2. SUMMER INTERNSHIP PROGRAM
Industrial Marketing and Promotion
Strategies of TIL Limited
NISHANT RAO BODDEDA
A report submitted in partial fulfilment of
the requirements of the PGPM Program of IBS Pune
Under the esteemed guidance of
DR. DIPANKAR DEY Mr. AMALANGSHU PAL
FACULTY GUIDE COMPANY GUIDE
(Dean, IBS Kolkata) (DGM, Sales & Marketing)
Date of Submission: 29th
This is to certify that the project report entitled “Industrial Marketing and
Promotion Strategies of TIL Limited” submitted by Nishant Rao Boddeda
(14BSP0905) for the partial fulfilment of the requirement for the certificate of
PGPM Program to be awarded by ICFAI Business School, Pune, is a record of his
work under my the guidance of Dr. Dipankar Dey, faculty guide IBS Business
School Kolkata and Mr. Amalangshu Pal, company guide.
I confirm that the report truly represents my work undertaken as Summer Internship
Program. I also confirm that the contents of the report and the views contained herein
have been discussed and deliberated with company and faculty guide.
On the completion of my project entitled, “Industrial Marketing and Promotion
Strategies of TIL Limited”, I would like to take the opportunity to express our
sincere gratitude towards the people who have been of great help and support in
making me feel that I can do it. Without their help and concern, I would not have
thought to complete the project successfully.
Before going any further, I would like to thank Mr. Amalangshu Pal (DGM, Sales
& Marketing) and Mr. Tuhin Kanti Ray (Sr. Manager) for their continuous
support and the trouble they took in imparting knowledge to me during our project
and for providing me the infrastructure and environment to make my project
I am deeply grateful to my Faculty Guide Dr Dipankar Dey (Dean, IBS Kolkata)
Dey for his valuable suggestions, comments, feedback and support throughout the
I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Gyan Chandra Shaw and
Mr. Saheb Pal because without the help and support that I shared with them, the
project could not have been able to shape out.
My special thanks to the entire Sales and Marketing Team of TIL Limited for their
guidance and support.
Nishant Rao Boddeda
5. TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures and Tables__________________________________10
Chapter 1 : Introduction to TIL Limited ______________________11
Chapter 2 : MHS Division & Product Portfolio ________________16
Chapter 3 : Branding & Collaboration _______________________23
Chapter 4 : Buying Behavior _______________________________30
Chapter 5 : Competition in the Market _______________________33
Chapter 6 : Sales & Marketing ______________________________41
Chapter 7 : B2B Model ____________________________________46
Chapter 8 : Events & Promotions ____________________________53
Chapter 9 : Michael Porter Five Force Model __________________59
Chapter 10: SWOT Analysis _______________________________63
Chapter 11: Financials ____________________________________66
Findings ________________________________________________ 70
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I have worked in the sales and marketing of MHS division, which is the main division of TIL
limited. My work encompassed major fields such as industrial marketing, Promotions of the
products, B2B Sales through E-commerce, Sales and Service support to the customers,
Competitive strategies and comparison.
B2B sales through E-commerce – Increasing the number of business tie ups with the customers.
This features the entire web based product cataloging providing the customers with the entire
details and specifications for the product. Providing more options for customers and improve the
sales. Following was the methodology involved: (i) Getting all the details of all the companies
who viewed the product (ii) Understanding their requirements (iii) Pitching the idea and terms of
tie-ups (iv)Finally closing the deal.
Social Media Promotions – We are now trying to put more focus on the promotion of the RT cranes,
Truck Mounted cranes and Pick and carry cranes. Basically the promo of the products are promoted
through magazines. We are now focusing to promote through CED magazines and monthly heavy
equipment magazine publishing. But for the truck segment some source of print media like newspaper are
used as source for promotion.
Major promotion through Industry EXPO & Trade shows. We have participated in many trade shows such
as in IMME, IMX, BC India etc. But the greatest expo EXCON is held twice in a year where all the heavy
industry equipments can be seen. This is the stage where we could gather maximum from our competitors’
products. Facebook page was created to make aware of the events and promotions going around the
Campaigns – Creating a buzz about TIL product in online & offline media to increase awareness.
A roadshow was done across the city to create a buzz for the first launch of PIXEF-215, 15T pick
and carry crane.
Telemarketing and E-mail Marketing - Handling the customer queries regarding the products and
expanding the customer database after the query is generated. It is a direct channel of inside sales that we
are doing to enhance the network and to invite more and more customers. E-mail marketing by directly
providing the entire terms and conditions, advertising, providing them with catalog attachments so that
they know the entire technical specifications.
Role & Leanings at Kamarhatty plant -It was very good to known the entire fabrication of rough terrain
and truck mounted cranes. The shop floor is provided all the equipments such as plasma cutting machine,
all types of welding specially TIG and MIG welding (as recommended by WPS & Welding Department).
Blasting and final coat of Paint is also provided to the products at the shop floor. Testing and crane
operating training is also provided at the plant.
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Engineering & Design department are mostly working on Autocad and CATIA V5 software and the also
working on the specification changes based on the customer requirement.
Major findings is that now they have adopted a new strategy of creating a Square shaped boom structure
instead of trapezoidal boom structure.
Role of Sale Executive -It is a heavy industry so the role of sales and marketing team are almost similar.
The customer generates an enquiry for the product and we approach them telling about the entire terms
and conditions and develop a quotation so that they can know what offering we are providing them.
As we follow a direct channel of marketing so directly approach the customers with our product catalogs
and the offering we provide to them. The customers are very particular so they go for negotiation after
going through the competitors offer too.
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Nishant Rao Boddeda 14BSP0905 (IBS Pune)
1, Taratolla Road, Garden Reach, Kolkata, West bengal
Industrial Marketing and Promotion Strategies of
Working on industrial marketing and knowing their buying
To go for the promotions strageties of its products.
Suggest a online web based product catalog for the
To make a competitive comparison and strategies of
Market share analysis of its product.
