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Ch.7 Section 2<br />The Challenges of Urbanization<br />
Urban Opportunities<br />Urbanization: growth of cities<br />Resulted from the technological boom of 19th C.<br />Most immigrants settled in cities because of lower living costs and more job opportunities<br />Americanization Movement: designed to assimilate everyone into the dominant culture<br />Programs provided to teach immigrants skills needed to become citizens (English Literacy, Gov’t) as well as cooking and social etiquette<br />
Migration from Country to City<br />New farming technology meant less laborers were needed<br />Many farmers moved to the city for work<br />The majority were African Americans looking for jobs and an escape from violence<br />Found segregation and discrimination<br />
Urban Problems<br />Housing: Working class families lived in row-houses, immigrants moved into over crowed and unsanitary tenements<br />NYC passed a law in 1879 that set standards for plumbing and ventilation in apartments<br />Transportation: Mass transit was started (street cars and subways) and allowed workers to commute from outside the city<br />Water: city residents had inadequate drinking water. Few homes had indoor plumbing <br />
Urban Problems Cont.<br />Sanitation: Horse manure piled in the streets, sewage ran in open gutters, factory smoke filled the air, and there was no reliable trash pick-up<br />Crime: with increased populations, thieves and pickpockets flourished. Most law enforcement was too small to keep up<br />Fire: Most city dwellings were made of wood, candles and kerosene heaters were being used, and there was a water shortage. <br />Nations first paid fire department est. in Ohio 1853<br />
Reforms<br />Social Gospel Movement: preached salvation through service to the poor. <br />Settlement Houses: community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area<br />Provided educational, social, and cultural services<br />Jane Addams founded Chicago’s Huss House with Ellen Gates Starr 1889<br />
New York Tenements<br />Poorly kept buildings- dangerous and unsanitary<br />