3. • “I know English?”
– identifying individual sounds correctly.
– Knowing the combinations of sounds.
– Knowing the formation and division of words.
– Combination of words at sentence level.
– Decoding all above system: understanding the meanings of words,
– Using language in communicative context.
– Knowing a language means having moderate level of speaking
and listening's skills. And also expressing ideas in written mode.
– converting speech into writing.
4. • Therefore, the use of language is an integral part of
• Children all over the world start putting words together at
approximately the same age, and follow remarkably
similar paths in their speech development.
• All languages are similar in their basic structure, whether
they are in Africa, Austria, Turkey…
5. 3/29/2015 ANDROID V/S iOS 5
This presentation gives a special emphasis to the influence of applied linguistics on English
language and discusses the relation between linguistics and language teaching
Dealing with the Topic ( Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching) such questions are
1) Can Applied Linguistics have a positive impact on language teachers ?
2) Is language teaching considered to be a practical or theoretical task?
3) What are the major focuses of Applied Linguistics in language teaching?
4) What is the relation of Linguistics & Applied Linguistics to Language Teaching?
5) What is the role of Applied Linguistics in the Teaching of English?
6. • Many resent researches concerned with applied linguistics have
led to a phenomenon to resolve language problems in general
and in particular English language. In general, language
phenomenon is complex.
• Finegan and Besiner defined language as a finite system of
elements and principles that make it possible for speakers to
construct sentences to do particular communicative jobs.
• Brumfit, defined applied linguistics such as “the theoretical and
empirical investigation of real- world problems in which language
is a central issue.”
• Grabe used the term of applied linguistics as an emerging
7. • Human language is such a complex phenomena, as there is no
one comprehensive theory about human language.
• on the other hand, applied linguistics is an integrative activity,
the insights acquired from the different approaches to the study
of language and have to be drawn together, reconciled and used
to make the acquisition of a knowledge efficient, useful, and
• So, the history of English Language Teaching is linked with
developments in many fields and especially with linguistics, applied
linguistics, the psychology of learning and education.
8. linguists’ perspectives in AL & Language Teaching
Titone emphasized that there have been two basic positions held
in English language teaching :
a ) Form-focused teaching which emphasizes the teaching of the rules
of grammar, structures, the development of vocabulary and the
sounds of language.
b) Meaning–focused teaching which emphasizes language use,
communication or fluency and appropriacy of expression in different
9. Corder argued that applied linguistics was a collection of
applications of linguistics at various levels to determine precisely
the constrains of language teaching operation.
Cook and Wei mentioned that applied linguistics is an
interdisciplinary field of research and practice dealing with
practical problems of language and communication that can be
identified, analyzed, or solved by applying available theories,
methods or results of linguistics.
Wilkins pointed out that linguistics can be more directly applied in
language teaching, such as in the teaching program and in the
preparation of the teaching material of all kinds that can be used in
10. • What do people think we they heard about
the word “Teaching”?
3/29/2015 ANDROID V/S iOS 10
11. Q: What do people think of when they heard about (teaching)? Or
What is (Teaching Operation) ?
People think that TEACHING is something which goes in the classroom,
where the teacher meets face to face with his pupils and teachers know this
is only their job. While much of other things are going to be done outside
the classroom such as planning lessons, correcting, assessing, progress,
discussing with colleagues, selecting and producing textbook and teaching
materials. All of these are called Teaching Operation.
But Language Teaching is more than this.
Language Teaching is an art rather than a scientific process .
Language Teaching is not only a practical activity in the planning and
implementation but it covers other practical tasks such as data retrieval,
mechanical translation, and interpreting.
Having some general principles is better than having none.
Processing needs instructions to be followed.
Good teachers possess a set of principles which guide their work as
12. • Is language teaching a practical or theoretical task?
3/29/2015 ANDROID V/S iOS 12
13. - EXAMPLE:
Someone is trying to bake a rich fruit cake for the first time, he
would have no alternative but to follow the instructions in the
recipe precisely and in every detail, even then the cake might
not turn out a success because the beginner might be working
under conditions which were not exactly those presupposed in
the instructions. Just like the novice teachers when they start
their job of teaching their should be relevant general principles
to allow them to adjust or vary their approach appropriately.
14. • All these activities need to be done with decisions making.
Decisions about how to present and practise in the classroom
certain aspects of the language are chosen.
• AL is considered with the identification and analysis of certain
class problems which arise in the setting up , carrying out of
language teaching programs and answering certain sorts of
questions that arise in the course of planning.
15. The Nature of Applied Linguistics
Applied Linguistics itself may be seen as an autonomous, problem-
solving discipline, concerned broadly with language education and
language problems in society.
Brumfit, defined applied linguistics such as “the theoretical and
empirical investigation of real- world problems in which language is a
Corder defined applied linguistics as a set of related activities or
techniques mediating the various theoretical accounts of human
language on the one hand and the practical activities of language
teaching on the other.
16. • Burns (2009) stated that applied linguistics mean taking language
and language theories as the basis to:
3/29/2015 ANDROID V/S iOS 16
carried out in real
Analyze them in
order to draw out
practical insights and
Identify problematic or
challenging issues involving
17. • The main sub-fields of Applied Linguistics:
A. Language acquisition
B. Teaching and learning languages
C. Improving teaching methodology
D. Improving syllabuses
3/29/2015 ANDROID V/S iOS 17
18. 3/29/2015 ANDROID V/S iOS 18
Teacher training and education
Developments in training and supervision methods.
Teaching methods and techniques
Testing and assessment
Research on second/foreign language development.
First language education.
Description of the language itself.
Major focuses of Applied Linguistics
19. • Linguistics, as the science of language, should be of fundamental
importance for teachers of language.
i.e. Linguistic knowledge helps teachers to better explain the specific
language items they teach.
e.g. According to Jo McDonough, a teacher who is able to explain
some linguistic features would have a stronger position than one
who handles the argument by using authority.
-Both linguistics and language teaching takes language as their
20. Linguistics tries to answer the basic questions
• What is language?
• How does language work?
• What do all languages have in common?
• What range of variation is found among languages?
• How does human language differ from animal
• How does a child learn to speak?
• How does one write down and analyse an unwritten
• Why do languages change?
• To what extent are social class differences reflected in
21. 3/29/2015 ANDROID V/S iOS 21
- The bridge between linguistics and language teaching is applied
- The linguist must make descriptions of different languages in
order to test the validity of his theories to see if his theoretical
predictions about human language are borne out in fact or not
- It is a characteristic of AL that the practical problems with which it
attempts to deal can rarely if ever be solved by reference to one
theoretical approach to language alone.
i.e. Linguistics theories influence our general orientation in
approaches to language teaching.
22. • The acquisition of adequate descriptions of the languages, dialects and
verities of language involved in the practical activity with which the
applied linguistics is concerned is his first task.
• the relation between Linguistics and language teaching is necessary,
from of this point of view, Taylor pointed out that “some specific
linguistics knowledge is required by the language teacher-for
assessment, for choosing learning activities. for course planning and
• Halliday mentioned that the principle contribution of linguistics to
language teaching is to provide a revealing description of the language
• Language is a means of communication, thoughts and feelings.
• Applied linguistics is often said to be concerned with solving or at least
ameliorating social problems involving language.
• Applied linguistics can have a positive impact on language teachers and
has potential for a much greater impact if problems of transfer can be
• Applied linguistics helps teachers to produce better learning experiences
and more sophisticated and complex view of language teachers’
knowledge, knowledge acquisition, and into knowledge use which takes
account the insights from research in these areas.