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Lifestyle-healthy life.pptx

  1. Human Lifestyle and Health By Gambhirnath Khaddar, Head (Consultant)- Training & Counselling
  2. Subtitles: Definitions & concepts Rationale Unhealthy lifestyle Impact of unhealthy lifestyles Factors affecting behavior change Approaches to lifestyle modification Recommendations References
  3. Definitions & Concepts:
  4. Health is a dynamic state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO.1984). Health is “the capacity of people to adapt to, respond to, or control life’s challenges and changes” (Frankish, 1996) Optimal health: is defined as a balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual health.
  5. lifestyle is a manner of living that reflects the person's values and attitudes. Lifestyle: the way of living of individuals, families, and societies, which they manifest in coping with their physical, psychological, social, and economic environments on a day- to-day basis.
  6. Human lifestyles refer to any combination of specific practices and environmental conditions reflecting patterns of living influenced by family and social history, culture, and socio- economic circumstances.
  7. Health Behavior is any activity people perform to maintain or improve their health, regardless of their perceived health status or whether the behavior actually achieves that goal. Health promotion: the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health.
  8. ❑Lifestyle diseases (also called diseases of longevity or diseases of civilization) are diseases that appear to increase in frequency due to lifestyle changes as: -Atherosclerosis, -Diabetes mellitus, -Heart disease, -Hypertension & Stroke. -Osteoporosis, -Chronic Liver Disease or cirrhosis, -Alzheimer disease, -Cancer, -COPD.
  9. hu Rationale: Why tackle the topic of man lifestyles & health???
  10. Egypt is currently facing an epidemiological transition characterized by: A)Reduced mortality rates among infants and children. B)Rising prevalence of risk factors like obesity, smoking and hypertension. C) A changing socioeconomic environment
  11. Egypt is therefore affected by a double burden of disease. As the result of the demographic and epidemiological transition, the major health and population challengers are: 1 Population growth. 2Burden of endemic infectious diseases, chronic diseases and accidents. 3Maternal, infant and childhood mortality. 4-Increase prevalence of risk factors such smoking and addiction and their complications.
  12. Unhealthy (faulty) human lifestyles habits
  13. Physical inactivity. • According to CDC’s Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System; nearly 25% of adults survey reported having no physical activity •The prevalence of abdominal obesity among Egyptian men is 37.1% and 50.8% among Egyptian women
  14. Unhealthy eating & faulty food habits Prevalence of DM is increasing in Egypt to more than 15% among adults (International Diabetic Federation. 2017)
  15. Smoking Do you know: Prevalence of smoking in Egypt was high among adolescents & adults males (38.5%) and 1.5% among females (CAPMAS. Cairo. 2016)
  16. Drinking alcohol WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean estimates that the extent of: Alcohol use in Egypt is moderate
  17. Drug abuse Taking drugs interferes with concentration and memory. Taking drugs interferes with accomplishing your goals and dreams.
  18. Lack of sleep, stress,
  19. Lack of Sleep Causes; Difficulties with memory and learning Increased irritability Accidents Illness Lack of energy Stress Depression
  20. Lack of sleep causes Weight gain Rapid aging Hallucinations
  21. Degrades Mental performance by 25% in every 24-hour sleepless period. Lack of Sleep:
  22. Lack of safe measures
  23. Lack of practicing safe sex
  24. Impact of human lifestyles on health The epidemic of unhealthy lifestyles increased the risk of health consequences worldwide
  25. Increased morbidities from lifestyle diseases Smoking, drug addiction, alcohol abuse Increase risk of accidents & injuries Stress, depression, anxiety Lack of social relationship Increased mortalities & premature deaths
  26. Lifestyle as a health problem Almost 80% of deaths in the Egypt today could be prevented through a healthy lifestyle program.
