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Theory of architecture-1

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barch_1st sem_anna univ. affl._msajaa_INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURE_ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE_ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE – FORM_ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE – SPACE_PRINCIPLES OF ARCHITECTURE

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Theory of architecture-1

  1. 1. Theory of Architecture - I Unit 1 – Introduction to Architecture
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Part-1: Definitions of Architecture- context for architecture as satisfying human needs- functional, aesthetic and psychological – architecture as a discipline  Part-2: Introducing the various functional aspects of architecture: site, structure, skin, services, use, circulation etc.  Part-3 Introduction to formal vocabulary of architecture and Gestalt ideas of visual perception
  3. 3.  Originated from the Greek word Architekton  Archi – great. Tekton – builder  Architecture is the art and science of building  It is the conscious creation of utilitarian spaces with the deliberate use of material  Architecture should be technically efficient and aesthetically pleasing. Architecture
  4. 4. Other Definitions
  5. 5. Other Definitions
  6. 6. Other Definitions
  7. 7.  Architecture - a manifest order appropriately conceived logically developed conditioned and disciplined coherent through consistency Architecture
  8. 8. CONTEXT FOR ARCHITECTURE AS SATISFYING HUMAN NEEDS NEEDS OF MANNEEDS OF MAN 1.GENERAL INFLUENCES As per GEORGE S. SALVAN wordsGEORGE S. SALVAN words religion and art recreation
  9. 9. CONTEXT FOR ARCHITECTURE AS SATISFYING HUMAN NEEDS 1.GENERAL INFLUENCES ACTIVITIES OF MAN Desire for PPRESRESERVATION Desire for Recognition Desire for Response Desire for Self-Expression prestige, pride and ambition, social status love, friendship, and sociability
  10. 10. CONTEXT FOR ARCHITECTURE AS SATISFYING HUMAN NEEDS NATURE II. INFLUENCES OF NATURE A. CLIMATE B. TOPOGRAPHY C. MATERIALS
  11. 11. CONTEXT FOR ARCHITECTURE AS SATISFYING HUMAN NEEDS III. INFLUENCES OF SOCIETY 1. SOCIAL CONDITIONS: 2. Man's Personality. 3. Man's Interests. TV movies radio time house church factory
  12. 12. By Ar.Rajiv Kumar.P.S FUNCTIONFUNCTIONal, aesthetic and psychological SpatialSpatial SEQUENCESEQUENCE spatialspatial FITFIT
  13. 13. FUNCTIONFUNCTIONal, aesthetic and psychological
  14. 14. FUNCTIONFUNCTIONal, aesthetic and psychological NONO FunctionFunction NONO soulsoul
  15. 15. functional, aestheticand psychological Mass & space proportion contrast decoration massing symmetry balance Elements of aesthetics Beauty
  16. 16. functional, aestheticand psychological
  17. 17. functional, aestheticand psychological
  18. 18. functional, aestheticand psychological
  19. 19. functional, aesthetic and psychological expression of cultural pride, societal passion, or national esteem mood and productivity Play with human mind Space, form, and light affect health and wellbeing
  20. 20. functional, aesthetic and psychological Physical structure has a significant effect on human behavior. As humans find themselves spending more time enclosed within the walls of structure, it becomes valuable to design structures integrating features of the natural environment and structural landscape features into the human-made environment (Joye, 2007). Research suggests the design of residential and commercial space has pervasive effects on its inhabitants and is an important consideration in architectural design.
  21. 21. functional, aesthetic and psychological Space, form, and light are elements that are often incorporated either purposefully or unconsciously for aesthetic or practical reasons but more pointedly give people meaning, purpose and stability amidst an ever changing physical universe of seeming chao
  22. 22. functional, aesthetic and psychological
  23. 23. functional, aesthetic and psychological
  24. 24. ARCHITECTURE as a discipline-  ARCHITECTURE – an ability to organize, manipulate and articulate the constant and variable component parts of size, shape, and treatment.  ARCHITECTURE - a language of sequential path, place, and transition spaces in relationship to site, location, and orientation.
  25. 25. ARCHITECTURE as a discipline- The relationship of architecture to other fields and disciplines
  26. 26. THREE COMPONENTS  SIZE AND SHAPE  TREATMENT  ORIENTATION
  27. 27. THREE COMPONENTS  SIZE AND SHAPE  is self-evident, consisting of an infinite variety of different sizes of masses or volumes:  such as squares, rectangles, circles, pyramids, ellipses, curves, cubes, etc.