Background: TIL’s mainly adopted direct marketing of their products with the help of sales
representatives as the needs vary from client to client which should be serviced in a customized
way. The process of industrial marketing is kind of less complicated as it is easy to identify the
client and set up an appointment with them. Highly professional and trained people are involved
in the purchase of industrial goods. In order to sell to them, the marketing is done in the form of
technical selling where the sales representative makes an appointment with the prospective buyer,
understands their needs and proposes a solution by which they could offer their service and closes
The company dealing for the sales vary from Government Company and private company
Title of the
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Most of the industrial goods purchase generally involves tendering process and there is a sequential
process to go for the marketing of the product. The tender process calls for multiple suppliers and
the best bid with low price and satisfying all the necessary requirements of the contract is awarded
the task to supply industrial goods.
Methodology: Working around for the sales and marketing of the products that includes the entire
product range of the company. Creation of Online Web based product catalog through software
Web Studio and Dreamweaver and showing the advantages of it implementation. Also on the
promotion strategies of the company.
Findings: Over the period of 13 weeks, the project was successfully completed as per the decided
schedule. Market size, major competitors and price has major holding for its sales. Challenges are
faced by the company when a new product is launched in the market. So, have to work on the
Recommendations: With the complete review on the study, it is recommended to hold the current
market share, customer retention, increase the market share, more focus on the E-commerce online
portal which is easy and cost-saving.
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List of tables and ilustrations
S.no. Description Page no.
1. Core to TIL 12
2. MHS Products 12
3. EPS Products 13
4. Construction and Mining unit 13
5. CAT Products 14
6. Organisation Structure 17
7. Industrial Model Cranes 18
8. Truck Mounted Crane Models 18
9. Rough Terrain Crane Models 20
10. Pick & Carry Crane Models 20
11. Crawler Crane Models 21
12. All Terrain Crane Models 22
13. MANITOWOC Range 24
14. GROVE Range 25
15. ASTEC Range 26
16. Hyster 27
17. PACECO 28
18. FAMAK 29
19. Buying Behavior Flow Process 31
20. Market share of Truck Mounted Cranes 35
21. Market share of Rough Terrain Cranes 36
22. Market share of Pick & Carry Cranes 37
23. B2B Model 47
24. Moving Across City 54
25. Demonstration done to customers 54
26. Effective working by crane operator 54
27. EXCON Trade show 57
28. Construction Magazine 57
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INTRODUCTION TO TIL LIMITED
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Profile of organization (TIL Limited)
TIL Limited established in 1944 facilitates responsible nation and community building. The
company provide a range of sophisticated state-of-art technology equipment’s across a number of
sectors, terrains and applications.
Fig 1. Core to TIL
The company compliment of service and after sales support makes it possible for its customers to
excavate and mine coal, minerals and metal ore, create infrastructure, handle cargo and generate
power with speed, safety and sensitivity. TIL has been a pioneer and established market leader for
the mobile cranes in India. The most comprehensive range of equipment’s handling solutions in
lifting from 10T-1300T.
TIL operates in the following:
Material Handling Solution (MHS) : It is engaged in manufacturing and marketing of various
material handling equipment’s such as mobile cranes , port equipment’s , self-loading truck cranes
and dealing in spares and providing services to the related equipment.
Fig 2. MHS Products
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Equipment’s and Project solutions (EPS): It is dedicated to providing allied construction,
mining and material handling equipment’s as an end-to-end service provider to infrastructure
development in India.
Fig 3. EPS Products
Construction Business unit and Mining Business unit: It is a dealer of Caterpillar Inc. USA for
their earthmoving construction, mining equipment’s, spares and provides related services in
Eastern and Northern India, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar and Singapore.
Fig 4. Construction and Mining Unit
Energy & Transportation: It is engaged in assembly, supply, erection and commissioning of
generating sets powered by caterpillar engines, dealing in spares and providing related services in
Eastern and Northern India, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar and Singapore.
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Tractors India Pvt. Ltd. (TIPL)
Fig 5. CAT products
Tractors India Private Limited (TIPL) is a wholly owned subsidiary of TIL Limited
and is responsible for the entire Caterpillar Business of Construction, Mining and Power
As a 100% subsidiary of TIL, TIPL follows the same vision of being a Total Solutions
provider, focusing on India’s Infrastructure growth opportunities and leveraging Rentals
and Used Equipment business. Aimed at getting closer to our customers with
Enhanced personalized focus thus providing more efficient service as well as quicker
response to address customer needs, the new realigned structure of
TIPL is now spread across four Territories- equipped to deliver maximum value
and greater service to our customers.
Committed to excellence, TIPL brings the comprehensive range of Caterpillar
Construction and Mining equipment as well as Engines and Gen sets that set the
standards in quality and reliability.
The territories are:
TIPL East- Comprising of West Bengal, Bihar, North-Eastern States, Bhutan, Nepal with
HO at Kolkata.
TIPL South East- Comprising of Orissa and Jharkhand with HO at Bhubaneswar.
TIPL North-Comprising of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan
and Punjab with HO at Udaipur.
TIPL North Central- Comprising of NCR, Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal having
HO at Sahibabad.
The innovative and differentiated solutions provided by TIPL ensure we retain our
customers throughout the life cycle of their business and making them more profitable.
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With the equipment rental market in India poised to grow exponentially, Rental remains
a focus area with plans to further enhance the Rental business by opening more Rental stores
and offering Rental solutions through branch outlets. Apart from enhanced focus on
new equipment sale, TIPL offers Equipment Rentals, Used and Refurbished Equipment,
Spare Parts and specifically packaged customer solutions.
Caterpillar Inc., headquartered in Peoria, Illinois is the technology leader and the world's
leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas
engines and industrial gas turbines.
For more than 80 years, Caterpillar Inc. has been building the world's
infrastructure and, in partnership with its worldwide dealer network, is driving positive and
sustainable change on every continent. With more than USD $67 billion in
assets, Caterpillar is ranked number one in its industry and number 44 overall in the
2009 Fortune 500.
Caterpillar branded products are distributed to end- users through Caterpillar's
worldwide dealer network. Caterpillar's dealers are independently owned and
operated businesses with exclusive geographical territories. Caterpillar's global
dealer network provides a key competitive edge - customers deal with people they know
In India Caterpillar has dealership agreement with TIPL for North and East regions.
