2. The Rise and Expansion of Islam
570 C.E. –the birth of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.
610 C.E. – the first revelation.
622 C.E. – the Hijra to Madinah – the beginning
of the expansion of Islam.
The unification of Arabian peninsula under Islam.
The expansion of Islam to North Africa,
Andalusia, Central Asia, Asia Minor, Balkans and
later to African continent, Indian sub-continent,
3. The later part of the 7th
century and the beginning of
century C.E. - the emergence of Islamic
Islamic civilization dominated the world of science
and learning for nearly 600 years.
The Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 C.E.) and the rule
of Muslim Spain (755-1492 C.E.) – the “golden
Rise of Islamic Civilization
4. Learning centers, e.g., Baghdad, Toledo, Seville –
for Muslims and non-Muslims.
“House of Wisdom” in Baghdad – a huge
academic center, library and translation center.
In Toledo, Muslim’ works were translated from
Arabic into Latin especially in Astronomy,
Mathematics, Medicine, Chemistry, Botany,
5. Muslims’ Worldviews
What explain the extraordinary transformation of the
Muslims (Arabs) from the state of ignorance
(Jahiliyya Period) to where they became pioneers of
learning and scientific progress?
What happened in the seventh century, the beginning
of that transformation?
The emergence of Islam – the influence of Islamic
teachings, which shaped Muslims’ worldview.
6. Muslims’ Worldviews:
There is true meaning and purpose in life.
The human on earth for an important mission, to
fulfill responsibilities as ‘Khalifah’ of God. As such,
laziness, apathy and fatalism are to be rejected.
To seek the pleasure of Allah and His reward.
Scientific discoveries and constructive contributions
which benefit the ummah and future generations will
be rewarded by Allah.
7. Muslims’ Worldviews
To understand about the universe, nature and its
resources and explore them for human use.
In order to fulfill the role of khalifah of Allah on
Islam is a complete and comprehensive way of
No distinction between the religious and material
aspects of life.
8. Qur’anic Inducements to Study
Qur’an stimulates research, discovery, development
and improvement of the quality of life.
Encourages the understanding of natural laws. E.g:
“It is Allah Who alternates the Night and the Day:
verily in these things is an instructive example for
those who have vision!” (24:44)
9. Qur’anic Inducements to Study
The very first word of the Qur’an revealed to
Prophet Muhamnmad s.a.w. was Iqra’, literally
“Proclaim! (or Read)in the name of your Lord and
Cherisher Who created.” (96:1)
10. Qur’anic Inducements to Study
The Qur’an considers it a sin not to use sense and
reason as legitimate means of searching for truth.
It admonishes those who make claims that are not
based on knowledge, and those who blindly
imitates their ancestors. E.g:
“For the worst beasts in the sight of Allah are the
deaf and the dumb, those who understand not.”
11. Qur’anic Inducements to Study
Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. on the
attitude toward learning. E.g:
“Seeking knowledge is a mandatory duty on every
“The priority of a scholar over a worshipper
[without understanding] is like the superiority of
the moon over other stars.”
“Scholars are the heirs of Prophets.”
The common expression “The Dark Ages” should
be re-defined as the “European Dark Ages, at least
in the period coinciding with the emergence of
Islamic civilization (7th
The common notion that Roger Bacon was the
‘father of experimental method’ is not accurate.
Born in 1214 C.E. Bacon came nearly six
centuries after the Qur’an clearly called for this
approach in learning.
The claim that Muslims merely restored Greek
H. G. Wells – their [the Greeks] knowledge was
“based on rudimentary speculations” and [they]
were “poor in experimental apparatus.”
N. Whitehead - the Greeks were over-theoretical and
that for them, science was an offshoot of philosophy.
Unlike Muslims’ contributions, the Greek and
Roman contributions were not based upon
14. Muslims’ Contributions to Western
The European Renaissance was influenced by
Europeans came to study at Muslim universities
esp. in Muslim’s Spain.
Arabic – the language of scientific research and
Muslim science reached Europe before the 14th
century (the beginning of Renaissance) – as early
as 12th century C.E.
Led to establishment of universities in Europe.
15. Muslims’ Contributions to Western
Muslim’s works, e.g. by Al-Razi (Rhases) and Ibn
Sina (Avicenna) on medicine became primary
medical reference in Europe for 600 years.
Medicine, surgery, eye problems, mental illness,
psychological therapy (e.g. music), symptoms of
diseases, digestion problem, etc.
Superiority of Muslim medicine over Western
medicine (because of religious restriction).
Astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, chemistry,
16. Muslims’ Contributions to Western
Libraries, hospitals, observatories.
Often times, Muslim discoveries were translated
by Europeans who attributed such discoveries to
themselves or incorporated them in their works
without due credit.
17. Muslims’ Contributions
In various disciplines.
Related to Islamic teachings; devotional acts such
as prayers and pilgrimage; emphasis on hygiene
and cleanliness; the finding of kiblah.
