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Techonology as the key to future. Adriana Orejas_Repsol

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I Ciclo de Conferencias “Hacia una economía circular. Oportunidades económicas en el marco de la transición energética” organizado por Funseam y Fundación Repsol.
Sesión: Oportunidades del C02 como recurso y no como residuo. 20/10/2020
Dña. Adriana Orejas, directora industrial & Deep Tech del Repsol Technology Lab

Publicada em: Meio ambiente
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Techonology as the key to future. Adriana Orejas_Repsol

  1. 1. Technology as the key to future
  2. 2. / Repsol Technology Lab 1.GREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONS Volume and segmentation in Europe and Spain 1 EEA (2019). Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2017 and inventory report 2019. EU-28 (2017)1 SPAIN (2017)1 Public Electricity and Heat Road Transport Energy Industry & Construction Refining Energy Residential & Commercial Energy others Petrochemical Industry Industry others Agriculture Waste Indirect CO2 emissions 4333 Mt 340 Mt
  3. 3. / Repsol Technology Lab 1.CO2POTENTIALABATEMENTPATHWAYS:SCHEMATICVIEW Facing future climate scenarios through a comprehensive multi-field technology strategy. 2 EEA (2019). Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2017 and inventory report 2019. Petrochemical Materials Fuels Generation ServicesProcesses Products DE-CARBONIZATION TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES Heat H2 CO2 to storage CU products LOW CARBON PROCESSES 1 2 3Crude Oil Alternative feedstock - Waste - Biofeeds Biofuels/Biomaterials Waste to fuels Waste to materials Thermal energy MATERIALS ENERGY FOR MOBILITY AND THERMAL APPS ENABLER FOR EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT 1 1 2 3 3 4 0 0 ENERGY EFFICIENCY CO2 CAPTURE Electricity ELECTRICITY VIRTUAL ASSET MANAGEMENT (VAM) ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (EMS) 5 OUTPUTS PRODUCTS WIND SOLAR STORAGE H2 H24 5 CO2 to utilization POWER ELECTRONICS RENEWABLE GENERATION (Grid-scale and Distributed) Bio crude 0 1 1.1 Wind power 1.2 Solar PV 1.3 Storage 1.4 Power electronics 1.1 Energy efficiency 2.2 Low carbon processes 2.3 Carbon capture & storage 3.1 Materials 3.2 Energy for mobility and thermal apps 3.3 Enabler for efficiency improvement 3.4 Electricity 4.1 EMS 4.2 VAM SCHEMATIC OVERVIEW
  4. 4. / Repsol Technology Lab 1.STRATEGYTOWARDSLOWCARBONINDUSTRIALSITES CO2 reduction Scopes 1+2+3
  5. 5. / Repsol Technology Lab TECHNOLOGIES
  6. 6. / Repsol Technology Lab 2.RENEWABLEGENERATION Compulsory to meet the GHG European goals by 2030 3 IEA-Energy Technology Perspectives 2017- 2DS Scenario 4 Solar Power Europe Global Market Outlook for Solar Power 2018-2022 Renewable generation will increase its share in the global power generation mix reaching 46% in 2030 vs 22% in 2014 3. Wind and solar PV will lead renewables for the next 10-15 years. Solar PV will be rapidly deployed at both grid and distributed scale due to cell efficiency gains and cost reductions through economies of scale in manufacturing. Wind power will focus on CAPEX reductions, turbine size increases and capacity factor improvements. CAPEX Forecast, Wind power / Solar PV, 2018-2030 $/W 0 0,5 1 2018 2025 2030 Solar PV Wind power Rooftop solar expected installed capacity , 2018-2030 0 20 40 60 80 100 2018 2020 2022 2030 Low Scen. High Scen. GW/y Market share of different c-Si solar cells 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2016 2017 2018e 2019e 2020e 2021e P-type-multi-AI-BSF N-type-mono-IBC P-type-mono-PERC/ PERL N-type-mono-HIT N-type-mono-PERT P-type-mono-AI-BSF P-type-multi-PERC 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 Rotor diameter evolution 40 Averagerotordiameter(m) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Key Insight Renewable generation is a must to ensure a clean and decarbonized future although they are intermitted and non-dispatchable… …they need key technology enablers to increase the penetration…
  7. 7. / Repsol Technology Lab 3.WASTETOINDUSTRY Transforming the industry
  8. 8. / Repsol Technology Lab 3.WASTETOINDUSTRY Why Waste to Industry? The World tends to a Circular Economy system. As little waste in landfill as possible. REPSOL could be part of the solution. We need to reduce the CO2 emissions of our global activity. Using waste from plastic and biological origin as a raw material we contribute to reduce CO2 emissions in our productive processes and the carbon footprint of our final products.