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MHS Division & Product Portfolio
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Material Handling Solutions (MHS)
The Material Handling Solution of TIL’s designs, manufactures and markets a comprehensive
range of equipments for material handling, lifting and road building solutions with integrated
customer support and after-sales service. TIL has consistently led the mobile crane market and its
manufacturing record show many innovations. Today, TIL offers the largest range of mobile
cranes in the country in capacity from 20 to 650 tonnes, in technical collaboration with GROVE,
part of Manitowoc Crane group who are international market leaders.Over the years, TIL has
expanded its manufacturing range to become India’s composite source for a wide range of material
TIL’s plant at Kamarhatty has a fully equipped machine shop, fabrication, assembly and paint shop
set up. The plant is equipped with plasma cutting machine and advanced welding technologies to
manufacture components. The plant fabricates structural components for cranes (including carrier
frames, turn tables, booms), while engines, axle and other components are sourced from the
external sources and assembled. TIL is acknowledged as a market leader in mobile cranes because
of its reliability and productivity.
Organization structure of MHS Division (sales):
Fig 6. Organisation Structure
Chairman & Managing Director
President & CEO
AVP (Head of Sales & Mktg)
Sr. Engineer Sr. Engineer Engineer EngineerEngineer
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Industrial Cranes are highly useful while operating in and out of workshops and sheds, doing small
lifting jobs due to its compactness.
Model Capacity Main Boom Tip Height
AP 415MKII 12.5 T 3 Sec 5.5M to 12.5 M 14 M
AP 418S 20T 3 Sec 8.8M to 21.2 M 23
Fig 7. Industrial Model Cranes
Truck Mounted Cranes
Truck Mounted Crane are very popular for short term or in and out jobs. They are street legal and
can be operated with one or two-man crews, making them easily transportable. With street
accessibility they can function at almost any job site. The trucks range from 25 to 75 ton capacity
and feature a hydraulic boom that can reach lengths up to 200 feet. With high road speeds and inter
site mobility, the Truck mounted cranes are ideal for multi-location activities.
Fig 8. Truck Mounted Model Cranes
Model Capacity Main Boom Tip Height
Hydra 825 25T 3 Sec 9.4M to 22.9M 23M
Hydra 825 MK II 25T 3 Sec 8.8M to 21.2M 23M
Hydra 830 M 30T 4 Sec 8.8M to 29M 24M
TMS 750BMK II 40T 4 Sec 10.6M to 33.5M 35.9M
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Rough Terrain Cranes
An RT crane typically has a hydraulic boom, four tires, two axles, and features four-wheel
drive and all-wheel steering for off-road operations. Common uses for an RT crane include
off-road job sites where there are tight clearances. Capacities of an RT crane range from 20 to
130 tons. RT cranes have boom lengths that range between 80 and 140 feet.
Features in Rough Terrain Cranes such as compactness, high maneuverability due to all wheel
steering, robustness in construction and high torque multiplicity make these cranes suitable for
rough terrain applications.
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Model Capacity Main Boom Tip Height
Husky 620 20T 3 Sec 8.8M to 21.2M 23.4M
RT 630C 30T 4 Sec 8.8M to 29M 31.2M
RT 740B 40T 4 Sec 10.6M to 33.5M 35.9M
RT 760 55T 4 Sec 10.8M to 33.5M 35.7M
RT 880 75T 4 Sec 11M to 34.6 M 37.1M
Fig 9. Rough Terrain Model Cranes
Pick and Carry Cranes
A Pick and Carry Crane is similar to a mobile crane in that is designed to travel on public roads,
however pick and Carry cranes have no outriggers and are designed to lift the load and carry it to
its destination, within a small radius, then be able to drive to the next job.
Fig 10. Pick and Carry Crane
PIXEF 215 is the new launch of TIL’s pick and carry crane with a carrying capacity of 15T thus
helping them to target more and more customers.
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These type of cranes are developed with capacity and reach as the primary attributes. These
cranes are characterized by crawlers which are used for movement and lattice boom which
provide high lifting capacities.
Fig 11. Crawler Crane Models
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ALL TERRAIN CRANE
As the name suggests this type of crane can travel in all kinds of terrains, smooth and rough .
These cranes have longer chassis and have multiple axle and long booms
GMK 3050-1 50T
GMK 3055 55T
GMK 4080 80T
GMK 4100 100T
GMK 4100L 100T
GMK 5095 100T
GMK 5110-1 110T
GMK 5130-2 130T
GMK 5170 170T
GMK 5220 220T
GMK 6220L 220T
GMK 6300L 300T
GMK 6400 400T
GMK 7450 450T
Fig 12. All Terrain Crane Models
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BRANDING & COLLABORATION
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Branding & Collaboration
TIL has manufacturing and technical collaborations with global leaders like - Grove
Worldwide USA, Manitowoc Crane Group - USA, Paceco Corp-USA (a part of Mitsui
Engineering and Shipbuilding Japan), FAMAK - SA, Poland.
Recent partnerships include Hyster (a part of NACCO-USA), Astec Industries
USA and Potain Tower Canes (a part of Manitowoc Crane Group). Material Handling
Solutions accounts to major part of the company sales.
F i g 1 3 . M a n i t o w o c R a n g e
Manitowoc was founded in the Lakeshore community of Manitowoc, Wisconsin, in
1902. Today, the company is comprised of two segments – cranes and foodservice
equipment. In each of these segments Manitowoc is the industry leader in market
share, product innovation, and product support services. Today it has operations in
over 20 countries around the world, and will continue to expand the global reach of
its products and services to meet the needs of our customers.
Manitowoc is one of the best-known names in crawler cranes, and its trademark red cranes
have an enduring reputation for engineering excellence, high performance and
long-lasting quality. Manitowoc provides the most innovative, advanced and
comprehensive range of lifting solutions, with products that have long set
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the standard for excellence worldwide: Grove mobile telescoping cranes,
Manitowoc lattice boom crawler cranes, Potain tower cranes, National Crane boom
trucks and Shuttlelift industrial cranes.
Fig 14. Grove Range
Grove [now a part of Manitowoc] was founded in 1947 and is one of the world’s
leading producers of mobile hydraulic cranes. Rich in tradition, the Grove name has been
a welcome member of the crane community for over half a century earning a
reputation for strong, reliable lifting equipment consistently popular with those who
The company offers a full range of mobile hydraulic, cranes comprising all terrain,
rough terrain, truck mounted and industrial cranes. It is also one of theleading suppliers
of custom-built military cranes for armed forces around the globe. Grove has also led
the industry in terms of technological innovation. Its MEGATRAK suspension system,
the TWINLOCK boom pinning system and the MEGAFORM boom design are
unique to Grove and give end users a competitive advantage.
