Health is a dynamic state of complete
physical, mental, social and spiritual well-
being and not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity (WHO.1984).
Health is “the capacity of people to adapt to,
respond to, or control life’s challenges and
changes” (Frankish, 1996)
Optimal health: is defined as a balance of
physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and
lifestyle is a manner of
living that reflects the
person's values and
Lifestyle: the way of living of
individuals, families, and societies,
which they manifest in coping with
their physical, psychological, social,
and economic environments on a day-
Human lifestyles refer to any
combination of specific practices and
environmental conditions reflecting
patterns of living influenced by family
and social history, culture, and socio-
Health Behavior is any activity people
perform to maintain or improve their
health, regardless of their perceived
health status or whether the behavior
actually achieves that goal.
Health promotion: the science and art
of helping people change their lifestyle
to move toward a state of optimal
❑Lifestyle diseases (also called diseases of
longevity or diseases of civilization) are
diseases that appear to increase in frequency
due to lifestyle changes as:
-Heart disease, -Hypertension & Stroke.
-Chronic Liver Disease or cirrhosis,
Egypt is currently facing an epidemiological
transition characterized by:
A)Reduced mortality rates among infants
B)Rising prevalence of risk factors like
obesity, smoking and hypertension.
C) A changing socioeconomic environment
Egypt is therefore affected by a double burden of
As the result of the demographic and
epidemiological transition, the major health and
population challengers are:
1 Population growth.
2Burden of endemic infectious diseases,
chronic diseases and accidents.
3Maternal, infant and childhood mortality.
4-Increase prevalence of risk factors such
smoking and addiction and their complications.
• According to CDC’s
Behavioral Risk Factors
nearly 25% of adults survey
reported having no physical
•The prevalence of abdominal
obesity among Egyptian men is
37.1% and 50.8% among
Unhealthy eating &
faulty food habits
Prevalence of DM is
increasing in Egypt to more
than 15% among adults
Creating a Culture that Fosters Health;
Interdependence between lifestyle and social
Collective and individual lifestyles
Fostering a Collective Orientation to Health;
1. My health impacts the lifestyles of others.
2. My actions influence the lifestyles of other
3. I influence the conditions in my community
that contribute to healthy lifestyles.
4. We (acting together) influence the health of
Behavior Change Principles
Maximizing individual relevance -through
assessments, feedback and tailoring
Tailoring to stage-of-change, individual diet
habits, exercise preferences
Small-steps toward new habits
Continued feedback and reinforcement
Increasing salience and motivation through
health information, tips and reminders
Encouraging social support
CLIFFORD BLOCK, 10/30/2006
Mention--can sign up family m
as example of social support
BEHAVIOR CHANGE TOOLS
people who have initially agreed to a small request are
subsequently more likely to agree to a larger request
people have to remember to perform the desired actions
social guidelines for behavior
particularly useful when motivation to engage in action is
Making Positive Changes in
1-Stage of change model:
Pre-contemplation; unaware of the problem.
Contemplation-thinking seriously about
Preparation-making a strategy for change
Action- just do it
Maintenance-keep doing it
Exit stage; maintaining safer life
2-Health Belief Model
1-a belief in susceptibility (or belief that you
could have the disease and not know it in the
case of undertaking screening or treatment for
conditions such as hypertension),
2-a belief in the severity of the consequences of
not taking action.
3-a belief influencing action is that the benefits
of treatment or intervention will outweigh the costs
(including social benefits and costs such as
inconvenience, discomfort, or embarrassment).
Goal: to reach people with a SOCIAL
message that will help them decide to
change their behavior.