  27. Factors affecting human lifestyles
  28. Theoretical Frame work for the Healthy lifestyles Or Behavior change
  29. HEALTHY LIFESTYLES Creating a Culture that Fosters Health; Interdependence between lifestyle and social environment Collective and individual lifestyles Fostering a Collective Orientation to Health; 1. My health impacts the lifestyles of others. 2. My actions influence the lifestyles of other people. 3. I influence the conditions in my community that contribute to healthy lifestyles. 4. We (acting together) influence the health of others.
  30. Behavior Change Principles Maximizing individual relevance -through assessments, feedback and tailoring Tailoring to stage-of-change, individual diet habits, exercise preferences Goal setting Small-steps toward new habits Continued feedback and reinforcement Increasing salience and motivation through health information, tips and reminders Encouraging social support CLIFFORD BLOCK, 10/30/2006 -------------------------------------------- Mention--can sign up family m e m b e r s , as example of social support
  31. BEHAVIOR CHANGE TOOLS Commitment ; people who have initially agreed to a small request are subsequently more likely to agree to a larger request Prompts; people have to remember to perform the desired actions Norms; social guidelines for behavior Incentives; particularly useful when motivation to engage in action is low
  32. Making Positive Changes in Your Life 1-Stage of change model: Pre-contemplation; unaware of the problem. Contemplation-thinking seriously about taking action Preparation-making a strategy for change Action- just do it Maintenance-keep doing it Relapse Exit stage; maintaining safer life
  33. 1- Stage of change model (as in REVOLVING DOOR) 7-
  34. 2-Health Belief Model 1-a belief in susceptibility (or belief that you could have the disease and not know it in the case of undertaking screening or treatment for conditions such as hypertension), 2-a belief in the severity of the consequences of not taking action. 3-a belief influencing action is that the benefits of treatment or intervention will outweigh the costs (including social benefits and costs such as inconvenience, discomfort, or embarrassment).
  35. 3-SOCIAL MARKETING Goal: to reach people with a SOCIAL message that will help them decide to change their behavior. Marketing Mix Strategy; ➢Product ➢Price ➢Place ➢Promotion ➢Publics ➢Partnership ➢Policy ➢Purse string
  36. COMMUNITY- BASED SOCIAL MARKETING ‘’CBSM’’ Fostering sustainable behavior change….. Four steps in CBSM: 1. Identify the barriers and benefits to an activity 2. Develop a communication strategy that utilizes behavior change tools 3. Pilot the strategy 4. Evaluate
  37. 4-Social Learning Theory To promote individual behavior change, self-efficacy is a predictor of short & long term achievement. One strategy for enhancing self-efficacy is recognized as ‘setting small, incremental goals’’ such as exercising for 10 minutes each day. SMALL STEPS STRATEGY
  38. Barriers to behavior change: Internal (lack of knowledge, absence of motivation) External (changes that need to occur for the behavior to be more convenient or affordable)
  39. Healthy Lifestyle Habits
  40. CHOICES AND CHANCES FOR A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE Chances : Opportunities and limitations for choice vary considerably The social gradient Social inclusion and exclusion Choices: Macro “choice points” over the life cycle Micro “choice points” in daily interaction
  41. Healthy Lifestyle Habits CDC and Prevention recently found that 87% of Heart disease, 93% of Diabetes, and 37% Cancers can be PREVENTED and REVERSED with Healthy Lifestyle Choices
  42. “The doctor of the future will give no medicine but will interest his patients in the care of healthy lifestyles.” By Thomas Edison
  43. Approaches to Healthy Lifestyles or Lifestyle modifications
  44. Keys of healthy lifestyle: Participate in a lifetime physical activity program Eat three nutritious meals each day Avoid meaningless snacking Maintain healthy weight Do not smoke cigarettes Get enough sleep Avoid alcohol consumption Control stress Healthy lifestyle habits
  45. Healthy lifestyle habits Prevention of drug abuse Practicing safe sex Surround yourself with healthy friendships & relationships Be informed about the environment Increase HEALTH education Take personal safety measures POSITIVE attitudes in the community Protect yourself from diseases by Seeking early health care
  46. I-Physical activity & Regular Exercise:
  47. Regular Moderate Physical Activity (at least 30 min/ day) Reduces the risks of: Heart Disease by 40 to 50 % Stroke by 30 to 50 % Diabetes (Type II) by 30 to 40 % Breast Cancer by 20 to 30 % Colon Cancer by 30 to 50 % Osteoporosis by 40 to 50 % Premature Death by 30 to 50 %
  48. By Walking 30 to 45 minutes 5 or more days/week, you will delay the onset of disability by 10 to 12 years!! Physical Activity is POWERFUL MEDICINE!!