Grove cranes set the standard for lifting innovation and are reputed for strength and
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Fig 15. ASTEC Range
Based in Chattanooga, Tennessee, the Astec Industries, Inc. is the world leader
in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) equipment technology, support and training and the
only North American manufacturer to offer a complete line of portable, relocatable
and stationary asphalt plant equipments.
Core products include the Double Barrel® Drum Mixer; TCII PC-based computer
control system; the Phoenix® Burner Series; the Six Pack® Portable HMA Facility;
and New Generation long-term Storage Silos.
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Hyster is one of the leading worldwide suppliers of forklifts, warehouse equipment and
container handlers. With over 130 products available, Hyster has experience in
providing material handling solutions to many successful companies around the globe.
Hyster was founded in 1929 as the Willamette-Ersted Company in Portland, Oregon, and
changed its name to Hyster Company in 1934. The company was purchased in 1989 by
NACCO Industries, Inc. and became a part of NACCO Materials Handling Group (NMHG)
which continues to market products under the Hyster brand name today.
Distribution and support for Hyster products is organized around major world
regions:North America and Canada; Latin America; Europe the Middle East & Africa;
Asia – Pacific.
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Fig 17. PACECO
PACECO Corp. a part of Mitsui Engineering & Ship Building–Japan,is one of the
world's leading manufacturers of container handling equipment for ports.
Nearly 40% of the container quay cranes in the world carry the PACECO name. PACECO
Corp's trademark quay crane, the PORTAINER crane, is one of the most reliable and
productive quay cranes on the market. Numerous ports throughout the world operate with
PORTAINER cranes, including the world's largest: thePorts of Hong Kong, Singapore,
Los Angeles, and more. PACECO's trademark yard crane, the TRANSTAINER, is also
recognized as a productive and reliable machine.
The TIL- Paceco association offers a wide variety of custom and pre-engineered
container cranes that fit a varietyof operating conditions and customer requirements.
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FAMAK S.A, Poland is a manufacturer of transport -hoisting equipment and is a
leading manufacturer of ELL Wharf Cranes in Europe for over 60 years.
Its product list includes Cranes, Continuous transportation systems, Technological
equipment and complete industrial stations, Hydraulic workshop etc. Services offered
by the company are diagnostics of hydraulic systems, technical consulting, manufacturing
and modernizing of hydraulic systems, design according to individual needs, production and
on-site installation, start-up and personnel training, 24 hours full service after installation,
and modernization of existing equipment.
The Famak machines have modern electrical controls for faster operations and can be
customized to suit varied needs.
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It is the decision-making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased
products and services and identify, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers.
TIL limited provides the customers with the best brand and quality so that it becomes easy for
them to go for the purchase of the product.
Fig 19. Buying Behavior Flow Process
Organization must take at most care to set an objective, such as to manufacture and deliver
goods and services to customers based on their requirement.
The company provides the help to the customers in form of influencers who takes care of the
requirement and technicality for the product. So in this decision making process there is role of
many groups in the organization who takes care of entire process.
1. New task
2. Modified rebuy
In this situation, the buyer is buying the product for the first time. As the cost of the product is
higher, more number of executives are involved in the process. The stages of awareness, interest,
evaluation, trial, and adoption will be there for the products of each potential supplier. Only the
products which pass all the stages will be on the approved list and price competition will follow
In this buying situation, there is a modification to the specifications of the product or specifications
related to delivery. The customer has their own choice to go for their requirement, list pricing and
delivery of the product.
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Decision making processes
TIL provide the information of their products through direct contacts in form of sales
representatives who explains the entire need, working, specification and operation of the mobile
cranes. This makes the customer help to decide based on their requirement.
1. Problem recognition. The process begins when executive in the organization recognizes a
problem or need that can be met by acquiring the product for their operation.
2. General need description. Having recognized that a need, there is further refinement to its
description. Working with engineers, users, purchasing agents, and others, they identifies and
prioritizes important product characteristics.
3. Product specification. Technical specifications come next. This is usually the responsibility of
the engineering department. Engineers design several alternatives, depending on the priority list
4. Supplier search. The company now tries to identify the most appropriate vendor. TIL has got
good contact with their customers so it become very easy of the customers to directly contact them.
Personal selling plays a major role at this stage.
5. Proposal solicitation. TIL provides the customers with their proposal through their sales
representatives. This is a very difficult stage because the representative must have a sound
technical knowledge and good presentation skills to convince the customer. Proper Marketing
Objective must also be set for the product.
6. Supplier selection. Based on the proposal the company go for the order to the TIL .Purchasing
department of the company lists the main characteristics now such as reliability, quality, list price
and delivery of the product.
7. Order-routine specification. The company now writes the final order to TIL, listing the
technical specifications, the quantity needed, the warranty, and so on.
8. Performance review. In this final stage, the company reviews the TIL's product performance.
This may be a very helpful for both the organization to build a good business relationship.
Factors influence the behaviors of industrial buyers are: -
Location of industry
Decision making process in organization
Attitude of management
Price & Quality
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COMPETITION IN THE MARKET
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Competitive Advantage of TIL
TIL’s commitment towards enhancing customer experience not only includes in providing
the right capacity and safe products to its customers but also providing their customers
effective customer support.
TIL’s competitive advantage lies in continuous training of operators, capability development
of all its people and delivering end-to-end solutions to its customers.
Another important aspect that definitely provides a value differentiator is our strategic
partnership with the world leaders. Besides manufacturing excellence, TIL’s excellence
in design is carried out by a dedicated team of engineers, research and development experts
who work consistently at the R&D center, equipped with the latest software to create
superior and innovative designs setting the standard for excellence.
Major Players of the Industry
For Indigenous products –Escorts, Voltas, ACE etc.
Chinese companies such as Sany, Zoomlion, XCMG are tough competitors for the truck cranes
For Imported Cranes - Liebherr, Terex-Demag, Kobelco, Tadano, Sany, Zoomlion, XCMG
For Forklifts - Godrej, Voltas, Cargotech, Linde, Kone
For Reachstackers – Cargotech, Linde, Kone, Terex, Sany
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Truck Mounted Cranes
Fig.20 Market Share of Truck Mounted Cranes
Market Share (2014)
TIL stands second among the leaders in the market for truck mounted cranes. It has continued to
provide the customer with the specification and changes required for them to run the operations.
