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  1. 1. YARN DEFINITION: The word yarn or thread is used in common parlance to cover all the linear textile structures. Yarns can be either “single” or “folded”. “A yarn is an assemblage of fibres or filaments having a substantial length and relatively small cross section, with or without twist, being the end product of a spinning and winding process”
  3. 3. Yarn may be any of the following  Number of fibers twisted together  Number of filaments without twist  Number of filaments twisted with more/less twist  Single filament  One or more strips cut by length of a sheet of material of natural/ synthetic or any polymer
  4. 4. TERMS SPUN YARNS are made by mechanical assembly and twisting together (spinning) of Staple fibres such as cotton, flax, wool, broken or cut man-made fibres. FILAMENT YARNS are made by the assembly of continuous filaments, made from silk or man-made fibres A MULTI FILAMENT YARN is a filament yarn made from multiple filaments, assembled with or without twist. A MONO FILAMENT YARN consists of only a single continuous filament from man-made source.
  5. 5. Two or more yarns which are wound side by side on to same package, but without twisting around each other, are called ASSEMBLED YARNS. FOLDED OR PLIED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together Two or more single (and/or folded) yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2 Ply (two singles) CORDS OR CABLED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together Two or more ply or folded yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2,3 Ply Cord
  6. 6. Twist Direction Twists or turns per inch Twist Factor (K)
  7. 7. Properties of Spun, Filament and Combination Yarns: 100%Spun Yarns: Warmth, Softness, Light Weight Ideal for T-Shirts, Sweaters and Blankets 100%Filament Yarns: Smoother, Finer and Lustrous Ideal for linings Combination of spun and filament Yarns: Durable, Easy care, Comfortable Suitable for more applications
  8. 8. Twist  The purpose of twist is to hold the staple fibers together  The twist could be used in different ways to embed different qualities to the yarn  A yarn that is twist balanced will not tend to curl  The direction of twist is also important for further designing as this can be used well by designers
  9. 9. Yarn twist parameters: Amount of twist is designated as TPI –turns per inch, which Affects appearance and durability of the yarns. Spun yarn: Low twist Soft twist yarns flexible (2 to 12 tpi) ex: Knitting fluffier soft High Twist Hard twist yarns smooth (20 to 30 tpi) ex: weaving firm stronger Filament yarns: Usually low twist Pebbly and harsh surface (1/2 to 1 tpi) Crepe fil. with crepe twist
  10. 10. Twist and Bulkiness  The bulkier the yarn, lesser the twist.  Finer the yarn higher the twist.  Bulkier yarn needs lesser twist and so it has lesser strength.  Finer yarn has more twists and strong.  But when the twist is increased after particular point the strength is reduced due to the breakage of the fibers.
  11. 11. Blends / Mixtures  A blend is a combination of two materials at fiber stage.  A mix is two materials put together at a later stage as strands.  The texture we get is different from each of them.  The design value of these are high.
  12. 12. PolyesterCotton Polyester Cotton 67%33% Material-BlendingMaterial-Blending
  13. 13. Chief Value Cotton (CVC) /Cotton RichChief Value Cotton (CVC) /Cotton Rich Polyester (40%)+Cotton(60%)  Cotton • Comfort, Soft handle  Polyester • Crease resistance, Easy care
  14. 14. Polyester Cotton (PC)Polyester Cotton (PC) Polyester (67%) and Cotton (33%)  Cotton • comfortable to wear • greater strength  Polyester • Resistance from creases, Quick dry
  15. 15. Need  The need for blends or mixes are.  Cost.  Different quality that each fiber offers.  More effective usage of the materials.  The necessity of different and in between qualities and both the qualities.
  16. 16. Design Values  The design values of such blended and mixed yarn can be explored to give an innovative look to the textile  More innovative processes can be explored  The design can happen from yarn stage.
