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Group 2 discussion text bu frisa

  1. Group 2 Discussion Text • Iis Mustika Sari • Frisa Rahmawati • Ida Rosida • Lulus Z Millah
  2. Definition Discussion Text is “a text which present a proble matic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is common ly found in philosophical, historic, and social text.”
  3. Where can we find the text? The text can be find in: - Editorials in newspaper - Magazines articles - Videotaped - Talk back radio - Public Speeches
  4. Social Function The text aims to: Present argument and information from differing view points. A discussion presents differing opinions, viewpoints or perspectives on an issue, enabling the reader to explore different ideas before m aking an informed decision. The writer normally explores different opinions and ends with a pers onal opinion or comment.
  5. The types of Discussion • It develops the skills to look at both sides of an argument weighing the positives and negatives objectively before they make a rational decision. • it concerns with analysis, interpretation and evaluation of issues. • it helps to think clearly and critically
  6. Structure of the Text  Issue (Statement of the issue plus a preview of the main arguments)  Arguments for, plus supporting evidence (supporting points)  Arguments against, plus supporting evidence (alternatively, argument/counter-argument, one point at a time/contrasting points)  Recommendation – summary and conclusion
  7. Language Features • Use of present tense. • Use of general nouns to make statements, e.g. men, papers. • Use of detailed noun groups to reinforce an argument, • Use of saying verbs to quote. • Use of relating verbs, e.g. is. • Use of thinking verbs expressing a personal point of view, e.g. wonder. • Use of factual adjectives, e.g. my last holiday. • Use of adjectives expressing an opinion, e.g. my horrifying adventure. • Use of comparative or contrasting adjectives, e.g. boring, most significant. • Use of adverbs of manner, e.g. honestly, rapidly, carefully, thoroughly. • Use of connectives to link arguments, e.g. however, in the same way. • Use of conjunctions to link clauses. • Use of varying degrees of modality for effect e.g. Perhaps we might see…followed by but we must see… • Use of abstract and technical terminology.
  8. • Use of quoted and reported speech, e.g. Ms Kim declared… • Use of evaluative language, e.g.The threatened landscape will contin ue to be tragically eroded, if steps are not taken. • Phrases to introduce the other point of view, e.g. on the other hand, gen erally. • Words showing the writer’s opinion, e.g. For the above reasons I fervent ly believe that… • Use of clearly structured beginning of sentences that focus attention, e .g. Game parks…,The cleaner environment focus… • Use of passive voice to change focus of the sentence, e.g.The environ ment is threatened… • Using complex combination of clauses, e.g. While it is vitally important to have a clean environment, we must think about… • Use of word chains, synonyms, antonyms and repetition for effect.
  9. To teach discussion A. Reading Collect discussions that students might come across every day, for example an editorial, debates, public speeches, newspaper and magazine articles.Ask students to identify the points of view that may be evident in both sides of the argument and to reorder the arguments to see how this affects the strength of the discussion. Ask students to compare these discussions, by answering questions about differences in text organization, structure and features. • What is the topic? • Is the target audience adult, teenager or child? • What is the assumed background knowledge? • Are two sides given in each text? Find examples. • Is evidence, research data or elaboration used? Give examples. • Is each side’s argument elaboratedto the same extent?What is the conclusion? Is an opinion expressed? • Is the levelof modality appropriate? • Is technical language used? • Is emotive language used? • What different conclusions might have been reached? • Do the conclusions summarize, recommend or solve an issue? Look at visual text. Do they add to the understanding each text?
  10. B. Writing  Help students develop their skills in discussion writing by developing questions, completing concept maps or writing keywords that will focus research skills.  Encourage students to research information using the Internet and encyclopedias or viewing videos.  Ask them to think of target audiences and what their opinions maybe on the topic  Ask students to plan by mind mapping. This method is great for structuring and organizing thoughts.  Encourage students to write a topic sentence or main point about a subject and then to elaborate adding details.  Demonstrate the development of arguments from note taking points to sentences by using word banks of connectives and content words. Remind students about the usage of persuasive words that show certainty.  Ask students to write discussions on one of these issues after completing a concept map
  11. Example: Text 1 School Uniforms Policy Issue School uniforms are uniforms which are obligatory worn by the students in the school or any other educational institution. School uniforms tell many things such as students' grade level and school or institution identity. Nowadays, school uniforms become a de batable issue among parents. Some of them think that school uniforms are necessary, while others think that they are not. Argument for Some parents believe that school uniforms will make such good advantages to their ch ildren while learning at school. First, school uniforms can keep students focused on th eir education, not their clothes. Second, school uniforms may improve attendance and discipline. The last, school uniforms are a symbol that every student is equal in getting same education. School uniforms will not differentiate whether the students are rich or not and students’ economic or social class.
  12. Argument against In other hand, school uniforms can affect negatively on students psychology and performance in learning at school. First, school uniforms restrict students' freedom of expression. Second, uniforms also may have a detrimental effect on students' self-image because when students have to wear the same outfits, rather than being allowed to select clothes that suit their body skin, they can suffer embarrassment at school. Third, some students also find uniforms less comfortable than their regular clothes, which may not be conducive to learning. Conclusion In conclusion, school uniforms remain important of the students’ forsakes. Students will be discipline and will focus more on learning. School uniforms also will show them that they are equal in learning. However, to cover all disadvantages of school uniforms, it is better if school gives a free school uniform day to the students on certain days and with certain themes
  13. Example: Text 2 Is National Examination Necessary? Issue National examination has become a hot topic to discuss in Indonesia. The main contr oversy regarding to national examination is whether or not it is necessary to continu e the national exams (UN). Some other debates focus on whether the quality of Indo nesian education depends on the national exam and whether the quality of the Indo nesian education system will worsen without national exam. Arguments for For those who support the national exam, they believe that the quality of the Indone sia education system will get worse without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system. They also believe that national exam can be used to measure ho w far educational program designed by the government works.
  14. Argument against However, for those who disagree with national exam, the result of national exam can’t give the clear image of students’ ability in general since the issues of cheati ng always happen. Furthermore, the national exam only measures a small portion of students’ competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students’ co mpetences throughout the semester. Conclusion Above all, the national examination can still be used as an instrument to evaluate the level of students’ cognitive competence in certain subjects, on a national scal e.
  15. References The sample text is taken from: lO-aerg5azA%3A1569555307129&ei=a4ONXbO3B8zMvgTZmK6gDw&q=discussion_text_introduction _and_overview-fp-8c7af13a&oq=discussion_text_introduction_and_overview-fp-8c7af13a&gs_l=psy-ab .3..35i362i39l10.130139.135226..135501...1.2..4.609.2357.3-1j2j2......0....1j2..gws-wiz.....10..0i71j0i131 i67j0.5VrlfLUde38&ved=0ahUKEwjzmKWUifDkAhVMpo8KHVmMC_QQ4dUDCAo&uact=5
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