Marketing Mix Strategy;
COMMUNITY- BASED SOCIAL MARKETING
Fostering sustainable behavior
Four steps in CBSM:
1. Identify the barriers and benefits to
2. Develop a communication strategy
that utilizes behavior change tools
3. Pilot the strategy
4-Social Learning Theory
To promote individual behavior change,
self-efficacy is a predictor of short & long
One strategy for enhancing self-efficacy is
recognized as ‘setting small, incremental
goals’’ such as exercising for 10 minutes
each day. SMALL STEPS STRATEGY
Barriers to behavior change:
Internal (lack of knowledge,
absence of motivation)
External (changes that need to
occur for the behavior to be
more convenient or affordable)
CHOICES AND CHANCES FOR A HEALTHY
Opportunities and limitations for choice vary
The social gradient
Social inclusion and exclusion
Macro “choice points” over the life cycle
Micro “choice points” in daily interaction
Healthy Lifestyle Habits
CDC and Prevention recently found that
87% of Heart disease, 93% of Diabetes,
and 37% Cancers can be
PREVENTED and REVERSED with
Healthy Lifestyle Choices
“The doctor of the future will give
no medicine but will interest his
patients in the care of healthy
lifestyles.” By Thomas Edison
Keys of healthy lifestyle:
Participate in a lifetime physical activity
Eat three nutritious meals each day
Avoid meaningless snacking
Maintain healthy weight
Do not smoke cigarettes
Get enough sleep
Avoid alcohol consumption
Healthy lifestyle habits
Healthy lifestyle habits
Prevention of drug abuse
Practicing safe sex
Surround yourself with healthy friendships
Be informed about the environment
Increase HEALTH education
Take personal safety measures
POSITIVE attitudes in the community
Protect yourself from diseases by Seeking
early health care
Regular Moderate Physical Activity
(at least 30 min/ day) Reduces the risks of:
Heart Disease by 40 to 50 %
Stroke by 30 to 50 %
Diabetes (Type II) by 30 to 40 %
Breast Cancer by 20 to 30 %
Colon Cancer by 30 to 50 %
Osteoporosis by 40 to 50 %
Premature Death by 30 to 50 %
By Walking 30 to 45 minutes 5 or more
days/week, you will delay the onset of
disability by 10 to 12 years!!
Physical Activity is POWERFUL MEDICINE!!
10 Healthy tips for food habits
Watch portion sizes.
Slow down when eating.
Don't use food as a reward
Drink plenty of water
Structure family eating.
Food substitutes & use food exchange food list.
Fill up on vegetables.
Avoid stocking the fridge and pantry with
Suggestions for Healthy Food
Two thirds of the dinner plate should
be covered with fruits, vegetables,
whole grains and beans
Eat a variety of grains daily, especially
Limit solid fats such as butter,
Drinking more than 1.5 liters Water Daily
Will help you Lose Weight
Burn (metabolize) Body Fat!!
Will Reduce Joint pain and Stiffness
Increases Your Energy
Speeds your bodies recovery and the healing process
after an injury OR a hard days work
Maintain a healthy weight through:
-take your breakfast.
-Cut out snacks and desserts.
-Eat less of everything.
-Cut down on fat.
-Don’t eat at night .
-Eat more fruit and vegetables.
-Eat less red meat .
-Use low-calorie foods.
1. Decrease or Discontinue Caffeine
2. Regular Exercise
5. Time-outs and Leisure
6. Realistic Expectations
8. Belief Systems
9. Ventilation/Support System
VIII-Positive attitudes in the community;
1 It maintain the chemical balance of our body
& keep us healthy.
2We take better decisions for our problems.
3-It make a pleasant personality.
4-Life becomes enjoyable.
6 Improve productivity.
7 It makes us important member in the
8 Everybody likes us.
Lifestyles and Human Health
Lifestyle related chronic diseases pose a
major threat to human health care
Lifestyle changes are becoming the most
needed aspect of human health care. The
importance of a healthy lifestyle is being
stressed all over the world.
Researchers have enough evidence to
prove that healthy lifestyle improves the
health of entire communities.
To establish health promotion practice as an
integral part of the population and to promote
the promotion of healthy lifestyles to improve
To encourage the population to adopt
healthier lifestyles by making changes in their
eating habits & adding physical activity to
their every day routines.