  28. 28.  TREATMENT  what do you do with the sizes and the shapes?  •how many different ways can you treat it in a simple way?  •how does that treatment alter or change?  •in what ways can you define or manipulate the sizes and shapes?  •what is your strategy for detailing and joinery (articulation)?  treatment is pattern, texture, color, figure, ground, light, illumination, contrast, opacity,  transparency, translucency, reflectivity, visual density, thickness or thinness, etc THREE COMPONENTS
  29. 29.  ORIENTATION  what is the relative position of something or someone?  •location - a particular place or position:  -external - internal - interstitial  -placement and displacement  -edge (periphery) vs. center (core) or foreground, middle ground, background  -relationship of a building to its neighbors  -relationship of building to sky  -relationship of building to ground THREE COMPONENTS
  30. 30.  •directionality, redirection or reversals:  -up vs. down  -left vs. right  -longitudinal vs. transverse  -horizontal vs. vertical  -orthogonal vs. diagonal  -exposure: north - south - east - west
  31. 31. THREE TYPES OF SPACE  PLACE - SPACES  PATH – SPACES  TRANSTITION - SPACES
  32. 32. THREE TYPES OF SPACE  PLACE-SPACES  major spaces that portray a sense of definite location or position
  33. 33.  PATH-SPACES  major transition spaces which are directional; corridor, connector, passageway. THREE TYPES OF SPACE
  34. 34.  TRANSITION-SPACES  minor spaces which process a change from one condition to another.  •joint spaces (or articulation spaces)  •can define a pause between spaces  •can juxtapose spaces of contrasting or continuous character  •can act as a separator space  •can act as fastener, joining or linking space  servant-spaces are transition spaces that act as functional support (storage spaces, bathrooms, mechanical voids, space occupied by structural elements, etc.) THREE TYPES OF SPACE
  35. 35. Introducing the various functional aspects of architecture SITE: Location (geography)a point or an area on the Earth's surface or elsewhere Building site, a place where construction ta kes place
  36. 36. Introducing the various functional aspects of architecture STRUCTURE: It is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized
  37. 37. Introducing the various functional aspects of architecture SKIN:
  38. 38. Introducing the various functional aspects of architecture CIRCULATION: APPROACH The Distant View ENTRANCE •From Outside to inside CONFIGURATION OF THE PATH •The Sequences of Spaces PATH-SPACE RELATIONSHIPS •Edges, Nodes, and Terminations of the Path FORM OF THE CIRCULATION SPACE •Corridors, Halls, Galleries, Stairways and Rooms
  39. 39. Introducing the various functional aspects of architecture SERVICES: Structural Plumbing Electrical Fire safety Maintenance
  40. 40. Gestalt Theory • Gestalt theory originated in Austria and Germany toward the end of the 19th century. Since then, Gestalt theory has become fundamental to several related disciplines, including art, graphic design, web design and interior design.
  41. 41. What is Gestalt Theory • Gestalt theory focuses on the mind’s perceptive processes • The word "Gestalt" has no direct translation in English, but refers to "a way a thing has been gestellt ; i.e., ‘placed,’ or ‘put together’"; • common translations include "form" and "shape"
  42. 42. What is Gestalt Theory • Gestalt theorists followed the basic principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. • In viewing the "whole," a cognitive process takes place – the mind makes a leap from comprehending the parts to realizing the whole. Fish/Duck/Lizard 1948 M.C. Esher
  43. 43. Figure Ground Segregation • When you look at the environment, you look at it as a whole picture, not separate parts. • There are images in the environment that people are aware, this would be the figure. • Images people are not aware of make up the ground.