  9. 9. / Repsol Technology Lab 3.WASTETOINDUSTRY Value chain The products from these process technologies can, in some cases, be used directly as final products, while others require further processing in upgrading units. The integration of these products with our sites require as well a technical development. Raw materials Process technologies Final Products The raw materials for the production of low-emission products are lipids, plastic wastes, end-of-life tyres, textile wastes, municipal solid wastes, residual gases and biomass. The availability of this waste is limited in the case of end-of-life tyres, plastic wastes, textile wastes and lipids, being higher for municipal solid waste, residual gases and biomass. Not all raw materials have the same facility for processing, due to their composition, heterogeneity and pollutants. Currently, the most mature technologies are: the fermentation of biomass, transesterification and the hydrogenation of waste lipids. Other technologies that can process other wastes (like plastic, municipal solid wastes or biomass) have to reach higher level of technological development. Some of these raw materials, like biomass or organic fraction from MSW, can be valorized to biogas instead of bioliquids. Technological challenges are articulated over raw materials, process technologies and final products.
  10. 10. / Repsol Technology Lab 3.WASTETOINDUSTRY Raw materials Biosmass Residual biomass of different possible origins: • Forestry residues • Agricultural residues High humidity content, Requires pre-treatment Origin and type of residues varies with location. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) Alternative fossil fuel from non-hazardous commercial waste in compliance with the European standard EN 15359. Includes variable % of plastic waste and biodegradable organic fraction (including organic waste, paper, carton, textile). Higher potential of production (now sent to landfill). Organic fraction of MSW Organic fraction obtained from municipal solid waste. High variability of composition High humidity content, Waste lipids Quality of waste lipids varies depending on the origin and process where they come from. Important source for biofuel production. For biofuel production it must be validated for each kind of waste (for example: UCO, PFAD, corn oil, etc.) Plastic Waste Plastic waste of high quality from Plastic Mix and Plastic film fraction: • Agricultural waste plastic • Industrial waste plastic • MSW Plastic Low biomass content Low contaminant content (compare to RDF) Could be competition with mechanical recycling End of life tires (ELT) End of life tires use to be send to landfill. 25% of the tire has a biological origin (natural Rubber).
  11. 11. / Repsol Technology Lab 4.HYDROGEN
  12. 12. / Repsol Technology Lab 4.HYDROGEN Production technologies 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 2020 2030 2040 €/kgH2 LCOH 20205 SMR SMR + CCS Biomass Gasification Alkaline PEM SOEC Light hydrocarbons High temperature catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons or methane splitting Renewable electricity and water Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen Sun irradation and water Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen w/o electricity Biomass and biogas Paths to bio-hydrogen TECHNOLOGY Steam reforming with CCUS 8-9 Methane pyrolysis 5 Alkaline water electrolysis 9 PEM water electrolysis 8 SOEC water electrolysis 6-7 Water Photoelectrocatalysis 5 Biochemical conversión 8 Biomass gasification 7-8 FEEDSTOCK TRL 5Self elaborated graphic from estimated values.
  13. 13. / Repsol Technology Lab 4.HYDROGENAPPLICATIONS Industrial application: hydrogen as a feedstock Fossil fuels Biofuels E-fuels Refinery H2 Feedstock for refineries Feedstock for other industries Industrial sector Ammonia Methanol Iron & steel Highly-refined fossil fuels and penetration of advanced biofuels and synthetic fuels will lead to an increase in hydrogen demand. No other decarbonization route for basic industries that either use hydrogen as a feedstock or need a source of high-level heat.
