Although stress hyperglycemia typically resolves as the acute illness or surgical stress abates, it is important to identify and track patients because 60% of patients admitted with new hyperglycemia had confirmed diabetes at 1 year. Furthermore stress induced by acute illness definitely impair metabolic control in known diabetic patients. Insulin is the therapy of choice in acutely ill hospitalised patients. You have to respect some important rules and algorithms, such as the Yale protocol, approaching insulin therapy in these patients, expecially to avoid the rollercoaster glycemic profile which subtends dangerous hypoglycemias and the increased risk of mortality. Use basal-bolus insulin regimens or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and tailor insulin regimens to the individual’s treatment.
New rapid-acting and long-acting insulin analogues profiles help to reach better glycemic control.