  44. 44. Figure – Ground Segregation • The figure is what a person is concentrating on; • The ground would be everything else in that environment; • Some properties of figure ground: • Figures hold more memorable association than the ground. • Figures are seen as being in front of the ground. • The ground is seen as uniformed material and seems to extend behind the figure. • The contour separating the figure from the ground appears to belong to the figure. (Goldstein, pp. 156-159)
  45. 45. Reversible figure/ground • There are no correct interpretations to what the figure is and what the ground is; it is the individual’s choice. • People have different memories and experiences that influence their perception of images. • We have seen that meaningfulness can help determine which area we see as figure. • If something has meaning to someone, it normally "jumps out" at them, and is more noticeable
  46. 46. Gestalt Laws of Organization 1. proximity - elements tend to be grouped together according to their nearness 2. similarity - items similar in some respect tend to be grouped together 3. closure - items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity 4. Continuation – the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object
  47. 47. Theory of Architecture - I Unit 2 – Elements of Architecture
  48. 48. CONTENTS  Understanding fundamental elements such as point, line, plane, form and space, shape, pattern, light, colour, surface and texture with reference to the evolution of architectural form and space
  49. 49. POINT  Marks a position in space  Conceptually, it has no length, width or depth  It is static, centralized and directionless  As the prime element in the vocabulary of form, it serves to mark: THE TWO ENDS OF A LINE THE INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES THE MEETING OF LINES AT THE CORNER OF A PLANE OR VOLUME THE CENTER OF A FIELD
  50. 50. To mark a position in space or on the ground plane,To mark a position in space or on the ground plane, a point must be projected vertically into a lineara point must be projected vertically into a linear formform POINT POINT IS EXTENDED BECOMES A LINE WITH LENGTH, DIRECTION AND POSITION Obelisk of Thutmose I, Karnak
  51. 51. Other point-generated forms that share theseOther point-generated forms that share these same visual attributes are the:same visual attributes are the:
  52. 52. CIRCLECIRCLE Plan of the Tholos at Epidaurus
  53. 53. CYLINDERCYLINDER Baptistery at Pisa, Italy
  54. 54. SPHERESPHERE Cenotaph for Sir Isaac Newton
  55. 55. LINE  A point extended  A line is a critical element in the formation of any visual construction  It can serve to: JOIN OR LINK OTHER VISUAL ELEMENTS
  56. 56. SUPPORT VISUAL ELEMENTS SURROUND OR INTERSECT OTHER VISUAL ELEMENTS
  57. 57. DESCRIBE THE EDGES OF AND GIVE SHAPE TO PLANES SQUARESQUARE TRIANGLETRIANGLE
  58. 58. ARTICULATE THE SURFACES OF PLANES
  59. 59. LINE  The orientation of a line affects its role in a visual construction  A vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity, symbolize the human condition, or mark a position in space  A horizontal line can represent stability, the ground plane, the horizon, or a body at rest  An oblique line may be seen as a vertical line falling or a horizontal line rising
  60. 60. Column of Marcus Aurelius Vertical elements have been used throughout history to commemorate significant events and establish particular points in space
  61. 61. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of space, as in the example above, the four minarets outline a spatial field which the dome of Hagia Sophia rises in splendor
  62. 62. • Linear members that possess the necessary material strength can perform structural functions • Linear elements express movement across space Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland
  63. 63. • Linear members provide support for an overhead plane Caryatid Porch, The Erechtheion, Athens
  64. 64. • A line can be an imagined element rather than a visible one in architecture • An example is the AXIS, a regulating line established by two distant points in space and about which elements are symmetrically arranged National Mall, Washington D.C.
  65. 65. • Two parallel lines have the ability to visually describe a plane • The closer these lines are to each other, the stronger will be the sense of plane they convey Colonnade
  66. 66. PLANE  A line extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction  Conceptually has length and width but no depth
  67. 67. • Planes in architecture define three-dimensional volumes of mass and space • The properties of each plane – size, shape, color and texture – as well as their spatial relationship to one another determine the visual attributes of the form they define and the qualities of space they enclose • In architectural design, we manipulate three generic types of planes: • Overhead plane • Wall plane • Base plane
  68. 68. OVERHEAD PLANE The overhead plane can be either the roof plane that shelters the interior spaces of a building from the climatic elements, or the ceiling that forms the upper enclosing surface of the room.
  69. 69. WALL PLANE The wall plane, because of its vertical orientation, is active in our normal field of vision and vital to the shaping and enclosure of architectural space.
  70. 70. BASE PLANE The base plane can either be ground plane that serves as the physical foundation and visual base for building forms, or the floor plane that forms the lower enclosing surface of a room upon which we walk.