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Rough Terrain Cranes
Fig.21 Market Share of Rough Terrain Cranes
Market Share (2014)
The company has continued to be the market leaders for the Rough Terrain cranes. It has mainly
concentrated to grab and get more orders for the RT cranes because of its wide range and
specification of the products.
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PICK & CARRY CRANES
Fig.22 Market Share of Pick and Carry Cranes
Market Share (2014)
TIL has now gradually building up in Pick and Carry cranes. They have launched a new model
PIXEF 215 which is of 15T capacity and the sales of the product is getting good response.
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Competitive Model Comparison
Crawler Crane Model for All Capacity Range
Manitowoc Liebherr Link-belt Terex Zoomlion Sennebo
XCMG kobelco Sany
100-200 777(181T) LR 1130
250-300 2250(272T) LR 1280
300-400 16000(400T) LR 13000
400-500 2250 WITH
500-600 18000(600T) LR 1600/2
600-800 18000 WITH
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All Terrain Crane model for All Capacity Range
800-1000 21000 WITH
1600 CC 8800-1 SCC1600
Manitowoc Liebherr Terex Tadano XCMG Zoomlion Sany
100 GMK 4100/
LTM 1100-4.2 AC 100/
130 GMK 5130 LTM 1130-5.1 AC 140/
ATF 130G-5 QAY130
170 GMK 5170 LTM 1160-5.1 AC 160-2
200 LTM 1200-5.1 AC 200-1 QAY200
220 GMK 5220 LTM 1220-5.1 ATF 220G-5 QAY220 QAY 220 SAC2200
250 LTM 1250-6.1 AC 250-1 QAY260
300 GMK 6300L QAY300
350 LTM 1350-6.1 AC 350/6 QAY 350
400 GMK6400 LTM 1400-7.1 ATF 400G-6 QAY400
450 GMK 7450
500 LTM 1500-8.1 AC 500-2 QAY500 QAY 500
750 LTM 1750-9.1 AC 700(700T) QAY800 QAY 800
1200 LTM 11200-9.1 AC 1000 QAY1200 QAY 1000
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SALES & MARKETING
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SALES AND MARKETING
Sales and marketing division comprise of corporate and regions.
There are four regions according to their geographical locations, east, west, north and south.
Their function is to generate leads, submit offers, getting orders, establishing relationship with
the customers and to gather information with respect to various ongoing and upcoming projects
in their respective regions
Corporate marketing has the job of looking after the commercial and technical requirements
before and after an order has been placed. In addition to this it also assists and guides the
regional people in various activities right from an enquiry to a tender apart from coordinating
with various agencies and with principals
Customers are broadly classified into
From factory to site – steps & processes involved: Customers may be Government parties or
For Government customers –
A Government customer issues a tender which is also called NIT (Notice Inviting
Tender) when it has got some lifting requirement for upcoming project which may be for
the purpose of expansion, development, maintenance. NIT is a document released by the
customer in which the organization mentions its requirement and various terms and
conditions relating to technical specification of the machine required by them,
commercial terms & conditions for the procurement
Now different crane manufacturers both foreign and indigenous go through the NIT
documents and assess the level to which they meet the terms and conditions mentioned
in the NIT.
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Once these manufacturers have assessed the terms and conditions they quote for their
product and EMD (Earnest Money Deposit) is made in the form of demand draft by the
bidder to participate in bidding if required as per the NIT. EMD is returned back to
Now the customer evaluates the Bid submitted by bidders and call all those bidders
whom it thinks comply most with its criteria, for bidding. Technical negotiation meeting
is held and different points related to technical and commercial terms are discussed.
Upon completion of Techno-Commercial evaluation, the customer rejects the Bid of the
unsuccessful bidders. Next the Price Bid is opened and the Bidder with lowest price wins
the bid. Now the L1 bidder is called for price negotiation meeting in which price related
issues are discussed. If the customer feels the price is justified , they close the tender by
issuing Letter of Intent / Fax of Intent
Once the order has been placed, the seller issues the letter of acceptance and the purchase
order is placed by customer. Moreover the seller needs to pay some amount in the form
Security Deposit, PBG (Performance Bank Guarantee) which is returned after successful
performance of the machine during the warranty period. Now the seller must deliver the
machine within the delivery period as per the NIT or as decided during the course of
Once the machine is ready to be delivered to the customer, it is delivered based on the
terms agreed upon by both the parties. In case of imported products following terms
apply to delivery of the machine
EXW – Ex Works (named place of delivery)-The seller makes the goods available at its
premises. The buyer is responsible for uploading. This term places the maximum obligation on the
buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an
initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included. EXW means that a seller has the
goods ready for collection at his premises (works, factory, warehouse, plant) on the date agreed
upon. The buyer pays all transportation costs and also bears the risks for bringing the goods to
their final destination. The seller doesn't load the goods on collecting vehicles and doesn't clear
them for export.
FAS – free alongside Ship (named port of shipment) The seller must place the goods alongside
the ship at the named port. The seller must clear the goods for export. This term is typically used
for heavy-lift or bulk cargo
FOB – Free on Board (named port of shipment) The seller must load the goods on board the
vessel nominated by the buyer. Cost and risk are divided when the goods are actually on board of
the vessel. The seller must clear the goods for export. The buyer must instruct the seller the details
of the vessel and the port where the goods are to be loaded, and there is no reference to.
It means, the seller pays for transportation of goods to the port of shipment, loading cost. The
buyer pays cost of marine freight transportation, insurance, uploading and transportation cost from
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the arrival port to destination. The passing of risk occurs when the goods pass the ship's rail at port
CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination) Seller must pay the costs and freight to
bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods
are loaded on the vessel. Insurance for the goods is NOT included. This term is formerly known
as CNF (C&F)
CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination) Exactly the same as CFR except
that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance
Generally in the tender, payment terms and mode of payment is mentioned. Most common means
of payment is by Letter Of Credit. It is established in these steps-
Buyer and seller agree to terms including means of transport, period of credit offered (if
any), and latest date of shipment acceptable
Buyer applies to bank for issue of letter of credit. Bank will evaluate buyer's credit
standing and may require cash cover and/or reduction of other lending limits
Issuing bank issues LC, sending it to the Advising bank by airmail or electronic means
such as telex or SWIFT
Advising bank establishes authenticity of the letter of credit using signature books or test
codes, then informs seller (beneficiary)
Seller should now check that LC matches commercial agreement and that all its terms
and conditions can be satisfied
Seller ships the goods, then assembles the documents called for in the LC (invoice,
transport document, etc.).
