may be discovered when there is an
abnor...
Laboratory tests and examination
Tests that may be done include:
 Chest x-ray
 Kidney or abdominal CT scan
 Kidney or a...
Laboratory tests and examination
 Urinalysis:
The presence of dysmorphic red blood
cells (RBCs), albumin, or RBC casts
su...
Laboratory tests and examination
 Urinary protein excretion:
Urinary protein excretion can be estimated by
calculating th...
Laboratory tests and examination
 CBC:
Anemia is a significant finding in patients with some
decline in the GFR. Physicia...
Laboratory tests and examination
 Serum chemistry:
Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels are
elevated. Impaired excre...
Treatment
 Antihypertensive drugs may be prescribed to reduce high
blood pressure.
 Diuretics may be prescribed to reduc...
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Chronic glomerulonephritis

  1. 1. Chronic Glomerulonephritis
  2. 2. Chronic Glomerulonephritis Chronic glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder caused by slow, cumulative damage and scarring, usually by inflammation, of the tiny blood filters in the kidneys. These filters, known as glomeruli, remove waste products from the blood. Inflammation typically results in one or both of the nephrotic or nephritic syndromes.
  3. 3. Chronic Glomerulonephritis Nearly all forms of acute glomerulonephritis have a tendency to progress to chronic glomerulonephritis. The condition is characterized by irreversible and progressive glomerular and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, ultimately leading to a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and retention of uremic toxins.
  4. 4. NKF Guidelines The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) defines CKD on the basis of:  Evidence of kidney damage based on abnormal urinalysis results (proteinuria or hematuria) or structural abnormalities observed on ultrasound images  A GFR of less than 60 mL/min for 3 or more months
  5. 5. NKF Guidelines Classification of the renal disease progression:  Stage 1 – This stage is characterized by kidney damage with a normal GFR (≥ 90 mL/min) Diagnosis + treatment + slowing of the progress of the disease + reduction of cardiovascular disease risks
  6. 6. NKF Guidelines Stage 2 – This stage is characterized by kidney damage with a mild decrease in the GFR (60-90 mL/min) Estimation of the progression of kidney disease
  7. 7. NKF Guidelines Stage 3 – This stage is characterized by a moderately decreased GFR (to 30-59 mL/min) Evaluation + treatment of complications
  8. 8. NKF Guidelines Stage 4 – This stage is characterized by a severe decrease in the GFR (to 15-29 mL/min) Preparation for renal replacement therapy
  9. 9. NKF Guidelines Stage 5 – This stage is characterized by kidney failure Kidney replacement if the patient is uremic
  10. 10. If not treated  Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)  Cardiovascular Disease  Renal Failure  Death
  11. 11. Cause  The specific cause of most cases of chronic glomerulonephritis is unknown.  Viral infections, such as hepatitis B or C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), may lead to chronic glomerulonephritis.  Autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, or other causes of vasculitis (inflammation of small blood vessels) may cause chronic glomerulonephritis.  Acute glomerulonephritis may, after a symptom- less period of many years, reappear as chronic glomerulonephritis.
  12. 12. Pathophysiology The majority of the glomeruli are affected. Depending on the stage of the disease, they may present different degrees of hyalinization. The hyaline is an amorphous material, pink, homogenous, resulted from combination of plasma proteins, increased mesangial matrix and collagen. Totally hyalinised glomeruli are atrophic (smaller), lacking capillaries, hence these glomeruli are non functional.
  13. 13. Pathophysiology Few glomeruli may still present changes which permit to discern the etiology of chronic glomerulonephritis. Obstruction of blood flow will produce secondary tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and thickening of the arterial wall by hyaline deposits. In the interstitium is present an abundant inflammatory infiltrate (mostly with lymphocytes).
