Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
Próximos SlideShares
Carregando em…5
×

# INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING

Definition of Surveying
Objects of Surveying
Uses of Surveying
Primary Divisions of Surveying
Principles of Surveying
List of Classification of Surveying
Definitions : Plan and Map, scales :Plain Scale and Diagonal Scale,

• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Seja o primeiro a comentar

### INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING

1. 1. 1
2. 2. Prepared by: Ms. Saiyed Farhana M. Assistant Professor Chadubhai S.Patel Institute of Technology (CSPIT) CHARUSAT ME_143_FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICAL AND CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIT 8 : INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
3. 3. TOPICS TO BE COVERED 8.1 Definition of Surveying Objects of Surveying Uses of Surveying 8.2 Primary Divisions of Surveying Principles of Surveying 8.3 List of Classification of Surveying Definitions : Plan and Map, scales :Plain Scale and Diagonal Scale, Conventional Symbols
4. 4. SURVEYING “ Those activities involved in planning and execution of surveys for the Location, Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Civil and Other Engineering Projects.”
5. 5. DEFINITION OF SURVEYING Surveying is the art and science of determining the relative positions of various points or stations on the surface of the earth by measuring the horizontal and vertical distances , Angles and taking the details of these points and by preparing a map or plan to any scale. Measurements taken in Horizontal and Vertical planes
6. 6. OBJECTS OF SURVEYING To Prepare a map or plan. To show the relative position of the objects on the surface of the earth. To establish the boundaries of the land. To select a suitable site for an engineering project.
7. 7. USES OF SURVEYING To prepare a Topographical Map which shows hills, valleys, river, forests, villages, towns etc. To prepare a Cadastral Map which shows the boundaries of fields, plots houses and other properties. To prepare an Engineering Map which shows the properties of engineering works such as buildings, roads, railways , dams, canals, etc. To prepare a Contour Map to know the topography of the area to find out the best possible site for road , railways, bridges, reservoirs , canals, etc. To prepare Military Maps, Geological Maps, Archeological Maps etc. To set out works and transfer details from the work on the ground.
8. 8. 8 TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP
10. 10. 10 ENGINEERINGMAP
11. 11. 11 CONTOURMAP
12. 12. 12 GEOLOGICALMAP
13. 13. 13 ARCHEOLOGICAL MAP
14. 14. 14 MILITARYMAP
15. 15. TOPICS TO BE COVERED 8.1 Definition of Surveying Objects of Surveying Uses of Surveying 8.2 Primary Divisions of Surveying Principles of Surveying 8.3 List of Classification of Surveying Definitions : Plan and Map, scales :Plain Scale and Diagonal Scale, Conventional Symbols
16. 16. PRIMARY DIVISIONS OF SURVEYING PLANE SURVEYING • Type of surveying in which earth surface is considered as a plane and the curvature of the earth is ignored. • In such surveying the line joining any two stations is considered to be straight. GEODETIC SURVEYING • Type of surveying in which the curvature of the earth is taken into consideration. • The line joining any two stations is considered as curved line.
17. 17. DIFFERNCE BETWEEN GEODETIC AND PLANE SURVEYING  Earth surface is considered as a curved surface.  The curvature of the earth is taken into account.  The line joining any two stations is considered as a curved line.  The triangle formed by any three points is considered as spherical.  The angles of the triangle are considered to be spherical.  Carried out for a large area >250km2 .  Earth surface is considered as a plane surface.  The curvature of the earth is ignored.  The line joining any two stations is considered as a straight line.  The triangle formed by any three points is considered as a plane.  The angles of the triangle are considered to be plane angles.  Carried out for a small area < 250km2 . Geodetic SurveyingPlane Surveying
18. 18. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING Principle: 1 WHOLE TO PART Always work from whole to part Principle: 2 LOCATE A POINT BY ATLEAST TWO MEASUREMENTS Locate a new station by at least 2 measurements whether linear or angular from fixed reference points.
19. 19. Principle: 1 In surveying large areas, a system of control points are identified and they are located with high precision. Then secondary control points are located using lesser precise methods. The details of the localized areas are measured and plotted with respect to the secondary control points. This is called working from whole to part. This principle in surveying helps in localising the errors. If the surveying is carried out by adding localized areas errors accumulated and may become unacceptable when large area is covered.
20. 20. Principle: 2 Control points are selected in the area and the distance between them is measured accurately. The line joining these two points is plotted to the scale on drawing sheet. Now the desired point(new station) can be plotted by making suitable measurements from the given control point. The new stations are located by linear or angular measurements or by both.
21. 21. TOPICS TO BE COVERED 8.1 Definition of Surveying Objects of Surveying Uses of Surveying 8.2 Primary Divisions of Surveying Principles of Surveying 8.3 List of Classification of Surveying Definitions : Plan and Map, scales :Plain Scale and Diagonal Scale, Conventional Symbols
