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Basic Concepts and
Issues on Human
EDUC 21 – Child and Adolescent
Ferdinand C. Importado
• Human development is the pattern
of movement or change that begins
at conception and continues through
the life span.
• It includes growth and decline.
• Development can be positive or
The muscular growth of
the trunk and the arms
comes earlier as
compared to the hands
During infancy, the greatest growth always occurs at the top –
the head – with physical growth in size, weight and future
differentiation gradually working its way down from top to
While the pattern of
development is likely to be
similar, the outcome of
developmental process and the
rate of development are likely
to vary among individuals.
It does not end by
adulthood and no
Development consists of
biological, cognitive, and socio-
possible throughout the
Individuals are changing beings in a changing world.
Growth, maintenance and regulation
These are considered goals
in that varies in every
Principles of Child Development and
Learning that Inform Practice
All the domains of development and learning (physical, social,
emotional and cognitive) are important and closely-related.
Many aspects of children’s
learning and development follow
well documented sequences, with
later abilities, skills, and
knowledge building on those
learning proceed at
varying rates from
child to child, as well
as at uneven areas
across different areas
of a child’s individual
learning result from a
dynamic and continuous
interaction of biological
Early experiences have
delayed) on a child’s
learning; and optimal
periods exist for certain
types of development
and learning to occur.
Development proceeds toward
greater complexity, self regulation,
and symbolic or representational
Children develop best when they have secure, consistent
relationships with responsive adults and opportunities for
positive relationship with peers.
Development and learning
occur in and are influenced
by multiple social and
Always mentally active in seeking
to understand the world around
them, children learn in a variety of
ways; a wide range of teaching
strategies and interactions are
effective in supporting all these
kinds of learning.
Play is an important vehicle
for developing self-regulation
as well as promoting
language, cognition and social
Development and learning
advance when children are
challenged to achieve at a
level just beyond their
current mastery, and also
when they have many
opportunities to practice,
newly acquired skills.
Children’s experiences shape their
motivation and approaches to learning
such as persistence, initiative, and
flexibility; in turn, these dispositions
and behaviors affect their learning and