The Advising bank checks the documents against the LC. If the documents are compliant,
the bank pays the seller and forwards the documents to the Issuing bank
The Issuing bank now checks the documents itself. If they are in order, it reimburses the
seller's bank immediately
The Issuing bank debits the buyer and releases the documents (including transport
document), so the buyer can claim the goods from the carrier
In case of private customers the regional sales engineer keeps a track of their upcoming and
ongoing projects. They may procure the machine for their site demand or for rental purpose. On
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understanding their needs, a budgetary offer is submitted in which the technical details and price
is mentioned. A regular follow up is maintained and technical issues are discussed followed by
commercial negotiation. In case of issuance of an order, it is forwarded to the factory in case of an
indigenous crane or it is forwarded to the principals in case of imported cranes. Other issues related
to mode of payment, delivery, commissioning etc. are handled by the corporate marketing persons
Main Key to Marketing
Company TIL Limited
Category Heavy Equipment
Sector Heavy Equipment and Engineering
Tagline Technology , Innovation & Leadership
Slogan We make customers profitable
USP Has emerged as one of the leading
providers of a wide range of equipment’s
that represents one of the finest in global
Segment People and businesses who want Earth
moving products and services
Target Group People or Business expecting cutting edge
technology products and total solutions
with the ultimate aim in enhancing their
Positioning Making customers more profitable
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Emergence of E-commerce in B2B sales
Objective: To create a platform where the company can rely on E-commerce online portal for
Value Addiction: Worked on Software, Dreamweaver which is required as best online product
cataloging portal to do the sales.
Suggested B2B Models
Fig 23. B2B Model
The B2B model can efficiently maintain the movement of the supply chain and the manufacturing
process. E- Procurement will make the availability of the product on the online site and hence we
can considerably reduce the Lead time. Cost-effective and helps to provide appropriate delivery
and service to the customers.
Models that can be followed:
Web Catalog Software – An E-Commerce Website first needs content that will be
displayed on the web. In order to push rich product content to the web, an online product-
catalog system is required to help manage product information, prices, attributes, and
images. Web Catalog Software helps to manage content information in a systematic way
thereby making content dynamically available for the website.
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Software: Dreamweaver CS5
Step by Step of its working:
Creating a New Website:
Step 1: When we open the main screen, we select the basic option to start.
For creating the new website we go for the HTML.
Step 2: Selecting the Blank Page which enables us to select layout where in header and footer we can
add Website name and logo. Then select option fixed layout.
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Step 3: Lists
Insert--‐>HTML--‐>Text Objects--‐>Unordered List or Ordered List.
Now we have to make the table list for the products we want to include
This table includes the entire technical and design specification of the product.
Links or destination of the images of the product for cataloging
Inserting image for Insert option and to highlight the Link we have to select from the properties
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The image can be saved one or from the URL
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This is one of the Product Catalog of RT Crane of Model Husky 620.
We can see by assigning a Product ID and description we can clearly see the entire portfolio of the
product with the image. This is the importance of product cataloging.
Thus the catalog for other Models was made and integration is needed to be done.
Requirement for the Software to be successful:
ERP Integration – ERP integration is vital to any E-Commerce website implementation.
The web catalog software should have the ability to easily integrate to the company’s ERP
so that up-to-date information is published on the company’s website.
Payment Gateway – It is not necessary for all E-Commerce websites to have a payment
gateway integrated within their website. Company can choose to just opt for an order-
taking website instead of having a full-fledged payment gateway-integrated website. Web
catalog software provides customers with the option of choosing a web ordering E-
Inventory Management: Inventory management is vital to an E-Commerce website. Only
when we know what you have, you know what to sell. So go for built-in Inventory
Management and JIT methods also along with integration of different ERP systems helping
the customer stock up and sell more. This also helps in offering bulk pricing and discounts
on products that are in stock.
Many Heavy industries are now in with E-Commerce websites are showing more sales than before
as they compete with other companies that do not offer their products online.
Let me show you 7 advantages of this B2B Model integration
Advantage 1: A new target group also means additional revenue
By addressing the B2B sector through the online portal, we can have contact to another new target
group which enables you to pursue new sales opportunities. A good way to attract these customers
is by using a B2B shop with a public catalog, and attract even more visitors through search engines
to the online store. Even making the spare products available to the global market, we can expand
the obtained revenues even farther.
Advantage 2: Cost reduction through long-term customer loyalty
Customers in B2B commerce are more loyal than of any other sector as the business customers are
committed to you as the supplier longer through contracts and individual agreements.
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Advantage 3: Higher transaction value through business purchases
In B2B commerce, the shopping carts are usually much larger since companies tend to buy larger
amounts of products or more valuable products. This increases the average transaction value and
thus your revenue.
Advantage 4: Clear structure and collaborative shopping
B2B commerce will give a complete understanding about your purchase of any industrial product.
The purchasing process is organized and if there is a demand for a certain product, employees can
simply place these items in a common shopping cart, which is overseen by the appropriate
manager. The process is clearly defined and organized and the internal processes are simplified to
Advantage 5: The opportunity to expand
A B2B e-commerce solution will surely show the ability to grow. The good thing is that we are
targeting the entire global segment as before through direct selling we had only the ability to sell
in your local region. More customers from different regions means that your business and your
revenues can continue to grow.
Advantage 6: Increased brand awareness through an additional channel
The addition of another distribution channel, not only will increase the customer base, but also
increases the awareness of our company. We will be able to establish our brands on the market
faster and more effectively, especially by using a search engine optimized online store.
Advantage 7: Functional design of B2B Shops
B2B commerce online portal will be made as online retail shops and also made to be attractively
designed and intuitive to use. For company oriented online stores, the design will definitely have
a more serious and professional design, yet a personal approaches increasingly important.
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Events & Promotions
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Promotion of its New Product Launch
Objective: Create a buzz in the media to increase awareness.
Value Addition: Proper Planning for the event.
New Launch of its Pick and Carry Crane PIXEF 215.
PIXEF Road Show was conducted at Saltlake, Rajarhat ,EM Bypass, Garia, Joka
,Diamond Harbour Road ,B T Road, Dhulagorh.