22. 22. CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING 1.BASED ON ACCURACY DESIRED 2.BASED ON INSTRUMENTS USED 3.BASED ON PLACE OF SURVEY 4.BASED ON PURPOSE OF SURVEYING 5.BASED ON METHODS OF SURVEY
23. 23. 1.BASED ON ACCURACY DESIRED PLANE SURVEY GEODETIC SURVEY
24. 24. 2.BASED ON INSTRUMENTS USED CHAIN SURVEY COMPASS SURVEY CHAIN AND COMPASS SURVEY LEVELLING PLANE TABLE SURVEY THEODOLITE TACHEOMETRY PHOTOGRAMETRY EMD
25. 25.  Simplest type of surveying in which only linear measurements are made with a chain or tape .Angular measurements are not taken. 25 CHAIN SURVEY
26. 26.  The angles are measure with the help of a magnetic compass. 26 COMPASS SURVEY
27. 27.  The type of survey is used to determine the vertical distances(elevation) and relative heights of points with the help of an instrument known as level. 27 LEVELLING SURVEY
28. 28.  It’s a graphical method of surveying in which field works and plotting both are done simultaneously. 28 PLANE TABLE SURVEY
29. 29.  THEODOLITE Is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes. 29 THEODOLITE SURVEY
30. 30.  is a system of rapid surveying, by which the positions, both horizontal and vertical, of points on the earth surface relatively to one another are determined without using a chain or tape or a separate leveling instrument. 30 TACHEOMETRIC SURVEY
31. 31.  Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for .... 3D data acquisition and object reconstruction 31 PHOTOGRAMETRY SURVEY
32. 32.  Electronic distance measuring instrument is a surveying instrument for measuring distance electronically between two points through electromagnetic waves. 32 EDM SURVEY
33. 33. 3.BASED ON PLACE OF SURVEY LAND SURVEY TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY CADASTRAL SURVEY CITY SURVEY HYDROGRAPHICAL SURVEY UNDERGROUND SURVEY AERIAL SURVEY
34. 34. 4.BASED ON PURPOSE OF SURVEY ENGINEERING SURVEY DEFENCE SURVEY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY MINE SURVEY ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY ROUTE SURVEY RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY PRELIMINARY SURVEY CONTROL SURVEY LOCATION SURVEY
35. 35. 5.BASED ON METHODS OF SURVEY TRAVERSINGTRIANGULATION OPEN CLOSED
36. 36. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLAN AND MAP (1) Plan: Plan is a graphical representation to some scale of the features on near or below the surface of the earth as projected or a horizontal plane. (2) Map: If the of graphical projection on a horizontal plane is small, the plan is called a map.
37. 37. MAP PLAN
38. 38. SCALE Scale: It is the basic requirement for the preparation of plans or maps. The proportion or ratio between the dimensions adopted for the drawing and the corresponding dimensions of the object R.F. (Representation Fraction): The ratio of the distance on the drawing to the corresponding actual length of the object on the ground is know as the representative fraction. • REPRESENTATIVE FACTOR (R.F.) = DIMENSION OF DRAWING DIMENSION OF OBJECT i.e . = LENGTH OF DRAWING ACTUAL LENGTH
39. 39. To construct the scale the data required is : 1. The R.F of the scale 2. The units which it has to represent i.e. millimetres or centimetres or metres or kilometres in M.K.S or inches or feet or yards or miles in F.P.S) 3. Maximum length which it should measure. If the maximum length is not given, some suitable length can be assumed. • The maximum length of the scale to be constructed on the drawing sheet = R.F X maximum length the scale should measure. •This should be generally of 15 to 20 cm length. Need : When an unusual proportion is to be adopted and when the ready made scales are not available then the required scale is to be constructed on the drawing sheet itself. SCALE & ITS CONSTRUCTION
40. 40.  The following two types of scales are used: 1.PLAIN SCALE 2.DIAGONAL SCALE SCALE & ITS TYPES
41. 41. PLAIN SCALE  The plain scale is the most commonly used in maps to represent two consecutive units.i.e. a unit and its sub unit.  This scale is not drawn like ordinary foot rule (30 cm scale).  If a scale of 1 : 40 is to be drawn, the markings are not like 4 m, 8 m, 12 m etc. at every 1 cm distance.
42. 42.  Example : Construct a plain scale of RF = 1 /500 and indicate 66 m. on it.  Solution. If the total length of the scale is selected as 20 cm, it represents a total length of 500 × 20 = 10000 cm = 100 m. Hence, draw a line of 20 cm and divide it into 10 equal parts. Hence, each part correspond to 10 m on the ground. First part on extreme left is subdivided into 10 parts, each subdivision representing 1 m on the field. Then they are numbered as 1 to 10 from right to left as shown in Fig. 11.6. If a distance on the ground is between 60 and 70 m, it is picked up with a divider by placing one leg on 60 m marking and the other leg on subdivision in the first part. Thus field distance is easily converted to map distance.
43. 43. DIAGONAL SCALE  In plain scale only unit and tenths can be shown whereas in diagonal scales it is possible to show units, tenths and hundredths.  Units and tenths are shown in the same manner as in plain scale.
44. 44. Construction of Diagonal scales Draw the line AC of convenient length at right angles to plain scale AB. Divide it into 10 equal parts. Join BC. From each tenth point on line AC draw lines parallel to AB till they meet line BC. Then line 1–1 represent 1 / 10th of AB, 6–6 represent 6 / 100th of AB and so on. Figure shows the construction of diagonal scale with RF = 1 / 500 and indicates 62.6 m.
45. 45. 45 Diagonal scale
46. 46. SIGN CONVENTIONS PDF FOR SIGN CONVENTIONS….