  71. 71. • The ground plane ultimately supports all architectural construction • It can be manipulated to establish a podium for a building form • It can be elevated to honor a sacred or significant place; bermed to define outdoor spaces or buffer against undesirable conditions; carved or terraced to provide a suitable platform on which to build; or stepped to allow changes in elevation to be easily traversed
  72. 72. Acropolis, Athens Elevated to honor a sacred, significant place Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Terraces approached by ramps rise toward the cliffs where the sanctuary is cut deep into the rock
  73. 73. • The wall planes isolate a portion of space to create a controlled interior environment • Their construction provides both privacy and protection from the climatic elements for the interior spaces of a building, while openings within or between their boundaries reestablish a connection with the exterior environment
  74. 74. • The ceiling plane is usually out of reach and is almost always a purely visual event in a space • It can be raised or lowered to alter the scale of a space or to define spatial zones within a room • Its form can be manipulated to control the quality of light or sound within a space
  75. 75. • The roof plane is the essential sheltering element that protects the interior of a building from climatic elements • The form and geometry of its structure is established by the manner it spans across space to bear on its supports and slopes to shed rain and melting snow • As a design element, the roof plane is significant because of the impact it can have on the form and silhouette of a building within its setting
  76. 76. Falling Water, Frank Lloyd Wright Slabs express the horizontality of the roof planes as they cantilever outward from a central vertical core Schroder House, Gerrit Rietveld The overall form of the building can be endowed with a distinctly planar quality by introducing openings which expose the edges of vertical and horizontal places
  77. 77. VOLUME  A plane extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a volume  Conceptually, a volume has three dimensions: length, width and depth
  78. 78. All volumes can be analyzed and understood to consist of: Points or vertices where several planes come together Lines or edges where two planes meet Planes or surfaces which define the limits or boundaries of a volume
  79. 79. • Form is the primary identifying characteristic of a volume • It is established by the shapes and interrelationships of the planes that describe the boundaries of the volume • As the three-dimensional element in the vocabulary of architectural design, a volume can be either a solid – space displaced by mass – or a void – space contained or enclosed by planes
  80. 80. Theory of Architecture - I Unit 3 – Elements of Architecture - FORM
  81. 81. CONTENTS  Understanding perceptual effects of specific geometric forms such as sphere, cube, pyramid, cylinder and cone and its sections as well as their derivatives with respect to the evolution of architectural form and space.
  82. 82. • In architecture, a volume can be seen to be either a portion of space contained and defined by wall, floor, and ceiling or roof planes, or a quantity of space displaced by the mass of a building • Plan and Section – space defined by wall, floor and ceiling • Elevation – space displaced by the mass of a building
  83. 83. • In architecture, a volume can be seen to be either a portion of space contained and defined by wall, floor, and ceiling or roof planes, or a quantity of space displaced by the mass of a building • Plan and Section – space defined by wall, floor and ceiling • Elevation – space displaced by the mass of a building
  84. 84. FLOOR PLAN space defined by wall, floor and ceiling
  85. 85. ELEVATION space displaced by the mass of a building
  86. 86. Building forms that stand as objects in the landscape can be read as occupying volumes in space San Miguel Building, Ortigas
  87. 87. Building forms that serve as containers can be read as masses that define volumes of space Piazza Maggiore, Bologna
  88. 88. SPHERE Sphere is body that consists of Regular, continuous surface. It has no lines , edges or corners Neither horizontal or vertical emphasis It is a form which is closed within itself.
  89. 89. Visual effect  Pure convex form externally  Presents impenetrable, uninviting appearance.  It displays visual quality of repulsion.  Has no points of interest to focus  Defined by vague outline of circle, whole mass appears as immense dot. FLOATING PAVILION FOR SHANGHAI SPHERE BUILDING , SHANGHAI
  90. 90. Emotional effect  Lack of concentration  Restleness  Diffuseness  Total effect on observer is lack of sense of orientation FLOATING PAVILION FOR SHANGHAI SPHERE BUILDING , SHANGHAI
  91. 91. Inside the sphere  The bounding surface is continually concave.  It opens to the observer.  Invites attention.  Attraction is from all sides  Centre of equilibrium is centre of sphere which may be imaginary if not articulated  It arouses sensations of Concentration , repose and orientation.
  92. 92. The circular shape in architecture The Circle symbolizes unity, stability, rationality. It is also the symbol of infinity, without beginning or end, perfection, the ultimate geometric symbol. It represents a completeness which encompasses all space and Time. Lucky Coin' Building , china Al Dar Headquarters | MZ Architects
  93. 93. Derivatives of sphere – Hemisphere  Cut horizontally in half.  Cut portion forms an edge, circular in plan.  The dome and the edge portion give the visual character
  94. 94. Hemisphere - Visual effect & Emotional effect  Visual Effect  Diffuse quality in the sphere , but continuity is terminated at rim.  Emotional effect  A sense of circular movement set up by the rim.  While sphere leads to disorientation  hemisphere leads to circular movement.