  14. 14. / Repsol Technology Lab 5.CCUS
  15. 15. / Repsol Technology Lab 5.CCUS Decarbonization mechanisms6, 7 SHARE OF TOTAL CO2 EMISSIONS ESTIMATED COST RANGE FOR CAPTURED CO2 CONCENTRATED STREAMS DILUTED STREAMS H2 production Ammonia Refining Methanol NG processing Petro - Chemistry Ethanol Petrochem Refining H2 excl. Metals production Cement Gas to power EXAMPLE FACILITIES THAT EMIT CO2 <10% Emitters of concentrated CO2 streams exist across +100 potential sites >90% Largest emitters, include electricity generation facilities across +1000 potential sites ~ 20-50 €/ton Lower cost due to direct compression of CO2 stream ~ 45-200+ €/ton Additional step to separate CO2 from in diluted gas streams prior to compression DIRECT AIR CAPTURE (DAC) Advantages High removal potential Small footprint compared with natural CO2 removal pathways Lower water requirements than natural CO2 removal pathways Disadvantages High capture costs €270-550/tCO2 High energy intensity compared with concentrated streams capture (x3 ambient air) Early development stage 6 Carbon Engineering, Climeworks and Global Thermostat: Their reflected costs are estimations based on their future technology advancements by 2025 (for nth-of-a-kind plants). 7 Global CCS Institute (GCCSI), National Energy Technology Lab (NETL), Repsol research.
  16. 16. / Repsol Technology Lab 5.CCUS Value chain7 CAPTURE ~20-200+ €/ton CO2 Pre combustion Post combustion Oxy combustion Chemical looping combustion Solvent / sorbent Membrane separation Cryogenic separation CO2 SEPARATION 35-72 €/ton CO2 20-200+ €/ton CO2 55-65 €/ton CO2 40-60 €/ton CO2 High Temperature DAC ~270-550 €/ton CO2 Low temperature DAC Ambient air Industrial CO2 sources CO2 DIRECT AIR CAPTURE TRANSPORT STORAGE Onshore Offshore Pipeline LPG tankers Other ship carriers 4-25 €/ton CO2 4-25 €/ton CO2 10-16 €/ton CO2 Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) Depleted oil/gas fields CO2 mineralization Saline formations 2-22 €/ton CO2 Unconventional formations Unmineable coal 2-13 €/ton CO2 9-15 €/ton CO2 14 €/ton CO2 22 €/ton CO2 n/a €/ton CO2 n/a €/ton CO2 Storage site types UTILIZATION E-Fuels Aggregates PolymersConcrete Abatement cost Methanol -30/60 €/ton 110/350 €/ton -10/80 €/ton -160/-40 €/ton 100/250 €/ton Products & final use 7 Global CCS Institute (GCCSI), National Energy Technology Lab (NETL), Repsol research.
  17. 17. / Repsol Technology Lab 6.E-FUELS Conventional process description
  18. 18. / Repsol Technology Lab 8.WRAP-UP In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions different low carbon alternative technologies must be developed and applied. Renewable generation and energy storage • Renewable generation is a key player to ensure decarbonization. Its rapidly growth must be accompanied by other technologies to overcome intermittency and non-dispatchable issues. • Renewable energy storage will allow balancing generation and demand to maximize a sustainable electricity system. Waste to industry • New technologies allow the use of several raw materials, such as waste from plastic and biological origin, in modified refineries to produce biofuels. • This can be doubly beneficial as it uses raw materials that have absorbed CO2 and eliminates garbage. Hydrogen • Hydrogen can help decarbonize several sectors such as industry, mobility and heat. As well, as an energy vector, it can be use to store renewable electricity. • Advantages in green hydrogen production are being developed, while, blue hydrogen technologies can be applied to decarbonize this sectors. CCUS • CCUS technologies enable the possibility to capture CO2 from the air and from industry off-gas to avoid emissions to the atmosphere. • Several hubs are being developed to facilitate carbon storage. E-Fuels • E-fuels combine green hydrogen and carbon capture technologies to create fuels for mobility, industry and lubricants.
  19. 19. / Repsol Technology Lab #RepsolTechLab #RepsolVenturing