  49. II-Healthy Eating & Nutrition Nutrition: You Are What You Eat
  50. 10 Healthy tips for food habits Watch portion sizes. Slow down when eating. Don't use food as a reward Eat Breakfast. Drink plenty of water Structure family eating. Food substitutes & use food exchange food list. Fill up on vegetables. Avoid stocking the fridge and pantry with unhealthy choices. Be prepared
  51. ❑Healthy school meals
  52. Suggestions for Healthy Food Choices Two thirds of the dinner plate should be covered with fruits, vegetables, whole grains and beans Eat a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains Limit solid fats such as butter, margarine
  53. Suggestions for Healthy Food Choices Moderate your intake of sugar Choose and prepare foods with less salt
  54. Drinking more than 1.5 liters Water Daily Will help you Lose Weight Burn (metabolize) Body Fat!! Will Reduce Joint pain and Stiffness Increases Your Energy Speeds your bodies recovery and the healing process after an injury OR a hard days work
  55. III-Smoking cessation: Smoking is a serious risk. Think twice before starting.
  56. IV-Maintain a Healthy Body Weight
  57. Maintain a healthy weight through: Healthy eating; -take your breakfast. -Cut out snacks and desserts. -Eat less of everything. -Cut down on fat. -Don’t eat at night . -Eat more fruit and vegetables. -Count calories. -Eat less red meat . -Use low-calorie foods. Exercise
  58. V-Stress Management 1. Decrease or Discontinue Caffeine 2. Regular Exercise 3. Relaxation 4. Sleep 5. Time-outs and Leisure 6. Realistic Expectations 7. Reframing 8. Belief Systems 9. Ventilation/Support System 10. Humor
  59. VI-Prevention of drug & alcohol abuse
  60. VII-Safe Sex & Healthy Lifestyles Use a latex condom To prevent STDs
  61. Limit Your Risk Do not share needles Reduce or eliminate risky behaviors
  62. VIII-Positive attitudes in the community; 1 It maintain the chemical balance of our body & keep us healthy. 2We take better decisions for our problems. 3-It make a pleasant personality. 4-Life becomes enjoyable. 5-Motivate others. 6 Improve productivity. 7 It makes us important member in the society. 8 Everybody likes us.
  63. Get Enough Sleep It is important for learning and brain function It is important for good health
  64. Lifestyles and Human Health Care Lifestyle related chronic diseases pose a major threat to human health care Lifestyle changes are becoming the most needed aspect of human health care. The importance of a healthy lifestyle is being stressed all over the world. Researchers have enough evidence to prove that healthy lifestyle improves the health of entire communities.
  65. Recommendations From the present review we recommend Adopting different healthy lifestyles programs.
  66. To establish health promotion practice as an integral part of the population and to promote the promotion of healthy lifestyles to improve public health. To encourage the population to adopt healthier lifestyles by making changes in their eating habits & adding physical activity to their every day routines. Aim:
  67. Objectives: To Increase the population awareness about lifestyle diseases & provide information and individual solutions that can help motivate changes in attitudes & behavior. To Increase their awareness about healthy lifestyle. To assess knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, & behavior concerning a healthy lifestyle among adults (18-60ys old). To assess current barriers both perceived & actual towards achieving a healthy lifestyle. To evaluate the effectiveness of health education program for the healthy life style & disease prevention.