  95. 95. Internally  One concave surface and other flat  Interior is circular in shape.  The attention to the observer will be to the centre.  The sense of movement is associated with the edge.  Inverted hemisphere  If the base is flattened it would be horizontal arena towards the which attention is focused.  This would be idea for viewing a central activity such as sporting events
  96. 96. CUBE  Six equal square sides  Angle between any two adjacent faces being right angle  Cube is static form.  It is very stable unless it stands in corners.
  97. 97. VISUAL EFFECT  The vertical blank square neither invites nor repulses .visually and physically impenetrable ,uninviting appearance.  Because the directions are equally emphasized , the mass as a whole has no directional quality and neutral.  Visual force is given by edges.
  98. 98. INSIDE CUBE  Space inside cube is bounded in plane surface , lines and corners.  Corners wont project towards the observer but recede away from him.
  99. 99. Cuboid  Altering the equal sides of the cube, cuboid is obtained.  The volume is spread in particular direction either horizontal or vertical , irrespective of the surface.  Each mass has a longer side and Shorter side.  Surface lines are emphasized than corners.  Horizontality – urban street. ( because of the continuity one hesitates to stop unless opening is created )  Verticality – high rise building ( both physical and visual tension makes it dominating visual entity)
  100. 100.  The horizontal internal space stimulates a horizontal movement which is greater with increasing horizontality. So space becomes transformed into a passage , a corridor and an internal street.  Vertical space stimulates vertical movement when filled with stair case, lift or ramp.
  101. 101. Pyramid  Made up of tapering and inclined surface and gather together to form an apex , a corner where the whole mass culminates.  The directional quality is stronger than that of a rectilinear tower.
  102. 102. Cylinder  Rounded surface.In far distance it appears in outline as rectilinear and nearer it appear more like circular.  Curvature and circular movement continue alongside a strong vertical movement. the resultant is spiral. spiral ramp and spiral stairs suits a space.
  103. 103. Theory of Architecture - I Unit 4 – Elements of Architecture - SPACE
  104. 104. CONTENTS  Understanding perceptual effects of specific configuration of architectural spaces – Enclosure – Internal and External, Continuous spaces  Spatial relationship and its types, Spatial organisation: Centralized, Linear, Radial Clustered, Grid – built form and open space relationships.
  105. 105. SPATIAL ORGANIZATION  There are five types of spatial organization:  1. Central Organization  2. Linear Organization  3. Radial Organization  4. Cluster Organization  5. GRID Organization
  106. 106. Central Organization  It is a stable & concentrated composition  It consists of numerous secondary spaces that are clustered around a central, dominant & bigger space.  It presents secondary spaces that are equal in terms of role,shape & form, which creates a distribution package that is geometrically regular to two or more axes.
  107. 107. Central Organization  Those central organizations whose forms are relatively compact & geometrically regular can be used to :‐ –Establish "places" in space, – Be term of axial compositions, –finally act as a form object inserted into a field or an‐ exactly defined spatial volume.
  108. 108. Linear Organization  Consists essentially of a series of spaces.  These spaces can be interconnected directly, or be linked through another linear independent and distinct space.  Those spaces that are important, functionally or symbolically within this organization, can take place anywhere in the linear sequence and show their relevance using their size and shape.  The organization can solve linear different conditions at the site.  It can be a straight, segmented or curve line and it can develop itself horizontally, vertically or diagonally.
  109. 109. Radial Organization  It combines elements of both linear and centralized organizations. It consists of a dominant central space, with many radial linear organizations.  While a centralized organization is an introverted scheme that directs to the interior of its central space, a radial organization is an extrovert scheme that escapes from its context.  The central space of a radial organization has a regular form, acts as the hub of the linear arms and maintains the formal regularity of the whole organization
  110. 110. Cluster Organization  This type of spatial organization is used to connect spaces using proximity.  It can accommodate in its composition spaces with different sizes, shapes and functions, as long as they relate themselves by proximity and some visual element.  The connected spaces can be grouped gather around a large area or a well defined spatial volume.
  111. 111. GRID ORGANIZATION  It consists of forms and spaces whose position in space and their interrelationships are regulated by a type of plot or a three‐ dimensional field.  It can be created by establishing a regular scheme of points that define the intersections between two groups of parallel lines.  Its capacity on organization is the result of its regularity and continuity that includes the same elements that distributes.
  112. 112. Spatial Relationships Space Within a Space Interlocking spaces Adjacent Spaces Spaces linked by a common space

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