2. Air and Noise Pollution
“Air and Noise Pollution Situation In Pakistan”
• Muhammad Fahad Ansari 12IEEM14
3. Air Pollution
• Air pollution consists of substances present in the atmosphere in high enough
levels to harm humans, other animals, plants, or materials. Air pollution can result
from human activities such as driving cars.
• Pollution caused by humans is now disturbing the delicate balance of nature on
earth. Far from being a new problem, pollution has been around for centuries.
• Much of the worlds population lives in areas where air pollution levels exceed
World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. In Asia, rapid urbanisation, with the
associated growth in industry and vehicle use, has increased emissions of sulphur
dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
4. Air Pollution
• Major Air Pollutants:-
• Suspended Particulate Matter.
• Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).
• Carbon Monoxide (CO).
• Nitrogen Oxides (NOX).
• Sulphur Oxides (SOX).
• Lead & other heavy metals.
• Ground Level Ozone.
• Fuel wood.
5. Air Pollution
• Sources of Air pollution:-
• Motor vehicles.
• Municipal Solid Waste.
• Medical waste.
• Developing countries.
6. Air Pollution
• How does air pollution affect us?
• Exposure to low levels of pollutants such as ozone, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides,
and particulates, irritates eyes and causes inflammation of the respiratory tract.
• Evidence exists that many air pollutants also suppress the immune system,
increasing susceptibility to infection.
• Exposure to air pollution during respiratory illnesses may result in people
developing chronic respiratory diseases, such as emphysema and bronchitis as
they get older.
• Air pollution can also cause acidification of lakes and soils and impacts on crop
productivity, forest growth, and biodiversity.
• Some research indicates that the ozone and sulphur dioxide is reducing crop
• The potential for crop losses in Asia has been indicated by a study in Pakistan
where a 40 per cent reduction in rice yields was linked to the presence of
pollutants in the air.
7. Air Pollution
• What can we do?
• Encourage people to leave their car at home and walk or ride a bicycle to travel
• Develop efficient public transport systems to help reduce dependence on private
• Provide Government subsidies to encourage the introduction of petrol with low
sulphur and no lead.
• Use smaller, more efficient cars as they consume less fuel and so produce fewer
• Design cars so that combustion temperatures are lower and less nitrogen oxide is
• Fit smoke-stacks with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, or other
technologies to remove particulate matter.
8. Air Pollution
• Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA), 1997
• According to the PEPA, 1997, no person shall operate a motor vehicle, from which
air or noise pollutants are being emitted in an excessive amount.
• Quality Standards
• According to the same Act, the function of the Federal Agency shall be to take all
necessary measures for the protection, conservation, rehabilitation and
improvement of the environment, prevention and control of pollution, and
promotion of sustainable development.
9. Noise Pollution
• Noise is an unwanted, unpleasant and annoying sound caused by vibration of the
matter. Vibrations impinge on the ear drum of a human or animal and setup a
nervous disturbance, which we call sound. When the effects of sound are
undesirable that it may be termed as “Noise”.
• Noise from industry, traffic, homes and recreation can cause annoyance, disturb
sleep and affect health. Thus, sound is a potentially serious pollutant and threat to
• If a measurement of noise emission is required a sound level meter is used. A
measure of the level of sound is called the decibel. The zero of the decibel scale is
the hearing threshold. Sounds at 0–10 decibel are so quiet that they are almost
impossible to hear, while at the top end of the scale, at around 150 decibel, it can
damage your eardrums.
10. Noise Pollution
• CLASSIFICATION OF NOISE:-
• Community Noise/ Environmental Noise
• Community noise (also called environmental noise, residential noise or domestic
noise) is defined as noise emitted from all sources, except noise at the industrial
• Occupational Noise
• The many and varied sources of noise in industrial machinery and processes
include: rotors, gears, turbulent fluid flow, impact processes, electrical machines,
internal combustion engines, pneumatic equipment, drilling, crushing, blasting,
pumps and compressors.
11. Noise Pollution
• CONTINOUS NOISE
• It is produced by machinery that operates without interruption in the same mode
e.g. blowers, pumps and processing equipment.
• INTERMITTENT NOISE
• When machinery operates in cycles or when single vehicles or aeroplanes pass by
the noise level increases and decreases rapidly.
12. Noise Pollution
• EFFECT OF NOISE ON PUBLIC HEALTH
• Globally, some 120 million people are estimated to have disabling hearing
• More than half citizens of Europe live in noisy surroundings; a third experience
levels of noise at night that disturbs sleep.
• In the USA in 1990 about 30 million people were daily exposed to a daily
occupational noise level above 85 dB, compared with more than nine million
people in 1981; these people mostly in the production and manufacturing
13. Noise Pollution
• NOISE STANDARDS IN PAKISTAN
• In Pakistan, there is no legislation to deal with noise emanating from railway
engines, aircrafts, airport or industrial or construction activities.
• Public complaints on noise pollution are often received in the federal and
provincial environmental protection agencies, but in the absence of national
standards for noise, these agencies are handicapped to take any legal action.
• Road Traffic Noise is another most widespread source of noise nuisance in the
urban areas of Pakistan. The situation is getting alarming with increase in traffic
density on city roads, particularly in Karachi.
• STUDIES AND DATA FOR REMOVAL OF PRESSURE HORNS IN DIFFERENT CITIESOF