To Increase the population awareness about lifestyle
diseases & provide information and individual solutions
that can help motivate changes in attitudes & behavior.
To Increase their awareness about healthy lifestyle.
To assess knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, & behavior
concerning a healthy lifestyle among adults (18-60ys
To assess current barriers both perceived & actual
towards achieving a healthy lifestyle.
To evaluate the effectiveness of health education
program for the healthy life style & disease prevention.
Study design: an interventional community
based educational study.
Study settings: community based programs
at different places including; schools,
universities, work places, clubs, religious
organizations, social places …..etc
Target group: adults, both sex, parents with
children less than 18 ys.
B-focus group discussion &
C-In-depth interviews with the study
D-Health education through;
group discussions, face to face health
education, lectures, distribution of the
message through brochures, posters,
mass media, web sites, & face book.
Encourage people to find a friend or family members to
Healthy lifestyle should be encouraged & sponsored by the
government as a lot of people pay attention to the
governmental intervention programs ‘’health is an issue
just like violence is an issue’’.
The government would do;
1. -healthy food less expensive,
2. -face fast food restaurants to serve healthier food,
3. -Education of children in schools about nutrition,
4. -serve healthier food to children at schools,
5. -Give out free gym,
6. -prohibition of cigarette sales.
Specific message targeting each group.
About benefits of healthy life styles
Hazards of unhealthy or faulty lifestyles
Examples of healthy life styles
How to choose a healthy lifestyle
Find a partner to exercise with
How to exercise while watching TV
How to cook a healthy meal that was simple to make & that tasted
Choose ⁄ make a healthy snack
How to quit smoking or drug abuse
How to practice safe sex
How to follow up & maintain a healthy behavior
How to maintain an ideal body weight
When to seek early medical advice or screening services …….etc
Human resources: trained personnel about healthier
lifestyles & how to adopt it easily. (medical, paramedical,
mass media personnel, social workers, teachers at
schools, community participations and sometimes
political leaders, or from organizations ….etc)
Money or financial support: for data collection,
preparation for the intervention programs, motivators,
Materials: required for the implementation of these
healthier life styles.
Time: to be suitable for the target group.
Information: from different sources as researches,
textbooks, previous programs, internet, experts (national
& international levels)…….etc.
➢ Explaining motivators for healthy lifestyles:
potential motivators were varied as;
Health scare: they found themselves personally at risk,
Self-esteem, self-confidence, ability to achieve a goal.
Doing for oneself-physically: to feel better, be more
energetic, to look more attractive.
Doing it for one’s children,
Becoming angry with myself, seeing numbers on the
weighing scale that are shocking or heavy to buy bigger
Doing something now so it will become a desperate
situation later in life.
Note that; there was a sense that the motivation had to
come from within.
➢ Determine the expected barriers or constraints:
The population may had many excuses for why they were unable to live a
healthy lifestyle as follows;
No enough time: family & personal obligations.
Being too tired or too lazy.
Too expensive to eat healthy food.
Too expensive to join a gym.
Don’t know to cook healthy meals.
Difficult to quit smoke.
It isn’t easy to avoid stress.
Too difficult to stay motivated.
Too hard to do it alone (without family or household support).
Lack of ability or capacity to self-monitor or maintain progress.
Lack of helpful information.
Lack of motivation. ((I don’t have the time. My wife and kids take up the
little free time I have)).
Take time to see results.
Evaluation of these healthier life styles
Outcome indicators should be assessed;
Impact of these healthier life styles on health;
reflected by the morbidity rates of lifestyle
diseases & mortality rates after long term
Rate of food consumption, quantity & quality of
Criteria of food balance sheet.
Early screening results.
Prevalence rates of smoking, drug abuse….
Sustainability & maintenance of
these lifestyle programs;
through its dissemination on
mass media, educational curriculum,
websites at the internet, face book
for local and national media.
❑Repeated messages over long
period of time with updated
approaches to keep the target
groups engaged & motivated.