  68. Methodology Study design: an interventional community based educational study. Study settings: community based programs at different places including; schools, universities, work places, clubs, religious organizations, social places …..etc Target group: adults, both sex, parents with children less than 18 ys.
  69. ➢Study tools: A-survey questionnaire B-focus group discussion & C-In-depth interviews with the study groups. D-Health education through; group discussions, face to face health education, lectures, distribution of the message through brochures, posters, mass media, web sites, & face book.
  70. ❑Strategy: Encourage people to find a friend or family members to exercise . Healthy lifestyle should be encouraged & sponsored by the government as a lot of people pay attention to the governmental intervention programs ‘’health is an issue just like violence is an issue’’. The government would do; 1. -healthy food less expensive, 2. -face fast food restaurants to serve healthier food, 3. -Education of children in schools about nutrition, 4. -serve healthier food to children at schools, 5. -Give out free gym, 6. -prohibition of cigarette sales.
  71. ➢Messages: Specific message targeting each group. About benefits of healthy life styles Hazards of unhealthy or faulty lifestyles Examples of healthy life styles How to choose a healthy lifestyle Find a partner to exercise with How to exercise while watching TV How to cook a healthy meal that was simple to make & that tasted good Choose ⁄ make a healthy snack How to quit smoking or drug abuse How to practice safe sex How to follow up & maintain a healthy behavior How to maintain an ideal body weight When to seek early medical advice or screening services …….etc
  72. ➢Resources: Human resources: trained personnel about healthier lifestyles & how to adopt it easily. (medical, paramedical, mass media personnel, social workers, teachers at schools, community participations and sometimes political leaders, or from organizations ….etc) Money or financial support: for data collection, preparation for the intervention programs, motivators, …… Materials: required for the implementation of these healthier life styles. Time: to be suitable for the target group. Information: from different sources as researches, textbooks, previous programs, internet, experts (national & international levels)…….etc.
  73. ➢ Explaining motivators for healthy lifestyles: potential motivators were varied as; Health scare: they found themselves personally at risk, Self-esteem, self-confidence, ability to achieve a goal. Doing for oneself-physically: to feel better, be more energetic, to look more attractive. Doing it for one’s children, Becoming angry with myself, seeing numbers on the weighing scale that are shocking or heavy to buy bigger clothing. Doing something now so it will become a desperate situation later in life. Note that; there was a sense that the motivation had to come from within.
  74. ➢ Determine the expected barriers or constraints: The population may had many excuses for why they were unable to live a healthy lifestyle as follows; No enough time: family & personal obligations. Being too tired or too lazy. Too expensive to eat healthy food. Too expensive to join a gym. Don’t know to cook healthy meals. Difficult to quit smoke. It isn’t easy to avoid stress. Too difficult to stay motivated. Too hard to do it alone (without family or household support). Lack of ability or capacity to self-monitor or maintain progress. Lack of helpful information. Lack of motivation. ((I don’t have the time. My wife and kids take up the little free time I have)). Take time to see results.
  75. Evaluation of these healthier life styles programs: Outcome indicators should be assessed; Impact of these healthier life styles on health; reflected by the morbidity rates of lifestyle diseases & mortality rates after long term program. Rate of food consumption, quantity & quality of food items Criteria of food balance sheet. Early screening results. Prevalence rates of smoking, drug abuse….
  76. Sustainability & maintenance of these lifestyle programs; through its dissemination on mass media, educational curriculum, websites at the internet, face book for local and national media. ❑Repeated messages over long period of time with updated approaches to keep the target groups engaged & motivated.
  77. Finally; "Adopting a healthy lifestyle does not mean that you have to stop enjoying life"
  78. I wish Good Health to You! Thank you