  14. 14. Pathophysiology
  15. 15. Symptoms Specific symptoms include:  Blood in the urine (dark, rust-colored, or brown urine)  Foamy urine  Facial puffiness in the morning  Swelling of the legs or ankles or other parts of the body, due to fluid accumulation (edema)  Shortness of breath during exertion due to anemia Chronic kidney failure symptoms that gradually develop may include the following:  Decreased alertness  Drowsiness, somnolence, lethargy  Confusion, delirium  Coma
  16. 16. Symptoms  Decreased sensation in the hands, feet, or other areas  Decreased urine output  Easy bruising or bleeding  Fatigue  Frequent hiccups  General ill feeling (malaise)  Generalized itching  Headache  Increased skin pigmentation -- skin may appear yellow or brown
  17. 17. Symptoms  Muscle cramps  Muscle twitching  Nausea and vomiting  Need to urinate at night  Seizures  Unintentional weight loss Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:  Blood in the vomit or stools  Excessive urination  High blood pressure  Nosebleed
  18. 18. Physical examination  Hypertension  Jugular venous distention (if severe volume overload is present)  Pulmonary rales (if pulmonary edema is present)  Pericardial friction rub in pericarditis  Tenderness in the epigastric region or blood in the stool (possible indicators of uremic gastritis or enteropathy)  Decreased sensation and asterixis (indicators of advanced uremia)
  19. 19. Laboratory tests and examination Because symptoms develop gradually, the disorder may be discovered when there is an abnormal urinalysis during a routine physical or during an examination for another, unrelated disorder. It may be discovered as a cause of high blood pressure that is difficult to control. Laboratory tests may reveal anemia or show signs of reduced kidney functioning, including azotemia. Later, signs of chronic kidney failure may be apparent, including edema .
  20. 20. Laboratory tests and examination Tests that may be done include:  Chest x-ray  Kidney or abdominal CT scan  Kidney or abdominal ultrasound  IVP  Urinalysis A kidney biopsy may show one of the forms of chronic glomerulonephritis or scarring of the glomeruli.
  21. 21. Laboratory tests and examination  Urinalysis: The presence of dysmorphic red blood cells (RBCs), albumin, or RBC casts suggests glomerulonephritis as the cause of renal failure. Waxy or broad casts are observed in all forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including chronic glomerulonephritis. Low urine-specific gravity indicates loss of tubular concentrating ability, an early finding in persons with CKD.
  22. 22. Laboratory tests and examination  Urinary protein excretion: Urinary protein excretion can be estimated by calculating the protein-to-creatinine ratio on a spot morning urine sample. The ratio of urinary protein concentration (in mg/dL) to urinary creatinine (in mg/dL) reflects 24-hour protein excretion in grams. The estimated creatinine clearance rate is used to assess and monitor the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The are two formulas available for calculation of the GFR. One is Cockcroft-Gault formula and the other is Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study formula.
  23. 23. Laboratory tests and examination  CBC: Anemia is a significant finding in patients with some decline in the GFR. Physicians must be aware that anemia can occur even in patients with serum creatinine levels lower than 2 mg/dL. Even severe anemia can occur at low serum creatinine levels. Anemia is the result of marked impairment of erythropoietin production.
  24. 24. Laboratory tests and examination  Serum chemistry: Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels are elevated. Impaired excretion of potassium, free water, and acid results in hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and low serum bicarbonate levels, respectively. Impaired vitamin D-3 production results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and high levels of parathyroid hormone. Low serum albumin levels may be present if uremia interferes with nutrition or if the patient is nephrotic.
  25. 25. Treatment  Antihypertensive drugs may be prescribed to reduce high blood pressure.  Diuretics may be prescribed to reduce excess fluid retention and increase urine production.  Corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, or other medications may be used to treat some of the causes of chronic glomerulonephritis.  Dietary restrictions like low-protein, low-salt and iron or vitamin supplements.  Steroid medication or immunosuppressive drugs may be prescribed for some patients.  In severe cases where kidney failure occurs, dialysis may be necessary. Dialysis performs the functions of the kidney by removing waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidney cannot (Renal Failure, Chronic).  A kidney transplant is an alternative to dialysis in cases of kidney failure.
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Chronic glomerulonephritis

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