  17. 17.  Fancy yarns are explorations of the prior said attributes such as  Twist  Bulkiness  Color  Material  Blends and Mixes  Material(conventional/non-conventional) Fancy Yarns
  18. 18. Physical properties and performance characteristics of different yarn types: Yarn type General yarn properties Staple yarns Excellent Handle Good covering power • Carded cotton Good comfort rating • Combed cotton Reasonable strength • Woollen Reasonable uniformity • Worsted • Linen
  19. 19. Yarn type General yarn properties Continuous filament yarns Excellent uniformity Excellent strength •Natural Can be very fine •Non-synthetic Fair handle •Synthetic Poor covering power High bulk yarns Light weight • Staple Good covering power • Continulous filament Good loftiness and fullness
  20. 20. Stretch yarns High stetchability Continuous filament Good handle Covering power Special end use: •Tyre cord Purely functional •Rubber Designed to satisfy a specific- •Core yarn set of conditions •Cabled •Split film yarn Novelty yarns: Excellent decorative features •Fancy yarns •Metallic
  21. 21. Variables in yarn production Type of fibre or filament Dimensional and physical characteristics of the fibre/filament Mechanical properties of the fibre / filament General properties Yarn production systems Components of the yarn and percentages Linear density and level of twist Yarn construction Texturisation and method of texturisation
  22. 22. Yarn types & Characteristics  Spun - carded, combed  Long staple spng - Worsted, Spun Silk  Filament - Mono & Multifilament  Doubled yarn - single & 2-ply  Stronger, Uniform, blending  Yarn twist - S & Z, TPI, High Twist, Knit yarns.  Stretch yarns - Lycra, Mechanical  Slub Yarns, Lurex
  23. 23. Spinning  Plucking & Cleaning  Blow room  Carding  Combing  Draw frame  Simplex  Ring frame Yarn
  24. 24. SPUN YARN MANUFACTURINGSPUN YARN MANUFACTURING Ring spinning:Ring spinning: Blow room process:Blow room process: sorting, opening, separating,sorting, opening, separating, cleaning, and blending of fibrescleaning, and blending of fibres CardingCarding:: intensive cleaning through individualization ofintensive cleaning through individualization of fibresfibres DrawingDrawing:: alignment of fibres through doubling andalignment of fibres through doubling and drafting of fibresdrafting of fibres CombingCombing:: micro cleaning and alignment of fibres throughmicro cleaning and alignment of fibres through parallelizationparallelization RovingRoving:: attenuating drawn sliversattenuating drawn slivers Spinning:Spinning: twisting drafted roving in to yarntwisting drafted roving in to yarn
  25. 25. Plucking.Plucking. At this stage cotton bales are manually opened and are put in Pluckers are machines which mix the cotton and separate the bales into smaller denominations. The separated cotton is then transferred into the Blow Room.
  26. 26. Blow RoomBlow Room The Blow Room is a facility, which is primarily used for the Cleaning, Mixing and Opening of cotton for yarn production. Cotton is processed through various stages in this area through different machines and the main objective is to refine the cotton being used in yarn production.
  27. 27. Carding DepartmentCarding Department
  28. 28. Carding DepartmentCarding Department The main function of this department is to transform the cotton into Sliver. The main objective here is to maintain the uniformity, alignment and stretch ability of the fiber as per the desired standards
  29. 29. Combing
  30. 30. Combing  The main function of this department is to transform the cotton Sliver in to more fine and inject the raw material and also putting short fiber to get more longer fiber for durability.
  31. 31. Draw Frame  The function of the Draw Frame is to create a roving consistent in size over its entire length. The draw frame blends multiple roving into one fiber.  The draw frame results in strong, uniform roving of a size that can be easily managed at the spinner
  32. 32. SimplexSimplex Simplex is the process of shaping the Sliver into Roving. The main processes involved are Grafting, Twisting and Winding the sliver and shaping it like a thin rope.
  33. 33. Ring frameRing frame This is function where the yarn is finally produced. The Roving are put on the machines used here and passing the roving through the machine produces yarns. The main objective of the machines here is again Grafting, Twisting and Winding. Once the cotton thread is produced it is collected in the form of Bobbin.