It is unfortunate that most of the rich and
voluminous works of Muslim scholars was lost or
ruined during the assaults on the Muslim world.
One of the earliest sciences that attracted the
Muslims’ attention – 3rd
Discovered the sun’s apogee (the points farthest
from the earth in the orbit of the moon).
Drew catalogues maps of visible stars (gave them
Corrected the sun and moon table.
Fixed the length of the year.
The first to use pendulum to measure time.
The first to build observatories.
Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi (13th
century) – a theory of
the movement of stars.
Ibn Younus (11th
century) invented the sun dial
(predicts sun spots, eclipses and appearance of
Abul-Wafa Al-Buzajani discovered the 3rd
inequality (irregularity of the moon’s highest
latitudes) – later attributed to Danish astronomer
Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Al-Batani (Albategnius), Al-
Bairouni, Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Rushd (Averroes).
century) discovered Nitric Acid and
described the operations of distillation,
sublimination, filtration, coagulation and
Abu Bakar Al-Razi (Rhases) (9th
century) – the
first to describe the properties of Sulphuric Acid.
Abu-Musa Al-Kufi (8th
century) – his works
translated into Latin and French, some as late as
English terms in chemistry originated from Arabic
terms; camphor, alcohol, elexir, syrup.
While the numerals are believed to have
originated in India, it was popularized by
Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khawarizmi (9th
century), introduced system of symbols
representing nine numbers and invented the
concept of ‘zero’ (sifr) – 300 years before it was
known in Europe (13the century).
Also the founder of Algebra (from the Arabic
Thabit bin Qurrah (13th
century) – a theory of
infinite numbers being part of another infinite
series of numbers.
Umar Khayyam (12th
century) and Nasir Al-Din
century) – magnitudes expressed in
Muslims – combined and re-organized numbers
into “Arabic numerals”, the first to develop
trigonometry in its post-Greek modern form and
introduce the use of the Sine and Co-sine,
invented the symbol to express any unknown
Al-Hasan Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) (11th
– the greatest Muslim physicist (optics), wrote
The science of optics and the inventions of
microscopes, telescopes and cameras are indebted
Muslims’ invention of compass – for navigation.
Abdul-Rahman Al-Khozaini (9th
“Mizan-ul-Hikmah” investigated on hydrostatics
and improvements in the use of water wheels.(e.g.
gravities of liquids and solids).
Fakhr-Al-Deen Al-Razi (Rhases) (9th
wrote an immense medical encyclopedia, the most
important medical reference in Europe for 600
years - gynaecology, obstetrics and opthalmic
Areb Ibn Saad (10th
century), wrote systematically
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (11th
century) wrote a five
volume work, “Canon (or Precepts) of Medicine”
– physiology, hygiene, pathology, therapeutics and
Abul Qasim (late 11th
and early 12th
Ibn Rushd – works on surgery.
Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoan) – works on bronchotomy,
dislocations, fractures and treatment of skin
Ibn Al-Nafees (13th
century) – works on
psychopathalogy and psychological treatment and
Mobile and permanent hospitals.
Hospitalization was free and universally available.
Stemmed from a belief that every disease has its
Encouraged Muslims to do scientific research in
search of an antidote –became an independent
Ibn Al-Baytar, Rashid Al-Din Ibn Al-Suri, Jabir
Ibn Hayyan, Al-Khindi, Al-Razi and Al-Biruni.
Nitric acid, sulfuric acid, nitro-hydrochloric acid,
potassium, silver, oxide, mercury, etc.
century) – the theory of earth is
Caliph al-Ma’moon (9th
century) – ordered the
drawing of a large map of the world.
The work of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) partly led to
the discovery of the Americas by Christopher
century) wrote an encyclopedia
arranged by geographical order.
Al-Khawarizimi, Abdul Lateef, Al-Yaqooti, Abul-
38. Art and Architecture
Diverse due to the fusion of various cultures
which came under Muslim rule. Yet, there are
some elements of unity based on Islamic
The influence of Muslim caligraphy, Islamic-style
Al-Hambra and the Cordova Mosque in Spain.
42. The Badshahi Masjid, literally the 'Royal Mosque', was built in 1674
by Aurangzeb. It is one of Lahore's best known landmarks, and
epitomizes the beauty and grandeur of the Mughal era.
43. TAJ MAHAL
Built by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan at Agra, India. Completed in 1648 C.E.
An "Elegy in Marble" or a "Dream" in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
century) described 585 plants and
explained the cultivation of several fruits.
Abul-Abbas Al-Nabati studied plants.
Improved the methods of irrigation, used organic
fertilizers, improved the breeds of cattle.
Introduced peaches, apricots, cotton, rice, banana,
sugar cane to the West.
Advancements in the manufacturing of fabrics
(silk, cotton, wood), leather, glass, steel.
Applied chemistry in making drugs and perfumes.