Fig 24. Moving Across the city
Fig 25. Demonstration done to the customer place
Fig 26. Efficient working by Crane Operator
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Companies Participation & Feedbacks
Customer Name Remarks
No of P&C
in next six
ITD-ITD CEM Narkeldanga Metro project
Good machine .Asked to approach
their MUMBAI HQ.
ITD CEM Godrej waterside Saltlake
Prime mover should be BSIV
ITD-ITD CEM Dhulagorh Yard
A very good machine for the future
of P&C usage.
ITD -ITD CEM JV Micro Tunneling Project
Interested and said they will go for
hiring of 1 no .Decision will be taken
at the end of JUNE
SIMPLEX Project site Pailan-Joka
Took a vivid operational
demonstration. Carry deck loading;
full boom hoisting, derricking all
features were demonstrated.They
were interested too.
Price is too high as per him price
should be around 25Lakhs.
Akam Roadways Wishes to have pixef around 25lakhs
Accpl Not interested in smaller cranes,
L&T ECC Saltlake
Satisfied with the multitasking of
Wants a few modification in our
carry deck design otherwise PIXEF is
of no such use for their job
L&T KMDA Project Garia
Very happy and concluded PIXEF
will be the new face of
P&C,Deck&Carry machine in
INDIA.They wishes some
modifications of Fuel Tank ,Lubricant
L&T BNRI Project Ruby
Very excited and showed interest for
PIXEF.Have asked us to to organise
a demonstration only for L&T and
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HCC INDIA LTD: Nonadanga Happy and has shown interest too.
Afcons Metro Project(Garia-Airport Corridor)
Happy to see the machine and
asked to keep a thorough touch with
their MUMBAI HQ
GAC B T Road
Not happy with our after sales
support.No requirement as of now.
Price should be competitive to F 15.
Crane co service B T Road
Interested in PIXEF, Price is a
Sharma Cranes Service B T Road
Price is a concern.If work order is
available he is interested.
Chaudhuri Crane Petrol Pump B T Road
Not interested unless price is 24L
Saini Cranes Service B T Road
High price of pixef , low rental rate
and no work order
Ghosh Enterprise Dhulagorh
Price is too high.Boom length is
less.Not recommended for daily
Gill Logistic Dhulagorh
Price is too high. Must be
comparable to F 15.
Ansari Crane service Jangalpur
Doesn’t have fund to buy a 40L
Maa Bhabani Crane service Jangalpur Price a great concern
Shown interest but no requirement
as of now
T P Roy Chaudhury Khidderpore
Very much interested,will pass
forward to his higher authorities.But
Price is high as per him
Sree Luxmi Steels Khidderpore
Good compact machine.But price
should be competitive.
M/S Darshan Lifters Pvt. Ltd. Khidderpore No present requirement
Sanjiv Enterprise Sick Lane Khidderpore
Overhead protection needed.Must
be of higher tonnage capacity for
stacking empty containers upto 3
It was a very good strategy that was adopted to make the customers know about the
Strategy enhanced the sales and demand for the product.
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Objective: Looking to gather more and more customers during the event.
Value Addition: Come up with new ways to increase engagement with customers. Knowing about
the products and strategies of the competitors.
Major promotion through Industry EXPO & Trade shows. We have participated in many trade shows such
as in IMME, IMX, BC India etc.
Fig 27. EXCON Trade show
But the greatest expo EXCON is held twice in a year where all the heavy industry equipments can be seen.
This is the stage where we could gather maximum from our competitors’ products.
Basically the promo of the products are promoted through magazines. We are now focusing to promote
through CED magazines and monthly heavy equipment magazine publishing. But for the truck segment
some source of print media like newspaper are used as source for promotion. Equipment India ,NBM
media are the leading promo advertising media.
Fig 28. Construction Magazines
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Social Media Promotions
Objective: Looking to create awareness by the social media marketing. Increasing its reach and
making social media a profitable means.
Value Addition: Creation of Facebook page
By creating Facebook page and updating about their products and events the customers are now
made to aware of the changes.
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Michael Porter Five Force Model
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Porter five forces analysis
Porter's Five Forces of Competitive Position Analysis were developed in 1979 by Michael E Porter
of Harvard Business School as a simple framework for assessing and evaluating the competitive
strength and position of a business organization.
This theory is based on the concept that there are five forces that determine the competitive
intensity and attractiveness of a market. Porter’s five forces help to identify where power lies in a
business situation. This is useful both in understanding the strength of an organization’s current
competitive position, and the strength of a position that an organization may look to move into.
Strategic analysts often use Porter’s five forces to understand whether new products or services
are potentially profitable. By understanding where power lies, the theory can also be used to
identify areas of strength, to improve weaknesses and to avoid mistakes.
Porter’s five forces of competitive position analysis:
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TIL Limited Five Force Analysis
Each of these forces has been analyzed below using Porter Model:
Threat of new entrants: The threat of new entrants can be said to relatively low, the main
reason can be said to be the high capital requirement. However, big players can have an economy
of scale and small-scale entrants can have a disadvantage. Due to the nature of the product, the
differentiation can be said to be a good strategy. Customer loyalty mainly depends on competitive
pricing, after-sales technical support and quick delivery.
For new entrant capital requirement is high due to requirement of manufacturing plant and lot of
inventory. Marketing activity is not costing much as compared to the percentage of sales figure.
Switching cost for customer can be said to very high.
Power of suppliers: Bargaining power of supplier is less. There are a large number of big and
small suppliers in the market. Changing supplier doesn’t have any switching cost. But recently
increasing cost of the raw material is a big threat to the company.
Power of buyers: Bargaining power of buyers is relatively high. As the main buyers are
contractor, equipment rental companies and heavy industry. Construction industry itself is highly
concentrated. Buyers are large and they purchase a large number of industry output. But they can’t
easily switch to other competitors; TIL has a very good network which provide an amazing after
sales services and maintenance support.
Threat of product substitutes: For some product category there can be a threat of substitute
product. But for most of the product there is no such threat of product substitute.
Intensity of rivalry among competitors: There is definitely high rivalry among the major
market players. There are few but equally balanced competitors. The opportunity for
differentiation is there and there is enough richness in the market for the survival.
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A SWOT analysis is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats involved in a business venture. Analysis of SWOT for the TIL
limited tells us the current scenario of the company.
