Textile effluent biodegradation potentials of
effluent-adapted and non-adapted bacteria
Olukanni O. D.*, Osuntoki, A. A. and Gbenle, G. O.
• Industrialization is vital to a
• There are associated problems
resulting from the introduction of
industrial waste products into the
The textile industries produce effluents that
various dyes (Cooper,1995.)
• In many Nigerian cities,
the textile factories daily
discharge millions of
litres of untreated
effluents in the forms of
wastewater. (Olayinka and Alo,
• This alters the
• biochemical oxygen
• chemical oxygen
demand (COD), (Ajayi and
Several methods are used in the treatment of
use of activated carbon and
Some of these methods are effective but quite
expensive(Do et al., 2002; Maier et al., 2004).
Biotreatment offers a cheaper and
environmentally friendlier alternative for color
removal in textile effluents.
The ubiquitous nature of bacteria makes
them invaluable tools in effluent
The chemical nature of dyes varies, but azo
dyes are the most widely used.
The decolourization of azo dyes has been
found to be effective under anaerobic
The anaerobic degradation yields aromatic
amines which are mutagenic and toxic to
humans and cannot be metabolized further
under the conditions which generated them
(Chung and Stevens, 1993; Do et al.,2002).
To exploit the biodegradation abilities of our
indigenous microbial flora for remediative
The study is aimed to discovering isolates
with the potential for use in biological
treatment of textile effluents.
Sources of organism
• Textile effluent-adapted bacteria were isolated
from effluent samples collected from the
discharge and drainage pipes of three textile
• The textile effluent non-adapted bacteria were
isolated from soil.
• Isolations were done on nutrient agar using
enrichment culture techniques and the
organisms identified to the generic level
A stock dye solution is prepared by dissolving
5.6 g dyes mix/L.
In 20 ml simulated effluent, 2 x 10 cfu of the
isolate was added in transparent bottles
After 14 days decolourization and COD
removal were measured
Decolourization was determined by
measuring the absorbance of the simulated
effluent on uv spectrophotometer.
The isolates were screened for plasmids
using the plasmid isolation technique (kado
and lin, 1981)by electrophoresis on 0.8%
agarose gels. The gels were stained with
ethidium bromide and viewed on a UV
Source and identity of
• A total of 24 isolates
• eighteen organisms
isolated from the textile
• Staphylococcus and
six isolates from the soil sample.
The majority of the effluent adapted isolated
showed colour-removing activities between
40.74 and 47.73% where as non-adapted
isolates show 40.25 to 46.63.
while the COD activities are between 17.91
and 36.69% of adapted isolates and non
adapted show high COD.
Plasmids were not detected in any of the
isolates from the effluent adapted or non-
In textile industries, During the dyeing
process a substantial amount of dyes and
other chemicals are lost in the waste water.
Dye losses at between 10–15% (Vaidya and Datye,
In the environment, dyes color water bodies
and may hinder light penetration thereby
affecting aquatic life and limiting the
utilization (Ajayi and Osibanjo, 1980; Goncalves et al., 2000).
It has been reported that a typical textile
effluent contains a dye mass concentration of
10–50 mg/L (Clarke and Anliker, 1980).
However, the human eye can detect levels as
low as 0.005 mg/L of reactive dyes in a clear
river (Pierce, 1994).
In our study a sample with a dye mass of 5.6
g/L was used.
This study discovered effluent adapted
Bacillus and Legionella with potentials for
color removal and
Strains of Acinetobacter, Bacillus and
Pseudomonas with potential use for COD
very few strains can withstand the conditions of
dyeing effluents(Maeir et al., 2004)
we have discovered textile effluent adapted
strains of Acinetobacter and Bacillus, and
effluent non-adapted Bacillus species with
potential use in effluent treatment.
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