Wide range of products
Market Leader of RT Cranes
High Brand Value & International
Well connected with a vast network over
10 branches and area offices
Good Sales and Service support
Lack of global presence
Improve on its supply chain
Sales through E-commerce
Diversifying into the world market
Need product Innovations
Joint development and collaboration
Working hard to complete its aim of
Rise in the mining activities in
developing countries where it has a
Stiff competition from its competitors.
Rise in raw material cost
Strengthening share of its competitors in
same product category affects its sales
TIL is known for its wide range of products which provides all the customers with
various options. Even technical and Design requirements are also been taken up from the
request of the customers.
MHS division has done extremely well in the sales of RT cranes and TIL holds the leader
in the market share for RT cranes.
TIL has collaborated with the world leaders such as GROOVE, MANITOWOC,
FAMAK etc. and are known for the quality of their products.
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The sale network and branches are always in contact with each other and providing the
best service to the customers.
The customer are always provided with the required service support after the purchase of
TIL needs to make global presence. Its quality products are out of reach to the worldwide
customers. It has now started its branches at Nepal and Bhutan and trying to expand
within Asia region.
The operation and supply chain management need to be improved as sometimes the lead
time of the required components is very high and the holding cost of the excess inventory
becomes burden to the company.
The company now has to adopt a change where they need to go for the online web
products cataloging. This is easy means to do B2B sales through E-commerce.
TIL is now diversifying in the world market and started it products reach to many
regions of ASIA.
It has a strong collaboration and association with MANITOWOC.
Always trying to improve the quality of its product so go for product innovations and
launch of new products.
Rise in the mining activities has led to the increase in its sales as mining sector are the
major buying sector.
It is facing a stiff competition with the competitors as they are also building a
strong sales network.
The rise in the material cost has increased the production cost of the product. So
the price of the product becomes very high.
New entrants in the market are providing a threat in the market share of RT cranes
as similar product are being launched by them.
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Working capital cycle to improve
The working capital has been increasing for last 4 years and currently at 41% of its consolidated Revenues.
The deterioration in working capital can be attributed to increased level of inventory (137 days in FY14 vs.
90 days in FY10), on account of products and increased debtors (75 days in FY14 vs. 58 days). However, as
Business cycle turnarounds, we expect the working capital cycle to improve gradually going forward.
Operating leverage on improving utilization: Despite two fold growth in its gross block during FY10-
14, the Revenue has been remained muted and has grown just 23% during the period. Hence, we believe
that utilization should improve going forward, and TIL will have operating leverage resulting into higher
margins & profitability.
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Debt reduction to improve profitability: Due to increased level of working capital needs,
the debt has increased substantially and interest cost as % of sales has gone up from 1.5% in
FY10 to 5.4% in FY14, severely impacting its profitability. Going forward with decent demand
Outlook, we expect a gradual reduction in working capital cycle over next 2‐3 years, resulting
into decrease in working capital loan & interest cost and strong growth in profitability.
Margins on uptrend trajectory:
Although, its EBITDA margins fell from 11.7% in FY10 to 5.4% in FY12, it improved
again to 8.1% in FY14, mainly on account of higher share of high margins MHS business.
However, its net profit margins have not improved due to higher interest & depreciation cost.
Going forward with reduction in interest cost, we expect strong growth in its profitability leading
to higher net profit margins.
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Over the period of 13 weeks, the project was successfully completed as per the decided schedule. Market
size, major competitors and price has major holding for its sales. Challenges are faced by the company
when a new product is launched in the market. So, have to work on the promotions too. Creating a Square
shaped boom structure instead of trapezoidal boom structure. Need to have a proper revised pricing policy
as overall cost of the product goes up due to inclusion of various taxes.
With the complete review on the study, it is recommended to hold the current market
share, customer retention, increase the market share, more focus on the E-commerce
online portal which is easy and cost-saving.
Further depreciation in Rupee could effect its CAT business as TIL pays Caterpillar in
Increased competition from several local and international players can affect Company’s
revenue, profit margin and market share. So need to examine carefully.
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During the 13 weeks of Summer Internship Program for the period of from Feb 2015
to May 2015 at TIL LTD, Kolkata I was exposed to corporate atmosphere for better
understanding of the basic structure of the organization and prevailing working
environment in the heavy industry.
During my training at TIL LTD, I worked at Sales & Marketing team of MHS divisions
and focused on improved their marketing and promotion strategies.
During the training, I have developed an online web product catalog using software
which will now enable them to do sales through E-commerce portal.
I have learnt the importance of co-ordination between each and every departments
involved for smooth functioning of sales. I have also developed my communication
skills and personal characteristics.
I conclude that this Internship helped me a lot in developing our technical
knowledge, management skills, self-confidence and moral strength.
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NIT - Notice Invitation Tender.
EMD -Earnest Money Deposit.
EXW – Ex Works (named place of delivery)
FAS – Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)
FOB – Free on Board (named port of shipment)
CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination)
CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)
73. Industrial Marketing and Promotion Strategies of TIL Limited
SUMMER INTERNSHIP PROGRAM, IBS PUNE 73
CUSTOMER FEEDBACK FORM
MACHINE SERIAL NO. -
DATE OF COMMISSIONING -
PLEASE EVALUATE PARAMETERS AS PER FOLLLWING GRADES -
(1) POOR (2) FAIR (3) GOOD (4) VERY GOOD (5) EXCELLENT
A. MACHINE PERFORMANCE
B. USER FRIENDLINESS
C. BENEFITS FROM SPECIAL FEATURES
E. TIL RESPONSE
F. TIL'S PREFERENCE DURING NEXT PURCHASE
SIGNATURE - DESIGNATION -
74. Industrial Marketing and Promotion Strategies of TIL Limited
SUMMER INTERNSHIP PROGRAM, IBS PUNE 74
Principles of Marketing, Philip Kotler.
Alvarez, P., & Galera, C. (2001). Industrial marketing applications of quantum
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Bendixen, M., Bukasa, K. A., & Abratt, R. (2004). Brand equity in the business-to-
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Mudambi, S. M. D., Doyle, P., & Wong, V. (1997). An exploration of branding in
industrial markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 26(5), 433-446.
Ford, D. (1980): "The Development of Buyer-Seller Relationships in Industrial Markets".
European Journal of Marketing, vol. 14, No. 5/6, pp.